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Article
A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN OSSEOINTEGRATION SUCCESS RATE OF ONE STAGE AND TWO STAGE PROCEDURE IN IMPLANT SURGERY IN BASRAH PROVINCE

Author: Riad G Altaee
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2015 Volume: 21 Issue: 2 Pages: 66-79
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the osseointegration success rate of one stage procedure in comparison with two stage procedure in implant surgery. Eighty patients (28 males, 52 females) received 128 implants, 36 in the mandible and 92 in the maxilla. Fifty nine implants were inserted in the one stage procedure & 69 implants in the two stage procedure. All implants were followed-up for 6 months according to the success criteria (Albrektssons criteria). Total success rate was 97.6%. In the one stage procedure it was 96.6% and 98.5% in the two stage procedure. There was no statistical significant difference between the two procedures. In conclusion, the one stage procedure can be employed as successful alternative to two stage procedure when there is good primary stability and no bone augmentation at the time of implant placement.


Article
Assessment of Cortical Bone Density for Orthodontic Implants Placement: Computerized tomography study

Authors: Rana M. Fadhil --- Ali R. Al-Khatib
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2015 Volume: 15 Issue: 26 Pages: 393-398
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The aims of this study were to investigate the bone density in the buccal surface of the maxilla and mandible and to assess the gender difference. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted using computed tomography images for the 46 subjects (25 males and 21 females). Based on computed tomography data, the mean bone density values in Hounsfield units were recorded at 4 different locations from the crest of alveolar bone. Results: The bone density ranged from 795.72- 975.16 Hounsfield units in the maxilla and 837.58- 1339.28 Hounsfield units in the mandible for male and from 742.93- 992.14 and 769.67- 1342.31 Hounsfield units in the maxilla and mandible for female respectively. It was found that the mandibular posterior bone had the highest cortical bone in both sexes, followed by, mandibular anterior, maxillary posterior and maxillary anterior areas in male. In female, the sequence of bone density from highest to lowest was maxillary posterior bone, maxillary anterior and mandibular anterior areas. There was significant difference between males and females in some locations with higher bone densities in males (p<0.05). Conclusions: Bone densities in the buccal maxillary and mandibular areas were presented. They were ranged between 742.93- 1342.31 Hounsfield units in various areas. These data can be used in dental implant treatment planning to avoid associated risk factors


Article
Assessment of dental implant stability during healing period and determination of the factors that affect implant stability by means of resonance frequency analysis (Clinical study)

Authors: Noor S. Ibraheem --- Sahar S. Al-Adili
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 3 Pages: 109-115
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Implant stability is considered one of the most important factors affecting healing and successfulosseointegration of dental implants. The aims of the study were to measure the implant stability quotient (ISQ) valuesduring the healing period and to determine the factors that affect implant stability.Materials and methods: Thirty patients enrolled in the study (17 female, 13 male). They received 44 Implantium®Dental Implants located as the following: 22 implants in maxillary jaw, 22 implants in mandibular jaw from them 17implants in anterior segment and 27 in posterior segment. The bone density determined using interactive CT scanand classified according to the Misch bone density classification (29 implants in (D3), 15 implants in (D4)). Resonancefrequency analysis was used for direct measurement of implant stability on the day of implant placement and 8, 16and 24 weeks after implant placement.Results: The lowest mean of average ISQ was at the 8th week (69.5) and then the mean increased to reach at the 24thweek (76.8). Mandibular implants showed significantly higher ISQ values than maxillary implants. Implants placed inthe posterior segment of the jaw had significantly higher ISQ values than implants in the anterior segment. Asignificant, positive linear correlation was observed between the implant diameter and the implant stability (r=0.343p<0.001).Conclusion: Resonance frequency analysis was non-invasive diagnostic tool for detecting changes in implantstability during the healing period. The factors that affect implant stability were implant diameter and implantlocation (maxilla mandible, anterior posterior).


Article
Effect of systemic administration of Simvastatin on dental implant stability: A random clinical study

Authors: Ali Mohammed Hassan علي محمد حسن --- Adil Al Kayat عادل الخياط
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 1 Pages: 133-137
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The primary objective for many researches carried out in dental implantology was to reduce the periodneeded for functional implant loading, simvastatin (cholesterol lowering medication) had many pleiotropic effects,one of which was increasing bone density around titanium implants (1) and subsequently establishing fasterosseointegrated dental implants (2,3). This study aims to reduce the period of time needed to establish secondarystability of dental implant measured in ISQ (Implant Stability Quotient) by investigating the effect of orallyadministered simvastatin on bone.Materials and methods: Simvastatin tablets (40mg/day for three months) were administered orally for 11 healthywomen aged (40-51) years old who received 15 dental implants (Dentium, Implantium) in the traumatic functionalimplant zone(4), this is the intervention group, the control group (n=11) received 14 dental implants in the same zone.3 dental implants in 2 subjects were lost, leaving a total of 26 dental implants in 20 patients with 10 patients in eachgroup. All subjects were radiographed with OPG for preliminary assessment and with CT scan for registering bonedensity in Hounsfield Units. Different dental implant sizes were used according to optimal patients' needs. Aninformed consent was obtained from the intervention group and the recommended monitoring protocol wasfollowed.Dental implant stability ISQ were recorded using RFA by OsstellTM ISQ for both groups three times: immediately afterimplant placement (at surgery) and after 8,12 weeks respectively.Results: Results showed that the mean implant stability for the intervention group was significantly higher P= 0.01 after12 weeks in comparison to that of the control group.Simvastatin showed statistically significant effect on implant stability among the intervention group after 8 and 12weeks (P value for both times <0.001) with the attributed risk percent was 70.8 and 50 respectively.Conclusions: This study concluded that the intervention group had higher implant stability and was ready forfunctional loading prior to control group and that simvastatin might enhanced and/or accelerated the process ofosseointegration.


Article
Effect of Zinc on Antibacterial Action of Bioactive Glass Coating for Dental Implant

Authors: Ahmed Salah Hameed --- Ahmed Muhammed Abass --- Luma Jasim Hamood --- Israa Abass Obaid
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2015 Volume: 12 Issue: 3 Pages: 612-617
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Peri-implantitis is one of the causes of implant failure. Attempts have been done to coat dental implant with bioactive glasses to enhance osseo-integration and reduce microbial attachment. However, the anti-bacterial action of these coatings was limited to certain bacterial strains . Metals such as zinc and silver have been added to these glasses to improve their anti-microbial action.In this study zinc (3 mole%)-containing and zinc-free bioactive glasses were synthesized using melt-derived route. The glass coatings on titanium discs were prepared using enameling technique. The antibacterial action of zinc-containing and zinc-free glass coatings was studied against Streptococcusmutants, Staphylococcus aureus and Porphyromonasgingivalis by disc diffusion method. These bacterial strains were obtained by swab samples. The results showed that zinc at 3 mole% had no effect on antibacterial action of bioactive glasses and both glass coatings exhibited similar effect on bacterial strains used in this study. Since these glass coatings have similar effect on aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, these glass coatings can be used in various medical applications.


Article
Histological and mechanical evaluation of the osseointegration of titanium implants by the modifications of thread design and/or coating with flaxseed (An experimental study on rabbits)

Authors: Mustafa H. Jawad --- Athraa Y. Al-Hijazi عذراء يحيى الحجازي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 2 Pages: 72-78
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Dental implant surface technologies have been evolving rapidly to enhance a more rapid boneformation on their surface and improve implant therapy.Implant threads should be designed to increase surfacecontact areathat induced better stability. In addition, implant surface coating with Flaxseed was used to enhancebone formation at the bone-implant interface.Materials and methods: Ninety-six commercially pure titanium (CpTi) screws were implanted in rabbits' tibiae anddivided into three groups as dual-threaded group, flaxseed-coated group and control group. All groups wereevaluated mechanically, histologically and radiographically after each healing periods (2, 4, 6 and 8) weeks and theresulting data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and t-test at 0.05 significance level.Results: Dual threaded implant recorded the highest value in removal torque testand it showed mature bone at 8weeks period. Coated implant shows enhancement of osteoblast and it is the only modified implant that illustratesproliferating cartilage zone that later on degenerated and replaced by bone.Conclusion: Each modified implants shows different benefits whether a modification of the implant surfacemechanically (dual-threaded) or by coating the implants with Flaxseed


Article
The Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Osseointegration Period of Dental Implants

Authors: Mahammed W. Al-Gailani --- Thair Abdul-Lateef ثائر عبد اللطيف
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 101-106
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The preparation of Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is minimally invasive way, simple, low cost to obtainnatural autologous growth factors and is now being widely used in different fields of medicine for its ability toincrease the regeneration potential of tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of local application ofautologous PRP gel on acceleration rate of osseointegration period by clinical assessment accomplished bydetermining the changes in implant stability during 3 months healing period using resonance frequency analysis(RFA).Materials and methods: A total of 28 dental implants were inserted in edentulous maxillae or mandibles of 13 patientsusing a split mouth design, i.e. each patient was received at least two dental implants at the same session, oneimplant was implanted in association with PRP which was placed locally in one site, to serve as PRP group, and theother implant was placed without PRP, to serve as a control group. Both groups were followed with repeated implantstability measurement by means of resonance frequency analysis at different time intervals (at the time of implantplacement, 8th week, and 12th week postoperatively).Results: There was no obvious statistically significant difference in mean ISQ between PRP and control groups (P >0.05) at baseline, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks postoperatively.Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, no appreciable clinical effect was observed to acceleratethe rate of osseointegration of sandblasted acid-etched endosseous dental implants when using topical applicationof autologous PRP gel into the prepared drill holes


Article
Biomechanical evaluation of porous titanium implants (CpTi) fabricated by powder technology

Authors: Dhuha Hussein Mohammed ضحى حسين محمد --- Widad A. H. Alnakkash وداد عبد الهادي النقاش
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 1 Pages: 18-25
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: It may be an important prospective clinical use of manufacturing of porous implant for clinicalsituations, such as cases of limitation in bone height, low bone density .The small segment of porous implant aneffective osseointegration allows increasing in contact area provided for small segmented porous provided by itssurface configuration. This study was done to Fabricate porous titanium implants by powder technology, as well asthe observation of removal torque values of porous titanium implants compared to smooth titanium implants.Materials and methods: Twenty porous titanium implants (3.2mm in diameter and 8mm in length) were manufacturedby powder technology using commercially pure titanium powder of ≤75um particles size, with polyvinyl alcoholpowder of 212-300um particle size, as a space holder, by volume ratio (70:30) % respectively. The mixed powder wascompacted using punch and die set -specially designed for this study –under 20 bar then sintering at 900 ºC by theuse of argon gas. Twenty smooth titanium implants were prepared of (3.2mm in diameter and 8mm in length) bylathing of commercially pure titanium rod as a control group. The implants were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD)and scanning electron microscope (SEM), as well as estimation of porosity percentage. For each tibia of the 20 whiteNew Zealand rabbits, one implant of each type (one porous in right, and the smooth in left tibia), were insertedthrough surgical procedure carried under serial condition. Mechanical test was performed to evaluate the boneimplantinterface, after (2 and 6 weeks) healing periods .Results: Porous implants were obtained successfully by powder technology with 52% porosity and pore size 210um17±. The porous implant showed significantly higher removal torque values when compared to smooth implants atthe two different intervals of examination (2,6 weeks) , this proved to be statistically highly significant, also a highlysignificant difference was noticed for the means of the torque removal values in the same group at differentimplantation , with no evidence of clinical features of inflammatory reaction with both .Conclusions: Powder technology seemed to be particularly advantageous in fabrication of porous titanium. Porousimplant show an increasing bone ingrowth compared with the smooth type represented by higher removal torquefor both healing periods (2, 6) weeks


Article
A Clinical Method for Prediction of Alveolar Bone Mineral Density in the Area between the Second Premolar and First Molar in Iraqi Adults with Class I Occlusion

Authors: Maha Ali Hasan Al-Juboori مها علي حسن الجبوري --- Hadeel A. Al-Hashimi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 161-167
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Orthodontic mini-implants are increasingly used in orthodontics and the bone density is a veryimportant factor in stabilization and success of mini-implant. The aim of this study was to observe the relationshipamong maximum bite force (MBF); body mass index (BMI); face width, height and type; and bone density in anattempt to predict bone density from these variables to eliminate the need for CT scan which have a highly hazardon patient.Materials and Methods: Computed tomographic (CT) images were obtained for 70 patients (24 males and 46females) with age range 18-30 years. The maxillary and mandibular buccal cortical and cancellous bone densitieswere measured between 2nd premolar and 1st molar at two levels from the alveolar crest (3 and 6 mm). Face heightand width were measured from CT. Clinically; Maximum bite force was measured on first molar region unilaterally bya digital device. The sample was divided into two groups according to the body mass index into; normal andoverweight.Results: The results obtained showed that there were no statistical significant differences in MBF or bone density inboth genders. Only the cortical bone density in maxilla in overweight group tended to be higher than normal BMIgroup. The face width and height correlated significantly negatively with MBF which correlated significantly positivelywith cortical bone density.Conclusions: It was concluded that a prediction of cortical bone density of preselected areas can be made frommaximum bite force, body mass index and inter-zygomatic width


Article
Augmentation of the localized bony defects with synthetic bone substitute in simultaneous dental implant surgery (Clinical study)

Authors: Mohammed AbdAlrazaq Hameed محمد عبد الرزاق حميد --- Sahar Shaker Al-Adili سحر شاكر العادلي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 1 Pages: 151-158
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Simultaneous and staged guided bone regeneration (GBR) is one of the several surgical techniquesthat have been developed in the past two decades to regenerate bone and thus to allow implant placementin compromised sites (fenestration and dehiscence). It is a surgical procedure that consists of the placement of acell-occlusive physical barrier between the connective tissue and the alveolar bone defect. The treatment conceptadvocates that regeneration of osseous defects is predictably attainable via the application of occlusivemembranes, which mechanically exclude non-osteogenic cell populations from the surrounding soft tissues, therebyallowing osteogenic cell populations originating from the parent bone to inhabit the osseous wound. Augmentationutilizing guided bone regeneration (GBR) has become a major treatment option to provide optimal bone to supportOsseointegrated dental implants. One of the objectives of GBR is the formation of new bone at sites deficient inbone volume. Another objective is to treat fenestrations and dehiscence at implant surfaces as well as defectsassociated with simultaneous implant placement. GBR has allowed for placement of restorations at a more ideallocation in the oral cavity, thus improving esthetics and functions. This study aimed to improve the alveolar ridgewidth by using of synthetic bone substitute covered by resorbable collagen membrane in simultaneous dentalimplants placement and to compare the ridge width at three levels (crestal, middle and apical) clinically(osteometer) and radiographically (CT) pre operatively and postoperatively.Materials and methods: This prospective study was conducted in teaching dental hospital in College of Dentistry ofBaghdad University on (15) patients with (21) dental implant with insufficient bony support for simultaneous dentalimplants , this study extended from March 2013 to the end of December 2013.All patients were treated at the time of implantation by using a synthetic bone substitute covered by resorbablecollagen membrane .All patients examined clinically by osteometer and radio graphics (CT) to assess ridge widthand height and bone density.Results: Clinically and radiographically evaluation showed increasing of ridge width after 6 months of healing periodat three levels: apical, middle and crestal, statistically, there were no significant differences between ridge widthgain measured clinically and radio graphically and gender and age groups. In this study the success rate (95.24) % in(20) dental implant and only (1) dental implant was failed (4.76) % at age 47 years old.Conclusion: There was significant increase in ridge volume that augmented at the time of implantation to becomesufficient width for support implant esthetically and functionally. This study revealed that there was no effect ingender and age on bone augmentation with synthetic bone substitute.

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