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Article
Quantitative assessment of Mutans Streptococci adhesion to coated and uncoated orthodontic archwires (In vitro study)

Authors: Aliaa Abdul Rhman Al-Lami علياء عبد الرحمن اللامي --- Iman I. Al-Sheakli ايمان الشيخلي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 4 Pages: 156-162
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The development of orthodontic biomaterials that attract less biofilm has been a goal for decades.Adhesion and colonization of cariogenic streptococci are considered to play key roles in the development ofenamel demineralization related to orthodontic materials. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate theMutans streptococci adhesion to coated orthodontic archwires (Epoxy and Teflon) and uncoated archwires(stainless steel and nickel-titanium) with respect to incubation time in the presence and absence of saliva.Material and Method: Six types of archwires stainless steel and nickel titanium with two type of coating (Epoxy, Teflon)were used in this study. Twelve specimens of each archwire were incubated in sterilized unstimulated whole saliva(for the study group) and phosphate-buffered saline (for control group) for 2 hours, then incubated with suspensionof Mutans streptococci allowed to adhere for (5,90,180 minutes). Adhesion was quantitated by a microbial culturetechnique by treating the archwires with adhering bacteria with trypsin and enumerating the colony forming unit(CFU) counts of bacteria recovered after cultivation by using Dentocult SM kit.Results: There was significant difference among the tested archwire types in each time interval with the highestbacterial adhesion on the NiTi archwires in the absence of saliva. In the presence of saliva, the results revealed nonsignificantdifference at 5 min. while there was significant difference at 90 min and highly significant difference at 180min.Conclusion: The adherence of Mutans streptococci was decreased in the presence of saliva on different archwiresand the extended incubation time was significantly related to increase colony forming unit of Mutans Streptococci


Article
The Relation between Type of Ligature and Force Delivered by Orthodontic Arch Wire

Authors: Eman G Mohi-aldin --- Saad S Gasgoos
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2014 Volume: 14 Issue: 24 Pages: 47-51
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This in vitro study aims to compare the deactivation force, delivered as a result of releasingsuperelastic arch wire from 4 mm to 2.5 mm in horizontal direction at the area of right maxillary canineon standard model of teeth, by using three different methods to ligate the wire to the brackets.MATERIALES AND METHODS: Materials of this study include three sets of Synergy brackets0.022P Px 0.028 inch, molar buccal tubes, thirty arch wire , 0.016 inch round preformed arch superelasticnickel-titanium wires, were divided to three groups according to ligation method, the first group wasligated with preformed steel wire ligatures ,the second group with elastic ligatures as o configurationand in third group with elastic ligature as c configuration. The measurements were completed at roomtemperature of 27±5 in dry media by machine designed by college of mechanics engineering /Mosuluniversity and the results were compared among the three methods of ligation. RESULTS: Significantdifference in deactivation forces (p < 0.05) were observed. C configuration elastic ligatures had thehigher mean of deactivation force (332 gm) than either o configuration or steel wire ligatures (268.5gm), (267.9 gm) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Decreasing the ligation force by using C configurationelastic ligatures to ligate the wire to Synergy bracket is potentially adequate to use at the beginningof leveling and aligning stage of orthodontics that allow the arch wire to generate its force withoutmore missing due to high friction, as occurred by the use of stainless steel wire ligatures or o configurationelastic ligatures.


Article
Nickel And Chromium Ions Levels In Saliva Of Patients With Fixed Orthodontic Appliances

Author: Zinah Tawfeeq Neamah
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 557-566
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Objective :The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is no difference in salivary metal ion content between subjects with fixed orthodontic appliances and their same-gender sister or brother without any orthodontic appliance.Materials and Methods: Fifty orthodontic patients were included in this study. The first group consisted of 25 patients (14 female, 11 male) with fixed appliances placed in their upper and lower arches. The second group consisted of 25 patients(13 female, 12 male) with a fixed appliance placed only in the upper arch. In order to limit the effects of dietary and hygiene habits on salivary metal ion concentration, a same-gender brother or sister (total of 50 subjects) was selected as a control (25 female, 25 male) who were not undergoing orthodontic treatment. Four samples of stimulated saliva were collected from each patient before insertion of the fixed appliance, 1 month after insertion of the appliance, 2 months after insertion of the appliance and 6 months after insertion of the appliance. The 4 samples of saliva were collected from each control patient at the same time intervals as for the fixed-appliance groups .Approximately 5 ml of saliva was collected from each subject. Saliva samples were analyzed for nickel, chromium, by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The detection limit of the method for sample solutions was 1 ng/ml. Statistical analysis was performed by nonparametric tests (Mann–Whitney U and Wilcoxon W).The Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks used to test differences between samples before and after insertion of the orthodontic appliances. A Kruskal Wallis 1-way analysis of variance was used to test differences in nickel and chromium concentration among the 3 test groups. A Kruskal Wallis 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test differences in nickel and chromium concentrations among the 3 test groups.Results: The mean salivary nickel (Ni) content in subjects with and without a fixed orthodontic appliance was 16.8 ± 12.2 ng/ml and 10.3 ± 11.7 ng/ml, respectively. A statistically significant difference (P < 0.041) was found between the two groups. The mean salivary chromium (Cr) ion level recorded was 2.4 ± 1.8 ng/ml in the study group and 2.1 ± 1.6 ng/ml in the control group. The difference, however, was statistically insignificant.Conclusion: Nickel and chromium ion concentrations increased immediately after placement of the appliance in the mouth for all study groups. There were no significant differences in the nickel ,chromium levels released by the three groups of appliances at all study periods.Within the limits of this in vivo study, it can be concluded that the presence of fixed orthodontic appliances leads to an increased concentration of metal ions in salivary secretions

هو اختبار الفرضية بانه لا يوجد فرق في محتوى ايون الفلز اللعابي بين الاشخاص الحاملين لجهاز التقويم الثابت بالمقارنة مع اشقائهم من نفس الجنس بدون أي جهاز تقويم.المواد والطرق: تم تضمين 50 مريض تقويم في الدراسة.المجموعة الولى تكونت من 25 مريض(14 اناث و 11 ذكور) مع جهاز التقويم الثابت في الفك العلوي والسفلي .المجموعة الثانية تكونت من 25 مريض (13 اناث و 12 ذكور) مع جهاز تقويم ثابت في الفك العلوي فقط.ولغرض تحديد تاثيرات الطعام والعادات الصحية على تركيز ايون الفلز اللعابي تم المقارنة مع 50 شخص قياسي (25 اناث و 25 ذكور) وهم اشقائهم من نفس الجنس بدون أي جهاز تقويم.تم جمع اربع عينات من اللعاب المحفز من كل مريض الاولى قبل ادراج الجهاز والثانية بعد شهر من ادراج الجهاز والثالثة بعد شهرين من ادراج الجهاز والرابعة بعد ستة اشهر من ادراج الجهاز.نفس الاربع عينات جمعت من كل مريض قياسي في نفس الفترات الزمنية لمرضى الجهاز الثابت.تم جمع تقريبا 5 مل من اللعاب من كل مريض تقريبا .تم تحليل عينات من اللعاب للنيكل والكروم بواسطة كهروحرارية المقياس الطيفي للامتصاص الذري.كان الحد من الكشف عن طريقة ايجاد حلول عينة 1 نانوغرام/مل.تم اجراء التحليل الاحصائي عن طريق اختبارات اللامعلمية.Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranksاستعمل لاختبار الفروقات بين العينات قبل و بعد ادراج اجهزة التقويم.تحليل التباين A Kruskal Wallis 1-wayاستعمل لاختبار الفروقات في تركيز النيكل والكروم في المجاميع الثلاثة. النتائج:معدل محتوى النيكل اللعابي في الاشخاص مع وبدون جهاز التقويم الثابت 12.2±16.8 نانوغرام/مل و ±11.310.3 نانوغرام/مل تتابعيا.وجد هناك فرق احصائي هام بين المجموعتين.المستويات المسجلة لمعدل الكروم اللعابي كانت 1.8 ±2.4 نانوغرام/مل في مجموعة الدراسة و1.6± 2.1 نانوغرام/مل في مجموعة القياس.لكن الفرق احصائيا كان ضئيل.ضمن حدود هذه الدراسة الحية ممكن الاستنتاج بانه وجود اجهزة التقويم الثابتة تؤدي الى زيادة تركيز ايونات الفلز في الافراز اللعابي.


Article
Aging effect of different types of composite resin restoration on shear bond strength to different orthodontic adhesives with sapphire bracket (In vitro comparative study)

Authors: Linda B. Jabbar لندا جبار --- Fakhri A. Ali فخري عبد علي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 144-149
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: This study was performed to determine the effect of aging of different types of composite materialrestorations on: Shear bond strength (SBS) to light cure and no mix chemical cure orthodontic adhesives withsapphire bracket and the debonding failure sites.Materials and methods: One hundred forty four composite disks were made from three different composite resinmaterials which are: 3M Filtek Z250, 3M filtek Z350 and 3M Valux plus, each group with (48) disks each, thenaccording to the duration of storage each group was subdivided into two equal groups one of them stored for oneday and the other was stored for one month, then each group was further subdivided into two equal subgroups with(12) disks each one bonded with light cure orthodontic adhesive and the other with no mix chemical cure adhesive.The sample was tested for bond strength using the universal testing machine and the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI)was inspected under the stereomicroscope.Results: The results revealed that there was a highly significant difference among the three types of compositematerials bonded with light cure orthodontic adhesive as showed by ANOVA test, while the T test showed that therewas no significant difference between the two storage durations and also between the two orthodontic adhesivesfor both Filtek Z250 and Valux plus.Conclusions: The highest (SBS) values were obtained from Filtek Z350 samples than other two types of composite. Allthe samples stored for one day showed higher values of (SBS) than those stored for one month


Article
Evaluation of Nickel Ion Release from Orthodontic Wires in Different Types of Artificial Saliva

Authors: Amer. A. Taqa --- Wafaa Gh. Fathi --- Ruba J. Mohammed
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2014 Volume: 14 Issue: 25 Pages: 182-188
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Aims: To evaluate the amount of nickel ion release from stainless steel orthodontic wires in different artificial saliva and in different time periods. Materials and Methods: This study included six different commercial stainless steel orthodontic wires with different diameters. They were immersed in deionized water (control) and three different artificial saliva, the immersion periods included 7, 14, and 30 days. A graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) was used to determine the amount of nickel ions release. Results: The statistical analysis showed that there is a highly significance in the release of nickel ions for all types of wire except wires 0.18, and 0.16 x 0.22 which gave non-significant 2.45 and 1.37 respectively, and the time period of immersion had no significant effect in all types of wire. Conclusions: The release of nickel ions was influenced by the types of wire and the surface areas that in contact with immersion in solution, in addition to the composition of the orthodontic wires, but this were not proportional to the content of metal in the wire.


Article
Comparison between the treatments of anterior cross-bite with three different techniques in a group of Iraqi patients
مقارنة بين ثلاث طرق لعلاج الاطباق المعكوس الامامي لمجموعة من المرضى العراقيين

Author: Dr.Azhar A.Mohamad Ali, Assi. lecturer B.D.S, M.Sc,( ortho) Medical ازهار محمد علي
Journal: AL-yarmouk Journall مجلة كلية اليرموك الجامعة ISSN: 20752954 Year: 2014 Volume: - Issue: 1 Pages: 79-87
Publisher: College Yarmouk University كلية اليرموك الجامعة

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Abstract

this study evaluated the effect of fixed orthodontic appliance treatment of anterior cross-bite having a removable posterior bite plate (removable appliance combined with fixed appliance) and fix orthodontic appliance treatment with composite light cure filling material on the occlusal surfaces of lower second premolars and first molars as block by etching and bonding the teeth,24 patients were selected from the medical technical institute clinic in Baghdad from the first of January 2013 until the 30th of December 2013 complaining from anterior cross-bite one tooth or more age range (13-19)11male and 13 female subdivided into three groups depending on the type of treatment used, results showed that there are highly significant difference in treatment time in response to the group of patient with posterior composite etched block(<0.001) even though the displacement space results between groups showed a non significant difference, in conclusion fix orthodontic appliance with posterior composite etched block on premolars and molar teeth is the shortest and best treatment technique we can use for treating such conditions

هذه الدراسة قيمت علاج الاطباق المعكوس الامامي بثلاث طرق هي : استخدام جهاز التقويم الثابت ,استخدام جهاز التقويم الثابت والمتحرك معا",استخدام جهاز التقويم الثابت والحشوةالضوئية على سطح الاطباق للاسنان الخلفية .تم اختيار أربع وعشرين مريضا منذ يوم 1/1/2013 وحتى يوم 30/12/2013 كانو يعانون من الاطباق المعكوس الامامي في سن واحد او اكثر .نتائج الدراسة بينت ان هناك فرق واضح جدا في تقليل فقرة العلاج في الطريقة الثالثة ( استعمال الجهاز المتحرك مع الحشوة الضوئية ) بينما لايوجد فرق ملموس وواضح في الطريقتين الاخريين .الدراسة استنتجت ان جهاز التقويم الثابت مع الحشوة الضوئية على اسطح الاطباق للاسنان الخلفية أقصر وافضل طريقة لعلاج هذه الحالةالمرضية .


Article
The effects of various beverages on the shear bond strength of light-cured orthodontic composite (An in vitro comparative study)

Author: Mohammed Nahidh محمد ناهض محمد حسن
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 3 Pages: 144-148
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: This study was conducted to assess the effects of various beverages on the shear bond strength of lightcuredorthodontic composite used to bond stainless steel orthodontic brackets on human teeth and to determinethe site of bonding failure of this material.Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted human premolars were selected and randomly divided into five equal groupseach with 10 teeth according to the beverage type (Control, One Tiger, Milk, Green tea and Coffee). After bonding,the teeth were immersed in specific beverages for 5 minutes twice daily with equal intervening intervals then washedand stored in distilled water at 37º C for the reminder of the day. The process was carried out for 30 days. Thesamples were then tested for shear bond strength using Tinius-Olsen testing machine with a crosshead speed of0.5mm/minute. For adhesive remnant index, the enamel surface and bracket base of each tooth were inspectedunder magnifying lens (20X) of a stereomicroscope.Results: Milk, coffee and one Tiger energy drink reduced the shear bond strength of the light-cured compositesignificantly unlike the green tea. The predominant site of bond failure was between the bracket base and theadhesive leaving the composite on the tooth rather on the brackets base.Conclusions: Orthodontic patients should be instructed to reduce the intake of acidic and fatty beverages toprevent debonding of the orthodontic brackets

الخلفیة : أجریت ھذه الدراسة لتقییم تأثیر المشروبات المختلفة على القوة القاصة لحاصرات تقویم الاسنان الفولاذیة ، وتحدید موقع فشل الارتباط مع الاسنان.المواد و الأسالیب: تم اختیار خمسون من الضواحك البشریة والتي قسمت عشوائیا إلى خمس مجموعات متساویة كل منھا 10 اسنان وفقا لنوع الشراب (ماء مقطر ، مشروب الطاقةوقد º النمر الاول ، الحلیب ، الشاي الأخضر والقھوة ). تم غمر الاسنان في المشروبات لمدة 5 دقائق مرتین یومیا ثم تم غسلھا وتخزینھا في الماء المقطر في درجة حرارة 37أجریت عملیة لمدة 30 یوما . تم اختبار القوة القاصة لحاصرات تقویم الاسنان باستخدام آلة اختبار خاصة و بمعاییر معینة.النتائج: كانت القوة القاصة لحاصرات تقویم الاسنان الفولاذیة في الحلیب ، القھوة و مشروب الطاقة النمر الاول اقل بشكل ملحوظ مما ھي علیھ في المجموعة الضابطة على عكسالشاي الأخضر.الاستنتاجات : یجب الاقلال من تناول المشروبات الحمضیة والدھنیة لمرضى تقویم الأسنان.


Article
In vivo plaque count of Streptococcus Mutans around orthodontic brackets bonded with two different adhesives

Author: Munad J. Al-Duliamy
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 4 Pages: 175-179
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The prevention of the enamel demineralization at the periphery of the brackets is a significantchallenge to orthodontic professionals. The aim of this clinical study was to compare the Streptococcus mutantscount in the plaque surrounding two orthodontic adhesive types, Fuji Ortho LC and Enlight (Ormco).Materials and methods: A total of 13 patients (7 males and 6 females) needing fixed orthodontic appliance therapywere participated. A split mouth technique was followed with appliances bonded by two orthodontic adhesivetypes, Fuji Ortho LC and Enlight (Ormco). Saliva was collected before placement of appliances (T0) and again atthree weeks (T1) and six weeks (T2) after placement of appliances. Plaque was collected from areas adjacent tobrackets and buccal tubes at three weeks (T1) and six weeks (T2) after placement of appliances. The numbers(colony-forming units) of Streptococcus mutans were determined with the side-specific modified Strip-Mutans.Results: No significant modification in the number of Streptococcus mutans CFU in saliva was observed at both timeintervals (T1) and (T2) after placement of appliances. The number of Streptococcus mutans CFU in plaque at bothtime intervals (T1) and (T2) was statistically lower in sites adjacent to Fuji Ortho LC than in those adjacent to Enlight(Ormco) adhesive.Conclusion: plaque surround brackets and tubes bonded with Fuji Ortho LC adhesive harbor less Streptococcusmutans and this will aid in prevention of enamel demineralization

خلفیة: الوقایة من ظاھرة انتزاع معادن مینا السن حول اجزاء جھاز تقویم الاسنان الثابت یمثل تحدیا كبیرا للمھنیین في اختصاصتقویم الأسنان. كان الھدف من ھذه الدراسة السریریةLC Fuji Ortho و Enlight (Ormco) : لمقارنة اعداد بكتریا العقدیة الطافرة في المادة الجیریة المحیطة بنوعین من المواد المثبتة لاجھزة تقویم الاسنان وھماالمواد والطرق: شارك في البحث 13 مریضا ( 7 ذكور و 6 إناث) من الذین یحتاجون إلى علاج تقویم الاسنان بواسطة الأجھزة الثابتة.تم تثبیت اجھزة الاسنان بواسطة المادتیناللاصقتین في فم المریضالواحد بقسمة الفم الى قسمین كل مادة تستخدم في قسم. وقد تم جمع عینات اللعاب قبل وضع أجھزة التقویم ومرة اخرى بعد ثلاث اسابیع ومن ثم ستة اسابیعبعد وضع اجھزة تقویم الاسنان. وقد تم جمع المادة الجیریة من المناطق المحیطة لاجھزة التقویم المثبتھ على الاسنان بعد ثلاثة اسابیع ومن ثم بعد ستة اسابیع من وضع أجھزة تقویمالاسنان. وتم حساب عدد (الوحدات المكونة للمستعمرة) لبكتریا العقدة الطافرة في عینات اللعاب والمادة الجیریةالنتائج: لم یلاحظ أي تغیرات ذات اھمیة احصائیة في عدد العقدیة الطافرة في عینات اللعاب في كافة فترات البحث. و كان عدد مستعمرات بكتریا العقدة الطافرة في المادة الجیریةEnlight Ormco یفوق اعداد تلك المستعمرات في المادة الجیریة المحیطة بمادة ال Fuji Ortho المحیطة بمادة اللتثبیت اجھزة تقویم الاسنان الثابتة یساعد في الوقایة من ظاھرة انتزاع معادن مینا Fuji Ortho الاستنتاج: ان استخدام مادة


Article
STUDY TO DETERMINE THE LONGEST VALIDITY PERIOD FOR ORTHODONTIC WIRES IN A DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS
دراسة تحديد أطول فترة صلاحية لأسلاك تقويم الأسنان في أجواء مختلفة

Author: Mohammed Abdulateef Ahmed محمد عبد اللطيف أحمد
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2014 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 25-38
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

The research summary to knowing longest period of validity for orthodontic wires in four corrosive media ,the first medium approximately similar to human mouth such as corrosive medium (Artificial Saliva), human body temperature, hydrogen power (pH), and aeration ,and compared with orthodontic wires these serve in same corrosive medium but at room temperature and the identical aeration as a second corrosive medium, and compared to orthodontic wires present or attending in sodium chloride solution instead of artificial saliva at room temperature and the like aeration as a third corrosive medium. The final comparison test with orthodontic wires present in sodium chloride solution at human body temperature and the like aeration too. The study done by using device or system was native designed and manufactured according to modified American standard specification (ASTM G31), the orthodontic wires were from type austenitic stainless steel (301). After four mentioned corrosion experiments for serial six months period ,and usage Corrosion Penetration Rate law (CPR) and by traditional mathematical methods addition to the microstructures of samples before and after corrosion experiments ,conclude that ;the longest validity period for orthodontic wires at environment approximately similar to human mouth ,then wires worked in artificial saliva at room temperature, followed by the wires served in sodium chloride solution at room temperature, finally; orthodontic wires were worked in sodium chloride solution at human body temperature had shortest validity period.

يتلخص البحث بتحديد أطول فترة صلاحية لأسلاك تقويم الأسنان في أربع أجواء أكالة ، الأول جو مماثل لفم الأنسان تقريبا" من حيث الوسط الأكال (اللعاب الصناعي) (Artificial Saliva) و درجة الحرارة والحامضية والتهوية، ومقارنتها بالأسلاك العاملة في نفس الوسط الأكال والتهوية ولكن بدرجة حرارة الغرفة كجو أكال ثاني، ثم الأسلاك المتواجدة في محلول كلوريد الصوديوم (3.5%wt NaCl) بدلا" عن اللعاب الصناعي وبدرجة حرارة الغرفة وبنفس التهوية كجو أكال ثالث وأخيرا" المقارنة مع الأسلاك المتواجدة في محلول كلوريد االصوديوم وبدرجة حرارة جسم الأنسان ومعرضة لنفس التهوية أيضا". وتمت الدراسة بأستخدام منظومة مصممة و مصنعة محليا" حسب المواصفة القياسية الأميركية المعدلة (ASTM G31)، وأسلاك تقويم الأسنان المستخدمة من نوع الفولاذ المقاوم للصدأ الأوستنايتي (301)، وبعد إجراء أختبارات التآكل الأربعة أعلاه و لفترة زمنية مقدارها ستة أشهر متتالية وبأستخدام قانون معدل تغلغل أومعدل نفاذ تنقر التآكل (Corrosion Penetration Rate ) وبالطرق الرياضية التقليدية ومن الصور المجهرية للعينات قبل وبعد حالات التآكل نستنتج بأن الأسلاك تكون بفترة صلاحية أطول عند جو مماثل لفم الأنسان وتليها الأسلاك العاملة في اللعاب الصناعي وعند درجة حرارة الغرفة ثم تليها الأسلاك العاملة في كلوريد الصوديوم عند درجة حرارة الغرفة و أقصر فترة صلاحية تكون للأسلاك العاملة في محلول كلوريد الصوديوم عند درجة حرارة جسم الأنسان.

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