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Article
The Effect of Orthodontic Force on Salivary Levels of Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme

Authors: Suha Ali Abdul Ameer سهى علي عبد الامير --- Akram Faisal Alhuwaizi اكرم فيصل الحويزي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 175-179
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Orthodontic tooth movement is characterized by tissue reactions, which consist of an inflammatoryresponse in periodontal ligament and followed by bone remodeling in the periodontium depending on the forcesapplied. These processes trigger the secretion of various proteins and enzymes into the saliva.The purpose of thisstudy was to evaluate the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in saliva during orthodontic tooth movement usingdifferent magnitude of continuous orthodontic forces.Materials and Methods: Thirty orthodontic patients (12 males and 18 females) aged 17-23 years with class II division Imalocclusion all requiring bilateral maxillary first premolar extractions were randomly divided into three groupsaccording to the magnitude of the force application (40, 60 and 80gm). A sectional fixed appliance was bondedand designed to give labial force to the maxillary first premolar for three weeks. Unstimulated saliva was collectedfrom the patients before force application, then 1 hour after force application, followed by 1 day, 7 days, 14 daysand 21 days.Salivary levels of ALP were measured using spectrophotometer and compared with the baseline level.Results: The results revealed that ALP enzymelevel increased with increasing magnitude of orthodontic force (from 40to 80gm). This was statistically insignificant after 1 hour and 1 day of force application, but significant after 7, 14 and21 days.The ALP level significantly increased from baseline after 7 days of force application and peaked at 21 daysfor all the three force levels.Conclusions: The ALP level reflect the biological activity that takes place in the periodontium during orthodontictooth movement, and therefore they can be used as a diagnostic tool for monitoring of correct orthodontic toothmovement in clinical practice


Article
Load-deflection characteristics and force levels of coated nickel titanium orthodontic archwires

Authors: Hind Dawood Abaas هند داود عباس --- Akram Faisal Al-Huwaizi اكرم فيصل الحويزي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 2 Pages: 154-157
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Coated archwires have been introduced to improve esthetics during orthodontic treatment. Theaim ofthe present study was to evaluate and compare the load–deflection characteristics and force levels of six brands ofcoated nickel titanium orthodontic archwires using palatal and gingival deflection.Materials and methods: Ten round wires (0.016 inch) and ten rectangular wires (0.019x0.025 inch) were obtained fromeach of six brands (G&H, Opal, Ortho Technology, Dany, Hubit and Astar Companies). The load-deflection propertiesof these archwires were evaluated by the modified bending test usinga readymade dental arch model in bothpalatal and gingival directions at 37°C temperature using a universal material testing machine. Forces generated atmaximum loading of 2mm and at unloading of 1.5mm were measured.Results: All the wires showed hysteresis and significant differences in their load deflection curves, but thesedifferences were more evident in round wires than in rectangular wires where G&H wires showed the widest loadingunloadingdeflection curves. The maximum loading force of round wires in gingival deflection were higher than bypalatal deflection. The force decline during unloading (plateau gap) ranged between 18 to 34% for round wires and17 to 37% for rectangular wires.Conclusion: Coated epoxy wires (G&H, Opal, Astar and Ortho Technology) produced lower forces compared topolymer (Dany) and Teflon (Hubit) coated round and rectangular archwire


Article
The Effect of Acidity Level on Ions Released and Corrosion of Metal Orthodontic Appliances at Different Time Intervals (An In vitro Study)

Authors: Mohammed R. Thamer --- Sami K. Al-Joubori
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 168-174
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: This study measured the effects of three parameters pH value, length of immersion and type of archwireon metal ions released from orthodontic appliances.Materials and Methods: Ninety maxillary halves simulated fixed orthodontic appliances that were immersed inartificial saliva of different pH values (6.75, 5 and 3.5) during 28 day period. Three types of archwires were used:stainless steel, nickel titanium and thermal activated nickel titanium. The quantity of nickel and chromium ions wasdetermined with the use of atomic force spectrophotometer while iron ions by spectrophotometer. Each orthodonticset was weighted two times, before the ligation and immersion in the artificial saliva and after 28 days at the end ofimmersion period using analytic balance device.Results: The release different metal ions was observed: nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and iron (Fe)). Statistically analysis ofvariance (ANOVA) and t-test were used. Results showed that (1) the appliances released measurable quantities ofallions examined; (2) the change in pH had a very strong effect on the release of ions; (3) the release of ions wasdependent on wire composition, but it was not proportionalto the content of metal in the wire and (4) orthodonticsamples showed decreases in the weight at the end of the study.Conclusion: Levels of released ions are sufficient to cause delayed allergic reactions. This must be taken into accountwhen type of archwire is selected, especially in patients with hypersensitivityor compromised oral hygiene


Article
Periodontal consideration for patients with fixed orthodontic appliance in Ramadi city

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Abstract

Fixed orthodontic appliances facilitate plaque accumulation and the consequent development of generalized moderate hyperplastic gingivitis . This longitudinal study was to assess the periodontal health of the patients undergoing orthodontic treatment in Ramadi city.Materials and Methods: A clinical study was conducted by Examining 208 first molars 108 with labial bond and 100 with band. Teeth with orthodontic bands, 58of them cemented with glass ionomer cement (Ketac-Cem, Espe, Germany)& 42 cemented with glass inomer cement with chlorohexidin diglunate in 18% , thenthe plaque index, gingival index & Pocket depth were measured on the first molars. Results: during orthodontics treatment Plaque and Gingival indices and Pocket depth was significantly higher than in pre &post treatment .Adolescents showed more plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation than adults the Plaque and Gingival indices and Pocket depth were all significantly higher for banded maxillary and mandibular molars than for the analogous bonded molars. This study show the band cemented with glass inomer cement only is highly significant in Plaque and Gingival indices and Pocket depth than cemented with chlorohexidine glass inomer cement.The findings of this study are predicated on the delivery of preventive periodontal treatment in conjunction with orthodontic treatment to prevent the anticipated periodontal destruction.


Article
Orthodontic considerations of functional occlusion in Class І normal occlusion

Authors: Doaa B. Al-Nassar دعاء باسل النصار --- Hadeel A. Al-Hashimi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 3 Pages: 130-139
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The therapeutic goal of orthodontic treatment is to establish ideal occlusion which includes both staticand functional aspects. The objective of this study was to clarify functional occlusal treatment goals by analyzingfunctional occlusion in subjects with established normal occlusion and identify the differences between canineprotected occlusion and group function occlusion.Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 62 subjects with normal occlusion and with an age range of (18-25years).Functional occlusal contacts during lateral excursion were identified on a fully adjustable articulator, and thenthe samples were classified according to:1) Type of functional occlusion:A) Canine protected occlusion group (canine protected occlusion on both working sides).B) Group function occlusion group (group function occlusion on both working sides).C) Mixed functional occlusion group (canine protected occlusion on one side and group function occlusion on theother side.)2) Working side contact into: Canine protected occlusion (62 sides) and group function occlusion (62 sides). Thendifferent variables were analyzed.Results: Results revealed that vertical canine overlap, position of maxillary canine and 1st molar mesiobuccal cusp tipto the center of opposing embrasure/groove, and arch form analysis had significant difference between groups.Adding to that, some of the maxillary and mandibular teeth were significantly differed between groups in regard tocrown angulation and inclination.Conclusions: It was concluded that the vertical canine overlap, position of maxillary canine and 1st molarmesiobuccal cusp tip to the center of the opposing embrasure/groove, arch form harmony were importantfunctional aspects of orthodontic treatment goals


Article
The correlation between root resorption and some immune parameters in well- controlled type Ι diabetic patients during orthodontic treatment

Author: Ayam Alihassoon Taha ايمن علي حسون
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2015 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 95-104
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Background:Type 1 diabetes mellitus is the result of a breakdown in immune regulation that leads to expansion of auto reactive CD4and CD8T- cells, autoantibody-producing B lymphocytes and activation of the innate immune system, so disturbances of immune system may be the cause and/or associated with diabetes mellitus. Some of these diabetic patients seek an orthodontic care. The orthodontist must remain vigilant as they may be the only health care professional seen by otherwise fit, young patients on a regular basis, and it is also important to implement risk control procedures during and after orthodontic treatment.Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze serum levels of immunoglobulins ( IgG, IgA , and IgM) ,and complement components (C3, and C4) after 6 months (T6) of orthodontic treatment in well-controlled type Ι diabetic patients wearing orthodontic appliance comparing with non-wearing group and to correlate these immune parameters with grade of root resorption which sometimes happen during orthodontic treatment .Materials and methods: Sixty well- controlled type Ι diabetic patients (HbA1c <8.5), were participating in this study. Thirty cases of them(16 male and 14 females) were wearing fixed orthodontic appliance, and the other thirty cases didn’t wear orthodontic appliances and considered as the controls (12 male and 18 females).The mean age of study groups was(15± 1SD) years. Periapical radiographs of the upper central incisors were obtained of all patients before(T0) and 6 months after(T6) orthodontic treatment. At (T6), root resorption was classified as grade 0 (no resorption) ,grade 1 (slight resorption), and grade 2 (moderate to severe resorption). Serum level of IgG , IgA, IgM ,C3, and C4 were analyzed after 6 months orthodontic treatment were determined using single radial immunodiffusion method (SRID) to the two study groups. Chi square test and T- test were used to assess the association between qualitative and quantitative results respectively ,while paired t- test was used to analyze the results after 6 months (T6) orthodontic treatment, differences were considered significant at P<0.05.


Article
Time-related salivary cathepsin B levels and periodontal status in different orthodontic force magnitudes

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Abstract

Background: Biologically active substances, such as Cathepsin B (CAB) which is a lysosomalcystein protease may beinvolved in periodontal metabolism in the degradation of organic bone matrix containing collagen fibers in responseto mechanical stress from orthodontic appliance. The aims of study were to determine and compare salivary levelsof CAB, pH as well as clinical periodontal parameters (Plaque index PLI and gingival index GI) with differentorthodontic force magnitudes at different time intervals.Materials and methods: A twenty-four patients (both gender) with age range (17-23) years had Angle's Class IIdivision 1 malocclusion with GI <0.5 enrolled in this study. The level of salivary CAB and pH, in addition to the clinicalperiodontal parameters (PLI and GI) were measured before (baseline), 1 hour (1H), 1 day (1D), 1week (1W), 2 weeks(2W) and 3 weeks (3W) after fixed orthodontic appliance placement with different forces applied to the teeth (F1 (40gm), F2 (60 gm) and F3 (80 gm)).Results: The highest mean concentration of salivary CAB was (12.057) at F1 in 1D visit with highly significantdifferences among the visits as well as among the forces (p≤0.05). Weak correlations were revealed between all pairsof forces as well as between each visit with the baseline visit about salivary CAB except the strong negativecorrelations between F1 with F3 at 3W and baseline with 3W visits at F3. Maintenance of good oral hygiene duringthe study period demonstrated that the highest mean values of PLI and GI were (0.2) and (0.25) respectively, inaddition to the non-significant differences regarding pH among the visits.Conclusion: The concentration of salivary CAB was increased following fixed orthodontic appliance insertion. Thevery light continuous orthodontic force could produce significant increase of this enzyme activity and give enougheffectiveness to produce tooth movement as compared to the higher forces


Article
A Clinical Method for Prediction of Alveolar Bone Mineral Density in the Area between the Second Premolar and First Molar in Iraqi Adults with Class I Occlusion

Authors: Maha Ali Hasan Al-Juboori مها علي حسن الجبوري --- Hadeel A. Al-Hashimi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 161-167
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Orthodontic mini-implants are increasingly used in orthodontics and the bone density is a veryimportant factor in stabilization and success of mini-implant. The aim of this study was to observe the relationshipamong maximum bite force (MBF); body mass index (BMI); face width, height and type; and bone density in anattempt to predict bone density from these variables to eliminate the need for CT scan which have a highly hazardon patient.Materials and Methods: Computed tomographic (CT) images were obtained for 70 patients (24 males and 46females) with age range 18-30 years. The maxillary and mandibular buccal cortical and cancellous bone densitieswere measured between 2nd premolar and 1st molar at two levels from the alveolar crest (3 and 6 mm). Face heightand width were measured from CT. Clinically; Maximum bite force was measured on first molar region unilaterally bya digital device. The sample was divided into two groups according to the body mass index into; normal andoverweight.Results: The results obtained showed that there were no statistical significant differences in MBF or bone density inboth genders. Only the cortical bone density in maxilla in overweight group tended to be higher than normal BMIgroup. The face width and height correlated significantly negatively with MBF which correlated significantly positivelywith cortical bone density.Conclusions: It was concluded that a prediction of cortical bone density of preselected areas can be made frommaximum bite force, body mass index and inter-zygomatic width


Article
The Effect of AcceleDent® Device on Both Gingival Health Condition and Levels of Salivary Interleukin-1- βeta and Tumor Necrosis Factors-Alpha in Patients under Fixed Orthodontic Treatment

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Background: Traditional orthodontic treatment takes a long time and this may lead to several disadvantages likehigher predisposition to periodontal diseases and dental caries. Recently, many researchers focus on shorterorthodontic treatment time through different methods like the use of: vibration, surgical approach, adjunctivemedicine, laser and others. This study aimed to determine the effect of Acceledent vibration device on the gingivalhealth condition and the changes in levels of salivary IL-1β and TNF- α among patients under fixed orthodonticappliance during orthodontic treatment.Material and Methods: A total of 32 adult patients with an age ranged between 19-23 years were participated in thisstudy. They were divided into two groups: 14 patients under fixed orthodontic appliance with the use of Acceledentvibration device as study group and 18 patients under fixed orthodontic appliance only as control group. All patientswere with Class I and /or Class II malocclusion cases requiring bilateral extraction of their maxillary first premolarteeth, underwent a session of professional oral hygiene and received oral hygiene instructions before and during theperiod of study. The collection of the unstimulated salivary samples from the individuals was performed at differenttimes after placement of the fixed orthodontic appliance; base line (T0), after 1 hour (T1), after one week (T2), aftertwo week (T3). The levels of salivary IL-1β and TNF-α were estimated by using commercially available ELISA kits. Oralcleanliness were determined by using of gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI).Results: For both study and control groups, results reported that the mean value of salivary IL-1-β (pg/ml) and TNF-α(pg/ml) were highest at T1, followed by T2, then T3 and lowest T0 with highly statistically significant difference(P<0.01).The mean value of both salivary IL-1-β (pg/ml) and TNF-α (pg/ml) among study group were higher thancontrol group at T1, followed by T2, then T3 with statistically significant difference (P<0.05). Among study group only,results of this study recorded a negative direction correlation between both IL-1-β (pg/ml) and TNF-α (pg/ml) andgingivitis at the (T2 and T3) and (T3) with statistically highly significant and significant respectively.Conclusion: The application of Acceledent device play important role in improving the gingival health condition andincreasing the levels of salivary IL-1β and TNF-α secretion among patients under fixed orthodontic appliance incomparison to other under fixed orthodontic appliance


Article
Analysis of Stress Distribution Around Orthodontic Miniscrew Implant:(A 3-D Finite Element Analysis Study)

Authors: Rahma H. Al-Tayar --- Hussain A. Obaidi --- Ayad A. Abul-Razzak
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2015 Volume: 15 Issue: 27 Pages: 419-423
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: Evaluation of the stress in the bone and miniscrew displacement of 1.3 and 1.4 mm in diameter inserted in two bone models of 1 and 2 mm of cortical bone thickness at 90◦ angulation to the bone. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 20 models which were grouped into four groups, each group included five models. The bone models of different cortical thickness (1mm,2mm) were designed by a three dimensional Finite Element Analysis Program. The miniscrew models of 1.3 and 1.4 mm in diameter were created by the same program. Then inserting the threaded part of miniscrew in the bone block at 90°, and assigning the material properties and applying of 2N as an orthodontic force. Finally the stress distribution in the bone and miniscrew displacement in the different conditions were evaluated. the results were analyzed by using ANOVA and Duncan analysis. Results: The miniscrew diameter 1.4 mm inserted in 2 mm cortical bone thickness demonstrated the lowest bone stress and miniscrew displacement than the others. Conclusions: As cortical thickness and miniscrew diameter increased the bone stress reduced and less miniscrew displacement occurs.

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