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Article
Salivary level of RANKL and OPG in chronic periodontitis

Authors: Batool Hassan Al-Ghurabi بتول حسن الغرابي --- Sara Mohammed Mohssen سارة محمد محسن
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 1 Pages: 189-194
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Periodontal diseases are initiated by microbial plaque, which accumulates in the sulcular region andinduces an inflammatory response. The Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand / osteoprotegerin(RANKL/OPG) axis is involved in the regulation of bone metabolism in periodontitis, in which an increase in receptoractivator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand or a decrease in osteoprotegerin can tip the balance in favor ofosteoclastogenesis and the resorption of alveolar bone that is the hallmark of periodontitis. This study was performedto investigate the role of salivary levels of RANKL and OPG in pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis.Subjects and Methods: Fifty five subjects with chronic periodontitis with ages range from 24-64 years and 25apparently healthy volunteers their ages and sexes were matched with the patients were participated in this study.Periodontal parameters used in this study were plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinicalattachment level and bleeding on probing. Saliva samples were collected from all patients and controls. Enzymelinkedimmunosorbent assay was carried out for estimation the salivary level of RANKL and OPG in studied groups.Results: The present data revealed that the median salivary levels of RANKL was elevated in patient as comparedwith control group (P<0.001), whereas the salivary levels of OPG doesn’t show any significant differences betweenthe study groups (p>0.05). In contrast the ratio of RANKL/OPG ratio was significantly higher in patients whencompared with the ratio in control group. Furthermore, negative significant correlation was noticed between RANKLand OPG. Regarding correlation between salivary (RANKL and OPG) and clinical periodontal parameters, RANKLlevels was showed significant positive correlation with each of probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level.Otherwise no association between OPG levels and clinical parameters of periodontitis was found. Moreover; theratio RANKL/OPG was showed significant positive correlation with each of gingival index, probing pocket depth andclinical attachment level.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that salivary levels of RANKL and OPG play a crucial role in pathogenesis ofperiodontitis, and the relative RANKL/ OPG ratio appears to be indicative of disease occurrence

Keywords

chronic periodontitis --- RANKL --- OPG


Article
Measurement of salivary Immunoglobulin A of participants with a healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis conditions

Author: Suzan Ali Salman سوزان علي سلمان
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 3 Pages: 120-123
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Secretory Immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is a subclass of Immunoglobulin A (IgA), It is an antibody that playsan important role in mucosal immunity. It is the main immunoglobulin found in mucous secretions from mammaryglands, tear glands and salivary glands, every pathologic process in the body involves the immune system, andperiodontal inflammation is one of them and is not an exception.Material and methods: this study was consisted of 60 healthy male participants of an age ranged between (35-50)years old ; 25 of them with generalized moderate chronic periodontists(Clinical Attachment Loss equal to 3-4mm at ≥30% of the sites; 20 participants with plaque induced gingivitis and 15 participants had clinically healthyperiodontium as control group. oral examination include Plaque Index, Gingival Index, Probing Pocket Depth andClinical Attachment Level were conducted for all participants four sites were examined for each tooth (labial,lingual, mesial and distal), 2ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected from all participants to measureSecretory Immunoglobulin A in μg /ml by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique.Results: salivary IgA(sIgA) mean was (356.3) μg /ml for the chronic periodontitis patients; while it was 202 μg /ml forplaque induced gingivitis patients and it was 129.2 μg /ml for the control group. Highly significant differencesamong the three group were recorded (P-value <0.001). For chronic periodontitis patients, the Plaque Index GingivalIndex scores were positively highly significant correlated with Secretory Immunoglobulin A level in saliva. The ProbingPocket Depth scores were positively and significantly associated with Secretory Immunoglobulin A level. The ClinicalAttachment Level scores were positively but non significant associated with Secretory Immunoglobulin A level. Forthe gingivitis and the control group they were positive non significant association between the periodontalparameters and the Secretory Immunoglobulin A level in saliva.Conclusion: there is a correlation between Secretory Immunoglobulin A level in saliva and the periodontal healthstatus.


Article
Effects of light smoking on salivary levels of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin in chronic periodontitis patients

Authors: Lubaba A. Abdul Ameer لبابة عبد الامير --- Basima Gh. Ali باسمة غفوري علي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 2 Pages: 110-114
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the supporting tissues of the teeth and it’scommon among adults. Smoking is an important risk factor for periodontitis induces alveolar bone loss. Alkalinephosphatase enzyme is involved in the destruction of the human periodontium. It is produced by many cells such aspolymorphonuclear leukocytes, osteoblasts, macrophages and fibroblasts within the area of the periodontium andgingival crevice. Osteocalcin is one of the most abundant matrix proteins found in bones and the only matrix proteinsynthesized exclusively there. Smaller Osteocalcin fragments are found in areas of bone remodeling and are actuallydegradation products of the bone matrix.The purpose of this study was to evaluatethe effect of smoking on thesalivary alkaline phosphatase and Osteocalcin in subjects with chronic periodontitis compared to control subjects.Materials and Methods: Five ml of unstimulated whole saliva samples and full-mouth clinical periodontal recordings(plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level) wereobtained from study groups (25 light smokers and 33 non-smokerssubjects, both with chronic periodontitis) andcontrol groups (8 light smokers and 13 non-smokers subjects, both with healthy periodontium). All subjects weresystemically healthy males, with age range (30-50) years. Salivary Alkaline phosphatase and Osteocalcin levels weredetermined by Colorimetric and Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays, respectively.Results: Smoker chronic periodontitis patients revealed non-significant differences in clinical periodontal parameterswith non-smoker counterparts (P o.o5) in terms of Plaque index, Probing pocket depth and Clinical attachment loss,with slight increase in plaque index value in smoker chronic periodontitis group(1.42±0.46) than non-smoker chronicperiodontitis group, while there were highly significant differences in terms of Gingival index and Bleeding onprobing(P ≤ 0.01).Osteocalcin levels were lower in smoker chronic periodontitis group (0.13±0.20) than non-smokerchronic periodontitis group (1.09±2.26) with significant difference (0.05 ≥ P > 0.01). Mean of Alkaline phosphataselevel was lower in smoker chronic periodontitis (11.14±4.53) than non-smoker chronic periodontitis (11.45±4.17) with anon-significant difference, while there was a significant difference inAlkaline phosphatase concentrations betweensmoker and non-smoker control groups.There were non-significant differences between smoker chronic periodontitisand smoker control groups in terms of Osteocalcin and Alkaline phosphatase concentrations. There were nonsignificantdifferences between non-smoker chronic periodontitis and non-smoker control groups in terms ofOsteocalcin and Alkaline phosphatase concentrations.Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it may be suggested that suppression of salivary Osteocalcin levels bysmoking and slight increase in alkaline phosphatase in smokers groups, may explain the deleterious effects ofsmoking on periodontal health status.


Article
The impact of the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis on periodontal health in a group of patients with periodontitis in Erbil
تأثير وجود بPorphyromonas gingivalis على صحة اللثة في مجموعة من المرضى المصابين بالتهاب اللثة في أربيل

Authors: Solav Abdulqadir Mustafa --- Ashti Mohammad Amin --- Sazan Moffaq Abdulaziz
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2015 Volume: 19 Issue: 3 Pages: 1069-1074
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Chronic periodontitis is the destruction of the tooth supporting structures as a result of a complex interaction between bacteria colonizing the gingival crevice and host’s immune responses. Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the main periodontopathogens with multiple virulence factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of Porphyromonas gingivalis in chronic periodontitis patients versus healthy subjects using PCR assay, and its association with increased pocket depth and clinical attachment loss.Methods: Seventy subjects (35 patients with chronic periodontitis and 35 healthy subjects) meeting the inclusion criteria of this study were selected. All the subjects were clinically assessed for probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss then subgingival microbial samples were collected using sterile paper points and analyzed for the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis using polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: A significant difference in Porphyromonas gingivalis detection rate between chronic periodontitis and healthy groups was recorded. Porphyromonas gingivalis was significantly associated with deep pockets. The detection rate increased with the increase in the severity of the disease, although, this correlation was not statistically significant.Conclusion: A positive association was observed between Porphyromonas gingivalis and increased pocket depth. The recovery rate was higher in severe cases.

Keywords

CAL --- chronic periodontitis --- PCR --- P. gingivalis --- PPD


Article
Evaluation of the effectiveness of coenzyme Q10 gel in management of patients with chronic periodontitis (I intra group comparison)

Authors: Taif M. Salih --- Maha Sh. Mahmood
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 2 Pages: 130-135
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Periodontal pathogens can induce free radicals over-formation and thus may cause collagen andperiodontal destruction. Anti-oxidants are used as supplements to counteract the over production of free radicals inperiodontal disease, that can reduce of collagen destruction. Coenzyme Q10 serves as an endogenous antioxidant,regenerates other antioxidants, stimulates cell growth, and inhibits cell death. Because it is an antioxidant, coenzymeQ10 has received much research attention associated with periodontal diseases. Perio Q gel may possibly beeffective as a topical agent and as an adjunct to scaling& root planing in treatment of gingivitis and chronicperiodontitis.Aim of study:Determine the periodontal health status in a follow up study for 6 weeks of a group of patients withchronic periodontitis by measuring clinical periodontal parameters, which included (Plaque index, Gingival index,Bleeding on Probing, Probing Pocket Depth and Relative Attachment Level) and to evaluate the effect of intrapocket application of perio Q gel (coenzyme Q10) alone & as adjunct to scaling,& root planing on the periodontalclinical parameters in the management of patients with chronic periodontitis.Materials and methods: A total of 323 sites with pocket depth (5-8) mm in patients with chronic periodontitis wererandomly divided in three groups. The Gel group, 111 sites were treated with intra-pocket application of Perio Q gelalone. In the Combination group, 106 sites were treated with scaling and root planning (SRP) plus intra- pocketapplication of Perio Q gel, in Scaling and root planing group, 106 sites were treated with scaling and root planingalone. Clinical periodontal parameters such as Plaque index (PI), Gingival index (GI), Bleeding on probing (BOP),Probing pocket depth (PPD), Relative attachment level (RAL) were assessed at first visit, 3weeks and 6weeks.Results: on intra-group analysis, all groups showed highly significant reduction in PI, GI, BOP, PPD and RAL among thethree visits .On inter-group analysis, the results showed significant reduction in the clinical parameters PPD and RAL ofcombination group in comparison to SRP group.Conclusion: The results of the research were encouraging and suggested the possibility to use the gel as a sole agentto support standard treatment procedures in periodontitis. The clinical parameters significantly improved in the phaseof periodontal treatment, indicating that CoQ10 opens new treatment options by improving the host response todisease activity.


Article
ASSOCIATION OF ABO BLOOD GROUPS AND RH FACTOR WITH PERIODONTAL DISEASE IN DUHOK: ACROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
علاقة مجموعة فصائل الدم و عامل RH مع امراض ماحول اللثة في دهوك

Author: SUZAN M.SALIH سوزان سليم
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2015 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 46-53
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Abstract

ABSTRACTBackground: A link between ABO blood group, Rh factor and periodontal disease has beensuggested.Aim: To determine whether there was an association between periodontal diseases and ABOblood groupsMaterial and Methods: The study was carried on 303 patients, age 20 who were randomlyselected from patients attending Dental Health Polyclinic for treatment of periodontal diseaseor for other reasons. The patients were divided into three groups: healthy, gingivitis andperiodontitis. Blood samples were collected to determine ABO blood groups and Rh factorby simple slide method.Results: A blood group for all patients was correlated with different periodontal groups.There was no significant difference in distribution of ABO blood group, Rh factor withpresence of periodontal diseasesConclusion: The results showed that both ABO blood group type and Rh factor were notassociated with periodontal diseases.

مع ام ا رض ماحول اللثة تم طرحها لتحديد فيما لو RH خلفية وأهداف البحث: العلاقة مابين مجاميع فصائل الدم وعامل كان هناك علاقة بينهما.طرق البحث: تمت الد ا رسة على ٣٠٣ من المرضى اعمارهم ٢٠ سنة واكثر وتم اختيارهم بصورة عشوائية من مرضى المجمع التخصصي لطب الاسنان حيث يعالجون من ام ا رض ماحول اللثة او ام ا رض اخرى.وتم تقسيم المرضى الى ثلاثة مجاميع: المجموعة الاولى الاصحاء والمجموعة الثانية عندهم التهاب اللثة والمجموعة الثالثة عندهم التهاب اللثة والانسجة بواسطة طريقة السلايد المبسطة. RH الداعمة للسن وتم سحب عينات الدم لتحديد فصيلة الدم وعاملالنتائج: مجاميع الدم لكل المرضى تم ربطها مع مجاميع اللثة المختلفة, لا يوجد اختلاف معنوي لانتشار مجاميع فصائلمع ام ا رض ماحول اللثة. RH الدم وعاملمع وجود ام ا رض ماحول اللثة. RH الاستنتاجات: نتائج الد ا رسة تبين لنا ان لا توجد علاقة نوع فصيلة الدم وعامل


Article
The effect of cigarette smoking on salivary IgA and periodontal disease

Author: Omar Husham Ali عمر هشام علي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 3 Pages: 116-119
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of tissues supporting the teeth. Salivary compositionshave been most intensely studied as a potential marker for periodontal disease. In this study, analysis of salivaprovides a simple and non-invasive method of evaluating the role of salivary IgA (s-IgA) levels in periodontal diseaseby detecting the level of (s-IgA) in patients with chronic periodontitis smokers and non smokers patients and correlatethe mean (s-IgA) levels with clinical periodontal parameters Plaque index (PLI) gingival index (GI), probing pocketdepth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL).Materials and Methods: The study samples consists of (15) patients with chronic periodontitis who were non smokers(Group I) and (15) patients with chronic periodontitis who were smokers (Group II) of both gender with an ageranged (35-45) years were the periodontal parameters used in this study (PLI, GI, PPD and CAL), unstimulated salivarysample were collected from all subjects and the levels of salivary IgA (s-IgA) in each sample were analyzed for eachgroup by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. A statistical analysis was done by using excel2013.Results: There was a significant difference with high mean level in the clinical periodontal parameters in smokersgroup compared to non smokers with chronic periodontitis (PLI, PPD and CAL) except GI which showed nosignificant difference between the same groups. The biochemical finding showed significant difference with lowmean level for (s-IgA) in smokers group compared to non smokers.Conclusion: The findings in this study showed that the concentrations of salivary IgA might be used as an indicator forperiodontal disease progression in smokers with chronic periodontitis as a resultant to the effect of smoking whichlowering the concentration of the salivary IgA and subsequent reducing of the host’s defense lead to increase in theprogression of periodontal disease


Article
Isolation, Characterization and Estimation of Ellagic Acid activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis Isolated from adult Periodontitis Patients in Kerbala City.
ن Porphyromonas gingivalis عزل وتوصيف وتقييم فعالية حامض الايللاجيك ضد بكتريا المرضى البالغين المصابين بالتهاب اللثة وما حول الاسنان في مدينة كربلاء

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Abstract

Periodontitis is a chronic bacterial infection affects the gingiva, periodontium connectivetissues and alveolar bone, results in alveolar bone resorption, ultimately, partially orcompletely tooth loss, indeed, it may causes various serious systemic complications likeDiabetes Mellitus, Cardiovascular disorders, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Preeclampsia with lowbirth weight and Orodigestive cancer mortality. Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered themain, foremost and strongest periodontal pathogen. Isolation, characterization and monoplexPCR of 16S rRNA and multiplex PCR of fimA geneotyping are the golden standard assays fordetection of P.gingivalis in adult periodontitis patients. In the present study,Pomegranate peelEthanol extract partially purified ellagic acid has an obvious effectiveness against oralpathogens (P. gingivalis and S. mutans) in both growth inhibition zone on solid medium andPercentage of growth reduction in a liquid medium in various concentrations with commonMIC 16mg/ml.

التهاب اللثة وماحول السن هو اصابة بكتيرية مزمنة تستهدف اللثة والانسجة الرابطة حول السن والعظم الحويصليمسببة انهياره وبالتالي فقدان السن جزئيا اوكليا فضلا عن العديد من المضاعفات الجهازية الخطرة مثل داء السكري،الاختلالات القلبية الوعائية، التهاب المفاصل الروماتزمي، الولادة قبل الاوان مع نقصان وزن المولود والهلاك نتيجةاول واقوى المسببات الرئيسية للمرض. Porphyromonas gingivalis سرطانات الفم والجهاز الهظمي. وتعتبر بكترياوان عزل البكتريا ودراسة خصائصها الكيميائية الحيوية وتشخيصها وراثيا عن طريق التفاعل المتسلسل لانزيم البلمرة16 ) هي الطرق الاساسية المعتمدة في التشخيص الدقيق للبكتريا الممرضة للثة وماحول S rRNA , fimA) لجينيellagic ) الاسنان. ولقد اظهرت نتائج الدراسة الحالية ان مستخلص شحم الرمان بالايثانول والغني بحامض الايللاجيكفي (Streptococcus mutans , P. gingivalis) المنقى جزئيا هو ذات فعالية واضحة في تثبيط نمو بكتريا (acid كل من تقنيتي تثبيط نموالبكتريا على الوسط الصلب وكذلك اختزال نمو البكتريا في الوسط السائل و بمختلفموحد للبكتريا قيد التجربة هو 16 ملغرام لكل ملليلتر . ( MIC) التراكيزللمستخلص، وان اوطا تركيز مثبط

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