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Article
A Morphological Study of Alumina Hollow Fiber Membrane

Author: Asrar Al-Obaidy
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2016 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 117-123
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Morphologies of ceramic hollow fiber membranes prepared by a combined phase-inversion and sintering method were studied. The organic binder spinning solution containing suspended Al₂O₃ powders was spun to a hollow fiber precursor, which was then sintered at elevated temperatures( 300 ˚C, 1400 ˚C, 25 ˚C) in order to obtain the Al₂O₃ hollow fiber membranes. The spinning solution consisted of polyether sulfone (PES), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), which were used as polymer binder, solvent, respectively. The prepared Al₂O₃ hollow fiber membranes were characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is believed that finger-like void formation in asymmetric ceramic membranes is initiated by hydrodynamically unstable viscous fingering developed when a less viscous fluid (non-solvent) is in contact with a higher viscosity fluid (ceramic suspension containing invertible polymer binder). The effects of the air-gap (0 cm, 2 cm, 15 cm) on fibre morphology have been studied and it has been determined that viscosity due to change in air-gap is the dominating factor for ceramic systems.


Article
Comparison of the Marginal Fitness of the Ceramic Crowns Fabricated with Different CAD/CAM Systems (An In Vitro Study)

Authors: Akram M. Abdulkareem اكرم عبد الكريم --- Adel F. Ibraheem عادل فرحان ابراهيم
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 4 Pages: 28-33
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The marginal fit is the most characteristic that closely related to the longevity or success of a restoration, which is absolutely affected by the fabrication technique. The objective of present in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of four different CAD/CAM systems on the marginal fit of lithiμm disilicate all ceramic crowns.Materials and Methods: Adentoform tooth of a right mandibular first molar was prepared to receive all ceramic crown restoration with deep chamfer finishing line (1mm) and axial reduction convergence angle of 6 degree, dentoform model duplicated to have Nickel-Chromiμm master die. Thirty two stone dies produce from master die and distributed randomly in to four groups (8 dies for each group) according to the type of CAD/CAM system that used: Group A: fabricated with CERAMILL motion2 (Amann Girrbach); Group B:fabricated with CEREC in lab MCXL (Sirona);Group C: fabricated with CORiTEC 250i (imes-icore); Group D: fabricated with ZIRKONZAHN M5 (Zirkonzahn). Marginal discrepancy was measured at four points at each tooth surface. Sixteen points per tooth were measured using digital stereomicroscope at (140X) magnification.Results: ANOVA and LSD post Hoc tests were used to identify and localize the source of difference among the groups. It was found that there is a highly significant difference in the marginal gap mean values between group C and group D, and highly significant differences between group A and group D.Conclusions: From the above result we can conclude that better marginal fit values were may be exhibited by CORiTEC 250i CAD/CAM system.


Article
Effect of Heat Treatment on Corrosion Behavior of Al-4Ti/MgO-SiC Composite

Authors: Rana A. Anaee --- Wafaa Mahdi Salih --- Ban Farhan Dawood
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 14 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 2720-2726
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This work focuses on the effect of annealing, normalizing and tempering on corrosion behavior of Al-4Ti/1 wt% MgO-2 wt% SiC composite fabricated by stir casting method. The XRD analysis and optical examination indicate that the heat treatments lead to breaking up the main phase (Al3Ti) in Al-4Ti alloy and form many oxides that cover the composite surface. Linear and cyclic polarizations have been investigated in seawater at room temperature by Potentiostat. The corrosion data showed that the corrosion potential became more negative for heat treated composites compared with untreated once. Corrosion current density decreased after heat treatments. The normalized composite has lowest corrosion rate due to expose the specimen to atmosphere for quenching which leads to form SiO2 in addition to MgO and Al2O3. The breakdown of passive layer in composite decreased by heat treatments which assessed by cyclic polarization test.


Article
The Influence of Co-Cr Thickness on The Color Parameters of Metalo-Ceramic System

Author: Abdullah J. Mohammed
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2016 Volume: 16 Issue: 32 Pages: 41-48
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

ABSTRACT Aims: The thickness of Co-Cr metal beneath the ceramic in the metalo-ceramic system can affect the color parameters. This study investigated the effect of different thicknesses of Co-Cr plate on the color parameters. Materials and method: Thirty square Co-Cr samples were made (10x10)mm length, width, respectively with varying thickness (0.3, 0.5, 1)mm, two shades (A1, A3.5) of ceramic build on the metal squares five of each thickness, and they were tested by colorimeter to measure the color parameters. Results: Mean L*value of 0.3mm metal thickness of both shades have shown a significant increase on expense of other thicknesses at (P>0.05). Conclusions: L* values were increased with the decrease in the metal thickness to a value near the opaque layer thickness, and decreased with the increase of metal thickness up to five folds of opaque layer thickness, metal thickness had no effect on the means of a*b* values.


Article
دلالات الأشكال المركبة في الخزف الإسلامي

Author: جنان علي محمد
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2016 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 377-397
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The research dealt with (EVIDENCES OF COMPLEX FORMS IN THE ISLAMIC CERAMIC) lies in four chapters , first chapter included the problem of the research which was briefed in possibility of replying the question ( Do the complex forms have evidences in the Islamic ceramic and what are their references?), importance and need to the research came from (Described as concern about the specialists in discovering the aesthetic sides for the ceramic forms in the period of Islamic art generally and the ceramic particularly. The current research discover how the Muslim potter concern about the religious and life side and achieve this concern in his works, provide the general and specialist libraries with a scientific and artistic effort in the field of art studies, the research represented a scientific effort added to the other researchers efforts in the field of Islamic art generally and ceramic art specially), the goal of the study is ( Discovering the evidences of complex forms in Islamic ceramic), the research's limits is the ceramic works done in the Abbasi era in (Iraq and Syria) within the period (4th -7th ) A.H century (9th – 13th ) A.D century. While the second chapter was represented by the theoretical frame included two sections , first one : (Concept of evidence and form in the art).The second section concern about studying the complex forms in the Islamic ceramic (historical references) in the Abbasi era, the theoretical frame was finalized with a punch of indications and then the previous studies. The third chapter tackled with the procedures of the research and include also determining the population of the research of ( 20) potters, then the research tool and analyzing the sample. While the fourth chapter included the results and conclusions of the research plus to suggestions and recommendations, one of the results the researcher has come up with is : 1-The Abbasi potter was far from the real form through combining , decreasing and abstraction then application them in ceramic works. 2-The Muslim potter used themes taken from the daily life like hunting views, animals fight and achieving that in the sample. 3-Abbasi potter combined human and animal forms as that give the aesthetic values and being away from imitating the Creator God in his creatures. 4-The Abbasi potter used the variable ceramic forms through the correlation between the nature and the asceticism as he used the less colors and using the technique of the metal bright instead of the gold and silver and approve that in the sample. While the most important conclusions are: 1-Complex ceramic form are due not to imitate the Creator God. 2-The Muslim potter concern about the abstract and combining in the forms drawn on ceramic plates that epress the aesthetic of ceramic works in addition to innovation and invention.

تناول البحث (دلالات الأشكال المركبة في الخزف الإسلامي) والذي يقع في أربعة فصول تضمن الفصل الأول مشكلة البحث التي تم تلخيصها في إمكانية الإجابة عن السؤال الاتي (هل للأشكال المركبة دلالات في الخزف الإسلامي وما هي مرجعياتها)؟ وجاءت أهمية البحث والحاجة اليه (بوصفه معنياً بذوي الاختصاص في معرفة الجوانب الجمالية للأشكال الخزفية في فترة الفن الإسلامي عموما والخزف منه على وجه التخصيص, يكشف البحث عن كيفية اهتمام الخزاف المسلم بالجانب الديني والدنيوي وتحقيق هذا الاهتمام في فنونه, يرفد المكتبات العامة والمتخصصة بجهد علمي وفني في ميدان الدراسات الفنية, يمثل البحث جهدا علميا متواضعا يضاف إلى جهود الدارسين في ميدان الفن الإسلامي بصورة عامة والخزف بصورة خاصة), اما هدف الدراسة فتمثل في(كشف دلالات الأشكال المركبة في الخزف الإسلامي) ويتحدد البحث بالأعمال الخزفية المنجزة في العهد العباسي في (العراق وسوريا) وضمن المدة الزمنية المحددة للقرن (4-7 ه)(9-13م).أما الفصل الثاني فقد جاء ممثلا بالاطار النظري متضمنا مبحثين عني المبحث الأول: (مفهوم الدلالة والشكل في الفن).اما المبحث الثاني فقد عني بدراسة الأشكال المركبة في الخزف الإسلامي (المرجعيات التاريخية) في العهد العباسي. وأختتم الإطار النظري بمجموعة من المؤشرات ومن ثم الدراسات السابقة. أما الفصل الثالث, فقد تناول إجراءات البحث والذي تضمن تحديد مجتمع البحث البالغ (20) خزفيا , ثم أداة البحث وتحليل العينة .في حين أشتمل الفصل الرابع على نتائج البحث واستنتاجاته فضلاً عن التوصيات والمقترحات, ومن جملة النتائج التي توصل أليها الباحثة هي: 1.ابتعاد الخزاف العباسي عن الشكل الواقعي من خلال التركيب والتجريد والاختزال وتطبيقها في أعماله الخزفية. 2.استخدام الفنان المسلم موضوعاته استمدها من حياته اليومية كمناظر الصيد وصراع الحيوانات وتحقيق ذلك في العيّنة. 3.قام الخزاف العباسي بتركيب الأشكال الآدمية والحيوانية مما يعطيها قيمة جمالية والابتعاد عن تقليد الخالق في خلقه. 4.استخدام الخزاف العباسي الاعمال الخزفية المتنوعة من خلال الارتباط بين الطبيعة والزهد فقد استخدم الألوان القليلة وكذلك استخدامه لتقنية البريق المعدني بدلاً من الذهب والفضة وتحقيق ذلك في العينة. أما اهم الاستنتاجات التي توصلت لها الباحثة: 1.إنّ تركيب هي لغرض الابتعاد عن المطابقة والمحاكاة في شكل المخلوقات التي خلقها الله.2.إهتم الخزاف المسلم بالتجريد والتركيب في الأشكال الموجودة على السطوح الخزفية عبّرت عن جمال الأعمال الخزفية إضافة إلى التجدد والابتكار.


Article
Preparation of Porcelanite Ceramic Filter by Slip Casting Technique

Authors: Marwa Merza Salman --- Fadhil Mohammad Hasson --- Majid Muhi Shukur
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2016 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 552-562
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

This work is conducted to study producing solid block porcelanite filter from Iraqi porcelanite rocks and kaolin clay (as binder material) by slip casting technique, and investigating its ability of removing contaminant (Pentachlorophenol) from water via the adsorption mechanism. Four particle sizes (74, 88, 105 and 125) µm of porcelanite powder were used. Each batch of particle size was mixed with (30 wt. %) kaolin as a binding material to improve the mechanical properties. After that, the mixtures were formed by slip casting to disk and cylindrical filter samples, and then fired at 500 and 700 °C to specify the effects of particle size of porcelanite, temperature and formation technique on porcelanite filter properties. Some physical, mechanical and chemical tests have been done on filter samples. Multi-experiments were carried out to evaluate the ability of porcelanite to form the filter. Porosity, permeability and maximum pore diameter were increased with increasing porcelanite particle size and decreased by increasing temperature, whereas the density shows the reverse behavior. In addition, bending, compressive and tensile strength of samples were increased by increasing temperature, and decreased with increasing porcelanite particle size. Efficiency of disk filter sample to remove pentachlorophenol was 95.41% at a temperature of 700°C using 74 µm particle size of porcelanite. While the efficiency of cylindrical filter sample was 97.57% at the same conditions

تتناول هذه الدراسة إنتاج مرشحات البورسيلينايت من صخور البورسيلينايت العراقية ومن أطيان الكاؤولين ( كمادة رابطة) بتقنية القولبة الانزلاقية ودراسة أمكانية إزالة خماسي كلوروفينول من الماء بواسطة هذا المرشح بعملية الامتزاز. تم استخدام أربعة حجوم حبيبية للبورسيلينايت وهي (٧٤, ٨٨, ١٠٥و ١٢٥) مايكروميتر، حيث تم خلط كل حجم حبيبي مع ٣٠٪ نسبة وزنية من المادة الرابطة (مسحوق الكاؤولين). بعد ذلك شكلت نماذج المرشح بطريقة القولبة الانزلاقية للحصول على المرشح القرصي والمرشح الاسطواني، وثم حرقت عند درجة حرارة (٥٠٠ و٧٠٠) °م وذلك لمعرفة تأثير كل من (الحجم الحبيبي للبورسيلينايت, درجة الحرارة وتقنية التشكيل) على كفاءة وخواص المرشح البورسيلينايتي الأخرى. تم إجراء عدة فحوصات فيزيائية وميكانيكية وكيماوية حيث تم الحصول عمليا على تقييم خواص المرشح البورسيلينايتي فوجد إن كل من المسامية و النفاذية و اكبر قطر للمسامة تزداد بزيادة الحجم الحبيبي للبورسيلينايت وتقل بزيادة درجة حرارة الحرق, أما الكثافة ومقاومة الانضغاط ومقاومة الشد ومقاومة الانحناء تزداد بزيادة درجة حرارة الحرق وتقل بزيادة الحجم الحبيبي للبورسيلينايت. وصلت كفاءة المرشح القرصي في إزالة خماسي كلوروفينول من الماء إلى٤١,٩٥٪ عند درجة حرارة الحرق ٧٠٠ ºم باستخدام الحجم الحبيبي (٧٤) مايكروميتر، في حين بلغت كفاءة المرشح الاسطواني في إزالة خماسي كلوروفينول من الماء إلى٥٧,٩٧٪ عند نفس الظروف


Article
Comparison of marginal adaptation between all ceramic crown and full cast crown with two different luting cement (In Vitro study)

Authors: Dr. Salma Issa Alabudi B.D.S., M.Sc. د. سلمى عيسى --- Dr. Jinan Qassim د. جنان قاسم --- Dr. Shimaa Obied د. شيماء عبد
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 19-24
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine and evaluate the micro leakage and fit ofall ceramic crown and full cast metal crown using two different luting agent. Twentyfour recently caries free wisdom teeth were used .The teeth were cleaned and checked with magnifying lens.Noticed any cracks or caries . Specimens remained in distilled water at roomtemperature . Each specimen were centrally inserted in cylinder 20mm height and 20mminternal diameter containing self curing acrylic resin . Preparation were completed at thedentin level of the cement -enamel junction with a chamfer finish line 1.2mm all roundtooth . The height of preparation was 7mm with a convergence angle of six degree usingdiamond bur ( Germany, No 878, 2012) . Prepared teeth were divided in two maingroups ( n=6) .Group A: All ceramic crown(12-Specimens) . Subdivided in two subgroup.A1:- ( 6) Specimens used the zinc-phosphate cement. A2:- (6) Specimens used resincement . Group B :- Full cast crown (12-Specimens). Subdivided in tow subgroupGroup B1 :-( 6 ) Specimens used zinc-phosphate cement Group B2:- (6 ) Specimensused resin cement .After 24hr of storage in distilled water at 37c , all the specimens immersed in 0.5%basic fuchcin dye for 24hr.Fallowing removal from the solution , each tooth wasvertically sectioned bucco-lingually with water-cooled diamond disc . Stereomicroscopeat 40 magnification was to study the extent of microleakge, which was indicated by thedye pentration recorded at both metal-cement(MC) and tooth-cement ( TC) interface .Microleakge was done according to the index proposed by Tjan etel[1] .The data of all 4 groups was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance withstudent T-test was used to compare the microleakage scores within the groups at both theinterface. The data obtained in this study show statistically significant difference inmicroleakage level between group A and B and between subgroup of specimens.The conclusion of this study , resin cement recorded less micro leakage in both allceramic crown, and metal cast crown Than zinc – phosphate cement , because The self curing nature with low curing rate, give rapid and superior adhesion to both dentin andrestoration and better mechanical properties


Article
Improved of the Nanolaminate - Ceramic by the Additional of Aluminium to used in Higher Resistance Hydraulic Structures

Authors: Jawad Kadhim Abbood --- Jabbar Abbas Jaber --- Wisam Abidalabbas Abidalla --- Mohammed Ali Nasser
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2016 Volume: 24 Issue: 4 Pages: 855-867
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

It has been tried in this research to introduce this type of new structural materials as reproducible industrial materials and overtake some production obstacles by exploring the direction of chemistry structure relation. The compacted samples have been prepared from elemental powders (Titanium, Aluminum and Black Carbon) using the powder technology techniques. They have been dispersed in different concentrations (Ti-Al-C) and different molar ratios due to the change in the Ti to Al concentrations. Thus the effect of Al concentration on MAX phase evolution in the Ti-Al-C system has been investigated and discussed. Therefore, the concentration of Al has improved the applications of water resource structures, and that alloy, especially in corrosion resistance and under water, has proved structures as well as pipes because the Al has created the layer that protects this ceramic from hard and nature conditions , So the Al metal lead to use this ceramic in loading bearing structures such as bridges and high impact resistance such as Dams. The effects of cold and hot pressing as well as sintering in different temperatures are investigated. Phase evolution is discovered by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and SEM. Micro hardness test and Archimedes method is used to measure the density and porosity percentage. No evidence for the direct formation of MAX phases from elemental powders is foud which may explain the need of high temperatures to produce such phases since the breaking of bonds is required for the intermediate phase.

جرت محاولة في هذا البحث لتقديم منتج إنشائي جديد كنوع من المواد الصناعية الثانوية مثل السيراميك والتي تقاوم تأثير المياه وتتجاوز بعض المنتجات المعقدة وذلك بواسطة (اتجاه الربط) بالتركيب الكيمياوي . النماذج المكبوسة تحضر من مساحيق العناصر ( التيتانيوم , الألمنيوم, الكاربون الأسود ) والتي تم تشكيلها بتراكيز مختلفة ومختارة باستخدام تقنية استخدام تكنولوجيا المساحيق وبنسب مولارية اعتمادا على تغيير نسبة تراكيز عنصر التيتانيوم إلى عنصر الالمنيوم لذلك فان تأثير تركيز الالمنيوم على تطوير الطور الأحادي لخلط العناصر قد تم التحري عنها ومناقشتها . تبين إن تراكيز الالمنيوم قد حسنت من استخدام المنتج في المشاريع الكبيرة والمهمة كالمنشات الخاصة بالموارد المائية, خصوصا في مجال مقاومة التآكل والمنشات المانعة للتسرب تحت الماء للمنتج بسبب تكوين الالمنيوم طبقات حماية تقاوم الظروف الطبيعية والصعبة, وعليه يمكن استخدامه في المنشات ذات التحمل العالي مثل الجسور والمنشات التي تحت تأثير الصدمات والتحمل العاليين مثل السدود. تأثير الضغط البارد والحار والتلبيد بدرجات حرارة مختلفة تم التحري عنها. تم استكشاف سلوك الأطوار الأحادية بواسطة أشعة اكس وإجراء فحص المخطط المجهري الالكتروني, فحص قوة الصلادة المجهري وكذلك فحص طريقة ( ارخميدس ) لقياس نسب الكثافة والمسامية . تبين انه ليس من السهولة الحصول على الطور الأحادي مباشرة من خلال العناصر التي تحتاج إلى درجات حرارة عالية لإنتاج الطور الأحادي بعد كسر الأواصر بين الأطوار الوسطية .


Article
The Effect of Ceramic Thickness and Number of Firings on the Color of Two All-Ceramic Systems Measured by Spectrophotometer

Authors: Haitham J. Al-Azzawi هيثم جاسم العزواي --- Zaid Abdul Mahdi Abdul Ameer Al Marah
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 2 Pages: 7-13
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: This in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the effects of various veneering dentin ceramicthicknesses and repeated firings on the color of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max Press) and zirconium-oxide(IPS ZirCAD) all-ceramic systems, measured by clinical spectrophotometers (Easyshade Advance 4.0) .Materials and methods: The 72specimens cube-shaped have the dimension of about 11 mm in width, 14 mm inlength, 1mm in thickness, these cores divided into 3 groups according to the type of material each group have(24)core specimens. Each group had been divided into three sub-groups (each having 8 specimens) according toveneering with dentin ceramic thicknesses: as 0.5, 1, or 2 mm (n=8). IPS e.max press and ZirCAD cores group hadbeen veneered with IPS e.max Ceram dentin ceramic shade A2 according to manufacturer’s instructions and themetal group had been veneered with IPS classic dentine ceramic with shade A2 according to manufacturer’sinstructions. Repeat firings (3, 5 and 7 times) had been applied on all the specimens. Color differences amongceramic specimens had been measured using a clinical spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade); the color data hadbeen expressed according the Vita Classic shade guide.Results: The shade of all specimens had been compared inside the subgroups and with the main groups. Thepercentage of color agreement among the subgroups showed the color of all ceramic systems had been affectingby firing interval, the ceramic thickness and brand of ceramic. The number firings intervals applied on the all ceramicsystem has a significant effect on the final color, the increase of firing number change the color to a darker andreddish color. The 5th firing interval is the point at which the major color changes happened (darker shade), and innext interval (7th firing) less color changes happened. The thickness of veneering ceramic affected the colorsignificantly. The 0.5 mm specimens in all groups showed the highest percentage of agreement (less color changes)after firing intervals, then the 1mm came and the least percentage of agreement ( highest color changes ) was the 2mm specimens. The Brand of veneering ceramic and the type of core record a significance difference in colorchanges when exposed to firing heat.Conclusion: With limit of this study, the final color of the all ceramic system definitely affected by the number of firingcycle exposed to, and the veneering ceramic thickness have a clear effect on the final shade of the all ceramictested.


Article
Removal of Carmoisine-E112 Using Different Types of Porous Media

Author: Tasnim Fahim
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2016 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 807-819
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

All over the world the presence of heavy metals in water supply sources has been raising great concern in terms of public health since many epidemiologic studies confirm the potential carcinogenic effect of these pollutants at concentrations above acceptable standards. The purpose of the research is to manufacture porous medium suitable adsorption and remove Carmoisine (E-122).This work includes two tracks; the first track explains the batch model results, while the other track contains continuous flow system.The results of batch mode experiments have been presented to examine the efficiency of removing carmoisine E112 by activated ceramic. In this system, the effects of pH, activated ceramic amount, initial concentration of the activated ceramic, and agitation speed and equilibrium time on adsorption efficiency are studied. The continuous flow system experiments, have been carried out during period from April/2014 to May /2014 , to examine the efficiency removal of carmoicine E112 by six types of media one of them is non-uniform which is the activated ceramic and the others are uniform (silty clay, sandy clay, composite porous media, porculinite, gravel and ceramic).

في جميع أنحاء العالم وجود المعادن الثقيلة في مصادر المياه قد سبب قلق كبيرفي مجال الصحة العامة من خلال عدد من الدراسات الوبائية التي تأكد تأثير مسرطن محتمل لهذه الملوثات بتراكيز أعلى من المعايير المقبولة.يتضمن هذا العمل مسارين :المسار الاول يمثل موديل الجريان الدفقي( اونظام الوجبات )بينما المسار الثاني يمثل نظام الجريان المستمر. تم أجراء تجارب الجريان الدفقي لفحص كفاءة ازالة الكارمويسين E112 بأستخدام السيراميك المنشط. وقد تم دراسة تأثير كل من درجة الحامضية, كمية السيراميك المنشط,التركيز الابتدائي للسيراميك المنشط,سرعةالخلط ووقت التوازن على كفاءة الامتزاز.تم أجراء تجارب الجريان المستمر للفترة الواقعة بين نيسان 2014 الى آيار 2014 لدراسة كفاءة أزالة الكارمويسين E112 بأستخدام 6 أوساط مختلفة واحد منها غير متجانس وهو السيراميك المنشط او الفعال بينما كانت بقية الاوساط متجانسة وهي(الطين الغريني,الطين الرملي,وسط مسامي مركب,بورسينايت,حصى و سيراميك).

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