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Article
Distribution of doctors’ workforce in Erbil Governorate
توزيع القوى العاملة للأطباء في محافظة أربيل

Authors: Tariq S. Al-Hadithi --- Vian M. Husein --- Moayad A. Wahab
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 1138-1146
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Imbalance in the distribution of health workforce might result in inequities in health services delivery. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of doctors’ workforce in Erbil governorate and identify the possible reasons for rapid turnover of doctors. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study included all the 962 doctors working in the health facilities of Erbil governorate. A questionnaire was used to collect data that included 40 questions divided into four broad sections of identification information, socio-demographic characteristics, information on professional characteristics and factors influencing employment process in rural areas. Results: There were 5.1 doctors per 10,000 populations. Most of the doctors were deployed in urban areas (83.6%). Most doctors were working in hospitals (74.2%) and 23.3% in primary health centers. Specialists constituted the largest categories of doctors (33.5%) and general practitioners the smallest (6.7%). Doctors’ willingness to stay at the current workplace was significantly associated with being married, having opportunities to select workplace, working in private clinics and having the workplace inside Erbil. Conclusion: The density of doctors per 10,000 populations in Erbil governorate is below the regional and international average, with a remarkable urban-rural imbalance in numerical, geographical and institutional terms.

Keywords

Health workforce --- Erbil


Article
Association of chronic urticaria with Helicobacter Pylori infection in Erbil: A case-control study
ارتباط الشرى المزمن بعدوى هيليكوباكتر بيلوري في أربيل: دراسة الحالات والشواهد

Authors: Khalis Bilal Mohammed --- Faiza Rasool Muhemmed
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 1376-1384
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Chronic urticaria is one of the most frequent skin diseases and still its etiology is recognized only in a minority of cases. Some recent studies point out to infections due to Helicobacter Pylori as being of major importance in the pathogenesis of chronic urticaria. This study aimed to find out the association of chronic urticaria with H. pylori. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Erbil city within the period of April 1st, 2013 to January 1st, 2014. The study included 55 cases with chronic urticaria and 55 controls that were free from features of chronic urticaria. Data was collected through direct interview and the results of laboratory investigations were recorded in a specially designed questionnaire. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test was used for detection of Helicobacter pylori antigen in the stool sample. Results: The age of the 55 cases and 55 controls enrolled ranged from 13 to 65 years. Stool for Helicobacter pylori antigen test was positive in 69.1% of cases and 29.1% of controls (OR = 5.44, P ˂0.001). The mean age ± SD of positive Helicobacter pylori patients were 35.75 ± 12.64 years, with male to female ratio 1:2.8. No statistically significant association was found between Helicobacter Pylori infection with dyspepsia and duration of urticaria. Conclusions: There was a strong association of chronic urticaria with Helicobacter pylori infection. Investigating for Helicobacter pylori in all cases of chronic urticaria and conducting further trials on Helicobacter pylori eradication is recommended.


Article
Cardiovascular risk factors in a rural area, Erbil, Iraq: A cross-sectional study

Authors: Khalis B. Mohammed-Ali --- Kamaran Hasan Ismail --- Namir Al-Tawil --- Ali S. Dauod
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2016 Volume: 29 Issue: 4 Pages: 197-200
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many countriess.Objectives: The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among rural population in Erbil governorate, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Materials & Methods: A house-hold survey was carried out on adults aged 20 years and above in Gazna village in Erbil governorate. The survey extended from 3rd October through 3rd December 2009. Every other house was chosen to conduct the study, adults 20 years old and above was examined for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, overweight and obesity and cigarette smoking.Results: In current study 359 participants were participated; 149 (41.6%) males and 210 (58.4%) females, the mean ± SD ages of males and females were 38.53 ± 14.59 and 34.92 ± 14.96 years, respectively. About 14.8% of males and 5.2% of females were smokers. Furthermore, the prevalence of hypertension was 12.3% and it was higher among females (14.3%) than that among males (9.4%) (P=0.164). However, the prevalence of diabetes and obesity (13.4% and 30.9%, respectively) were significantly higher among females (16.7% and 38.1%) than among males (8.7% and 20.8%) (P˂0.05).Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in this rural population that necessitates public health programs to be planned to curtail them. A national prevention program should be implemented as soon as possible to prevent the expected epidemics of CVD. Measures are needed to change the lifestyle to address the management of the metabolic syndromes and to reduce modifiable risk factors for CVD.


Article
Patterns of infertility among couples attending IVF center in maternity teaching hospital in Erbil
أنماط العقم بين الأزواج المراجعين لمركز التلقيح الصناعي في مستشفى الولادة التعليمي في أربيل

Authors: Samir M. Othman --- Avesta S. Ahmed
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 3 Pages: 1467-1475
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: An understanding of certain socio demographic, clinical characters and causes of infertility among couples is important for improving management of this problem. This study aimed to assess the clinico-epidemiological pattern of infertile couples and to find out the association of infertility with various socio-demographic characteristics of infertile couples.Methods: This is a case record review study carried out from March 2013 through April 2014. It comprised a retrospective review of a convenience sample of 1158 medical records of infertile couples attending the infertility center in Maternity hospital in Erbil city. Data collected; based on secondary data that was obtained from infertile couples medical records from the center. The medical records included socio-demographic characteristics of couples, data about the gynecological, surgical and medical history of wives and medical and surgical history of husbands. In-depth analyses of the data obtained from files were done by using SPSS version 19.Results: Of the 1158 infertile couples, 727 (63%) had primary, and 431 (37%) had secondary infertility. The age range of wives was 15-48 years with mean ± SD of 31.25 ± 7.0 years and age range of husbands was 17-71 years with mean ± SD of 35.28 ± 8.0 years. The duration of infertility ranged between 1-27 years with mean ± SD of 6.2 ± 4.8 years. The proportion of primary infertility was significantly higher (91.5%) among women less than 20 years of age, while secondary infertility was higher (48%) among those aged 40 years and more. Female causes accounted for 32%, male causes account for 26%, combined cause 18% and 24% of them had unknown causes for infertility. Abnormal seminal fluid analysis parameter was significantly observed among primary infertile husband. Among wives, the infertility factors were the menstrual disorder, miscarriage and hormonal disorder.Conclusion: Primary infertility was more prevalent among the study sample. Infertility was significantly associated with age, occupation and history of previous marriage among wives


Article
Self-esteem of Kurdish women faced domestic violence in Erbil city
احترام الذات للنساء الكورديات اللاتي واجهن العنف المنزلي في مدينة أربيل

Author: Sirwan K. Ali
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 3 Pages: 1411-1418
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in studying domestic abuse against women and its impact on self-esteem and coping style. The aim of this study was to make inquiries about types of domestic abuses among a sample of Kurdish women in addition to looking into the level of self-esteem of those who faced domestic violence.Methods: 120 women who were victims of domestic abuse living in Erbil rural and urban surroundings were recruited from July 15th to October 23rd, 2014. Two scale questionnaires were implemented in this study; domestic abuse questionnaire was taken from Iman and Ahmadi and self-esteem questionnaire by Rosenberg. The data were analyzed through the use of the statistical package for the social sciences (version 11). The analysis systems used for the data management procedures were Pearson correlation coefficients, descriptive statistics, frequencies, and One-sample t-test.Results: Physical abuse is the most frequently occurring domestic abuse type among Kurdish women, while the psychological abuse was reported to a lesser extent (mean 24.6167 and 13.2417 respectively). The levels of the study participant's self-esteems were found to be relatively high (mean score 17.64), while there was a positive correlation between self-esteem and psychological abuse detected (person correlation = 0.091) which was not statistically significant at the level of (P = 0.326). Conclusion: Study participants encountered physical domestic abuse more than other types of abuse; still the participant's mean score for their self-esteem is relatively higher than the hypothetical one


Article
Assessment of serum testosterone in females with acne vulgaris in Erbil city
تقييم هرمون التستوستيرون في المصل عند الإناث المصابات بحب الشباب في مدينة أربيل

Authors: Fatin Qaraney Fattah --- Yousif Bahaaddin Ahmed
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 1249-1253
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous units, characterized by comedones, papules, pustules and nodules. Acne affects primarily the face, neck, upper trunk. Acne typically begins at puberty and it is often the first sign of increased sex hormone production. In all women with acne the possibility of hyperandrogenic state should be considered. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between abnormal testosterone level and other virilising signs in young females with acne vulgaris. Methods: This case-control study was carried out from April 2013 to January 2014 in the consultation Department of Dermatology and Venereology at Rizgary Teaching Hospital in Erbil city. Sixty females were considered group A (case group with acne) and 60 females were considered as group B ( control group) without acne. Results: The mean±SD serum testosterone level was significantly higher among patients with acne compared to the control group (0.51 ng/ml ± 0.27 compared to 0.31 ng/ml ± 0.12, P ˂0.05). Irregular cycle was found in 28 cases (46.6%). Conclusion: The study showed presence of a significant association between serum testosterone level and acne vulgaris in female patients.


Article
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a sample of population in Erbil city, Iraq
انتشار متلازمة الاستقلاب في عينة من السكان في مدينة أربيل ، العراق

Authors: Maaroof Tahseen Hasan --- Halgurd Fathullah Ahmed --- Sherzad A. Ismael
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 1280-1287
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Background and objective: There has been a recent concern about chronic non-communicable diseases in Iraq. The country is undergoing an epidemiological transition with an increasing burden of chronic non-communicable diseases with two-thirds of the people aged 25-65 years old are overweight and one-third are obese. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome with their associated risk factors among a sample of peoples in Erbil city. Methods: This cross-sectional analytic study was carried out in Erbil city and involved a convenience sample of 566 apparently healthy subjects. A structured direct interview using interviewer administered questionnaire was applied. Anthropometric measures, random blood sugar, cholesterol level, triglyceride level, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein were investigated. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the studied sample was 30.6%. The prevalence was higher in females (45.5%) than males (16.3%). Variables like gender (P <0.001), age (P = 0.008), education and marriage (P = 0.001), family history of diabetes mellitus (P = 0.029), hyperlipidemia (P <0.001), hypertension (P = 0.047) and obesity (P = 0.005) were found to be factors that significantly associated with metabolic syndrome. Conclusions: Metabolic syndrome is prevalent among the studied population. Female gender, old age, marriage, family history of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and obesity may be regarded as risk factors for metabolic syndrome.


Article
Inpatients’ satisfaction toward nursing services in the medical and surgical wards of Rizgary Teaching Hospital, Erbil, Iraq
رضا المرضى عن الخدمات التمريضية في الأجنحة الطبية والجراحية في مستشفى رزكاري التعليمي، أربيل، العراق

Author: Namir Ghanim Al-Tawil Ibrahim Hassan Mustafa
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 1349-1355
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Patients’ satisfaction toward nursing care is an important indicator of the quality of nursing services. This study aimed to assess patients' satisfaction with nursing services provided in Rizgary Teaching Hospital and to find out the factors that are associated with levels of satisfaction. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Rizgary Teaching Hospital in Erbil city, starting from January 17th, 2014 to March 11th, 2015. A convenience sampling method was used to recruit 200 patients (100 males and 100 females) from medical and surgical wards. Patients aged ≥15 years, who were admitted to medical and surgical wards for ≥48 hours were included. A structured questionnaire designed by researchers was completed through direct interview. Chi-square test of association (or Fisher’s exact test) was used to compare proportions. A P value of ≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The study showed that 40.5% of patients were highly satisfied with the nursing services, only 20.9% of those with secondary education or higher were highly satisfied (P = 0.005), and 80% of those with high income were highly satisfied (P = 0.001). There was no significant association between patients' satisfaction and patients’ age, marital status, occupation, residence, the length of stay, and type of ward. A relatively poor rate of satisfaction (20.5%) was observed regarding the information provided by nurses before the medical care or drug administration. Conclusions: Less educated patients were more satisfied with nursing services. The majority of patients were unsatisfied with the information provided by nurses before medical care or drug administration.


Article
The Role of the establishment of the Central Zakat funds in reducing the problem of poverty to the city of Erbil analytical study of 2015
دور إنشاء صناديق الزكاة المركزية في الحد من مشكمة الفقر لمدينة أربيل:د ا رسة تحميمية للعام 2015

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this paper aims to demonstrate the benefits of Zakat expected economically, administratively and socially from going to the institutional organization for Zakat in the Kurdistan region through the establishment of the Zakat Fund, and the research that the success of a mandatory method for Zakat collection linked to the development of the Zakat collection laws, but in a voluntary manner, the confidence citizens the institution of Zakat has a big role in his success in this context, the media played a major role in increasing the confidence of citizens institutions of Zakat, and in order to illustrate the importance of the organization to deal with the Zakat funds in the region and to find out the extent of social acceptance of the idea of forming the Zakat Fund in the region, has been preparing a questionnaire form for distribution on selected segments of society in the city of Arbil, where the questionnaire was distributed to the (Islamic scholars, parliaments, doctors, engineers, lawyers, professors, collectors, contractors, traders and Snaaan, directors and deputies commercial bank managers), it was distributed (210) questionnaire form on these groups in the city of Arbil, were recoverable (186) form, and the remaining number of forms did not recover Ooostbad the lack of seriousness of the response as a result of the lack of the required check the conditions of the survey.it was used (SPSS) program and the program (Minitab) in the search for the analysis of the results of the questionnaire, where the results were analyzed using a number of statistical methods such as analysis of variance ((Analysis of Variance test (One-Semple T-Test) and Test (Two Semple T-Test) and through it it has been reached to the conclusion that the majority of respondents community in the city of Arbil, with the creation of the Zakat Fund for the purpose of Zakat funds management in the city.Where the statistical analysis of the questionnaires that the establishment of the Zakat Fund has a significant impact on the six themes set out in the questionnaire which axes (poor salaries, and interest-free loans, and reduce the phenomenon of poor leakage from the wire education, patient support treatment costs, and the reduction of class Alforac between the community, Finally administrative axis), and also between the statistical analysis of the sample that the problem of determining who is poor, I got the biggest average and this shows that there is the problem of determining the worth of Zakat, thus forming the institution concerned with the activity of Zakat in the region with comprehensive data about the Zakat beneficiaries have a major impact Base in solving this problem in the city of Erbil, the research found a set of proposals aimed in its entirety to the need for the formation of the Zakat Fund to manage zakat activity in the Kurdistan region


Article
The role of the Land Bank in solving the housing problem in the province of Arbil during the period (2008-2013)
دور المصرف العقاري في حل مشكلة السكن في محافظة -اربيل خلال المدة 2008-2013

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Abstract

The mortgage bank is a most important financial institution nowadays, which was activated recently in order to contribute raising the purchasing power of low income households that enable them to build new housing units, and that the real estate the bank's depends on what devote the government of funds from the Ministry of Finance led the minimizing and weakening of the role of this institution in reducing the housing deficit and reduce the number of renter families. So it was necessary to propose mechanisms and set up solutions for the problems of post-diagnosis. A set of conclusions and recommendations related to housing finance is presented . The following is few important points as the conclusion of the research:Rise of the debt amount several times, which covers the rise in the cost of construction during the research period. It went down afterwards though.The bank did not participate in the reduction of the deficit during the research period.The two researchers concluded not to rely totally on the fund provided by the ministry of Finance but to try to find other sources of revenue to contribute in the solution of the accommodation crises.

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