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CONVENTIONAL METHODS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED IRAQI PATIENTS

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Abstract

Background: Pneumocystis jirovecii is the causative agent of pneumocystis pneumonia, one of the most frequent and severe opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. Objectives:To determine the possible implication of pneumocystis jirovecii in immunocompromised Iraqi patients with pulmonary infections, and investigate the efficiency of indirect qualitative immunofluorescence diagnosis in compared with conventional stains for the detection of this agent.Methods:A total of 200 clinical samples from 100 immunocompromised patients (70 bronchoalveolar lavage, 21 sputum samples and 9 pleural fluids). One hundred samples from immunocompetent individuals (50 bronchoalveolar lavage, 30 sputum samples and 20 pleural fluids). Detection of pneumocystosis was done by conventional satins and indirect qualitative immunofluorescence technique.Results:Fourteen samples gave positive results by indirect immunofluorescence monoclonal antibody test. Twelve out of 100 samples were positive by each Gomori methenamine silver, modified toluidine blue O stains and Diff-Quik stain (modified Giemsa).Conclusion: Pneumocystis jirovecii is the fundamental opportunistic infection among immunocompromised patients. The indirect qualitative immunofluorescence method gives a promise for use as a primary method for diagnosis of pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia or as rapid screen to exclude the presence of pneumocystis jirovecii in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples.Keywords: Pneumocystis jirovecii (carinii), pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, immunocompromised, Iraqi patients.


Article
Assessment of sociodemographic characteristics in a sample of breast cancer patients in Baghdad.
تقييم الخصائص الاجتماعية والديموغرافية لدى عينة من مرضى سرطان الثدي في بغداد

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Abstract

Abstract:Background: In Iraq, breast cancer is the most common type of malignancy among the Iraqi population in general. It accounts for approximately one third of the registered female cancers according to the latest Iraqi Cancer Registry.Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the sociodemographic characteristics of patients with breast cancer in Baghdad.Methodology: This cross sectional study that was conducted in Baghdad City during a three months period from January to March 2016. It was conducted at Al-Amal National Hospital for Cancer Management. The questionnaire form gathered info about sociodemographic characteristics including: age, gender, educational attainment, marital status, living arrangement, finical status, and disease associated factors like disease duration and treatment modalities.Results: A random sample of 250 female patients with breast cancer was analyzed. The mean age was 56 years. The high frequency of breast cancer was among women aged 50-59 years, which is consistent with what was reported in the literature as age is one of the risk factors for developing breast cancer. The highest proportion of study sample completed their secondary school and about one fifth had university education. Married females constituted a large proportion of the study sample. In addition, parous women were frequent in the study sample, which was also consistent with global prevalence data of breast cancer.Conclusions: A high proportion of BC patients were married, multiparous, urban residence, and at least completed their secondary school.Keywords: Sociodemographic characteristics, breast cancer, Iraqi patients.

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