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Article
The Relationship between Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) and Oxidative Stress in Iraqi Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Authors: Mohammed Merza Hasan --- Tariq Hovthy Al-Khayat --- Milal Mohammed Al-Jeborry
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 206 -213
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

PCOS is one of the commonest endocrine disorders among the women during their reproductive age .The world-wide prevalence of the disease ranges between (5- 10 %). Those patients were classified in this study into three classes according to Rotterdam criteria which states that PCOS is defined as at least two of three of the following criteria:Obigomenorhea or anovulation, Biochemical signs of increased androgen levels (such as hirsuitism), and Detection of polycystic ovary (Ten or more cysts of 2-10 mm in diameter and in the absence of other endocrine disturbances).This study included 90 women with PCOS divided into three groups , infertile , hirsute , and combined (both infertile and hirsute) thirty patients of each group, with forty women apparently healthy as a control group.The measurement of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) has been done by using cobas e 411 analyzer.The oxidative stress has been determined depending on Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker by spectrophotometric method, the concentrations of total testosterone and sex hormones (LH, FSH) were measured by using ELFA technique.Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD1), Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations have been measured by using ELISA technique. The results of BMI showed that highly significant differences between all patient groups compared with control group.The results revealed a significant differences in levels of (PSA, MDA, TAC, SOD1, Testosterone and LH/FSH Ratio) (P<0.05, P< 0.01) in all patient groups in comparison with control.The results demonstrated negative correlation between PSA and MDA in all patient groups, as well as positive correlation between PSA and both of testosterone and LH/FSH Ratio.From the above results and their correlations we can conclude that PSA considered to be a valuable biomarker for Androgens activity in PCOS patients.The results also showed that no significant changes in DHEA level this indicates that no contribution of the pituitary-adrenal axis in these changes.

Keywords

PCOS --- PSA --- ELISA --- Iraqi Women.


Article
Difficulties Facing Iraqi EFL Learners in Translating Legal Terms from English into Arabic

Author: Hussein Mohammad Abdul Hussein
Journal: Misan Journal of Acodemic Studies مجلة ميسان للدراسات الاكاديمية ISSN: 1994697X Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 29 Pages: 49-65
Publisher: Misan University جامعة ميسان

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Abstract

Definitions of TranslationTranslation is a branch of applied linguistics which deals with linguistic and extra-linguistic factors. It is a process of communication where there is a transference of a message from a source language to a target language.There is no agreement on the definition of translation ,nor are translation theorists agreed on the types and models of translation. Thus, the researcher exposes some definitions to translation.Translation is a science based on scientific facts. In addition to this, it is an art. Hence, it is the science that implies artistic aspects. Guire (1980:5) cited that Quirk (1974) puts translation as ''one of the most difficult tasks that a writer can take upon himself.''From this, we may state that translation involves far more a working acquaintance with two languages and is aptly assumed up by Levy(1963) as cited in Gentzler(1993:61) when he states:


Article
متطلبات تحقيق الاستدامة المالية في العراق

Authors: أ.م.د. عمرو هشام محمد --- عماد حسن حسين
Journal: AL-Mostansiriyah journal for arab and international studies مجلة مركز المستنصرية للدراسات العربية والدولية ISSN: 2070898X Year: 2016 Issue: 55 Pages: 141-173
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

This paper discusses the requirements for achieving financial sustainability in Iraq, that the Iraqi economy is suffering a lot of different economic imbalances, on top of the expansionary fiscal policy, which might lead to further expansion of the government debt size, and then this will be reflected negatively on the overall macroeconomic variables and thus weaken the work of politics cash.Therefore, it is essential that the government is working on coordination and harmony between fiscal and monetary policies, and so as to achieve sustainable growth is not based on an excessive expansion in public spending, or a continuous increase in the ratio of public debt to GDP.But in order to achieve strengthen the financial sustainability in Iraq requirements, so it is necessary to resort to domestic public debt, through the construction of a strategy to establish a market for government bonds, and this increases the government's ability to finance its debt through the financial markets, and especially if they enjoy easily accessible and reliable as a market efficient and sophisticated, and therefore can be debt market is a way to reform the financial sector by enhancing the structure, and this would be sources provides additional funding for the government, and thus works as a source of economic stability through support growth through the cooperation of public and private sectors and directed towards improving the financial sustainability.

يناقش هذا البحث متطلبات تحقيق الإستدامة المالية في العراق، إن الإقتصاد العراقي يعاني كثيراً من إختلالات إقتصادية مختلفة ، وعلى رأسها السياسة المالية التوسعية التي قد تؤدي إلى زيادة التوسع في حجم الديون الحكومية، ومن ثم سينعكس ذلك سلباً على مجمل المتغيرات الإقتصادية الكلية وبالتالي يضعف عمل السياسة النقدية.لذا من الضروري أن تعمل الحكومة على التنسيق والتناغم بين سياساتها المالية والنقدية ، وبما يؤدي إلى تحقيق نمو مستدام لا يستند إلى توسع مفرط في الإنفاق العام، أو زيادة متواصلة في نسبة الدين العام إلى الناتج المحلي الإجمالي.ولاجل تحقيق متطلبات تعزيز الإستدامة المالية في العراق ، لذا من الضروري اللجوء إلى الدين العام الداخلي وذلك من خلال بناء إستراتيجية لإقامة سوق للسندات الحكومية ، وهذا يزيد من قدرة الحكومة على تمويل دينها من خلال الأسواق المالية ، وخاصة إذا كانت تتمتع بسهولة الوصول اليها والإعتماد عليها كسوق كفوء ومتطور، وبالتالي يمكن أن يكون سوق الدين وسيلة لإصلاح القطاع المالي من خلال تعزيز هيكلية ، وهذا من شأنه أن يوفر مصادر تمويل إضافية للحكومة ، وبالتالي يعمل كمصدر للإستقرار الإقتصادي من خلال دعم النمو عن طريق تعاون القطاعين العام والخاص وتوجيهها نحو تحسين الإستدامة المالية.


Article
Analysis of Polymorphism of Melatonin Receptor Type 1A (MTNR1A) Gene, in Iraqi Local Sheep Using PCR-RFLP Technique

Author: Rahawy M. A.1 , AL-Timimi, I. H.2 , Najwa Sh. Ahmad3
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 85-95
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The gene encoding melatonin receptor type 1A (MTNR1A) gene by PCR-RFLP, the aim of the present study of polymorphism MTNR1A gene associated with breeding out of season and correlated with prolactin hormone in Iraqi sheep breed,. Blood samples were randomly collected from 60 ewes from Agriculture Research-Ruminant Researches station breeding station, Baghdad, and genomic DNA was isolated using a Geneius TM Micro gDNA Extraction Kit. A large fragment of exon 2 of MTNR1A gene was amplified by PCR using specific primer pairs and the PCR product was digested with RsaI enzyme which cuts the amplicon to several fragments. There are four cleavage sites (53 bp, 267 bp, 23 bp, 411 bp, 70 bp) for Rsa I within the amplification fragment, Digestion with Rsa1yielded polymorphic fragments of 267 bp when the cleavage site was present (allele R) and a single 290 bp fragment when the cleavage site was (allele r). Three genotypes RR (411 bp/267 bp), Rr (411/290 bp/267 bp) and rr (411 bp/290 bp). Three fragments of 23bp, 53 bp and 70bp were been not related allelic polymorphism .Restricted digestion allowed the determination of two alleles (R, r), Result gene frequencies were 0.40 and 0.60 for the alleles R and r respectively, in local ewes and genotype frequencies of RR (20%), Rr (40%) and rr (40%) in ewes with a significant at (P<0.01), the level of prolactin relation to the genotype differences that the highest hormonal level linked to the RR genotype (234.65±17,48ng/ml), and high significant (P<0.01) with lower values for prolactin hormone that linked to Rr and rr genotype (217. 02 ± 28.12; 182.91 ± 21.35 ng/ml) in local Iraqi ewes and no-significant values between the out and the in season lambing months, however, higher significant variation (P<0.01) of frequencies of R genotype (62.50%) in out-seasonal lambing months than in-seasonal lambing months (37.50%). It was concluded that the alleles frequencies of MTNR1A gene ‘r’ higher than ‘R’ alleles, Analysis of the MTNR1A polymorphism its relationship with prolactin concentration of Moreover show the indirect effect of higher prolactin concentration with genotype RR of the MTNR1A gene polymorphism and can be used a genetic selection marker for spring (out-of-season) breeding in Iraqi local sheep.

Keywords

MTNR1A --- PCR-RFLP --- Polymorphism --- Iraqi sheep.


Article
Comparison of Bolton’s Ratios in a Sample of Iraqi and Egyptian Populations

Authors: Munad J. Al-Duliamy مناد الدليمي --- Samer S. Othman سامر عثمان --- Farouk A. Hussien فاروق حسين
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 4 Pages: 172-175
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of standardizing the Bolton ratio analysis as a diagnostic measure for both Iraqi and Egyptian orthodontic populations within three Angle' classification groups.Materials and methods: Two hundred forty pretreatment study casts (one hundred twenty of each population) were included in this study and divided into three Angle' classification groups. The mesiodistal crown diameters of all teeth were measured for computing the anterior and total Bolton ratios. Analysis of variance was performed to compare the mean ratios of Bolton analysis as a function of the Angle classification.HSD test was used to specify the classes of malocclusion that have significant differences.Results: No statistically significant differences were determined in the mean values of the anterior ratio among the angle classification groups in both Iraqi and Egyptian populations. No statistically significant differences were determined in the mean values of the overall ratio among the angle classification groups in Iraqi population. While there were statistically significant differences in the mean values of overall ratio among the angle classification groups in Egyptian population. This difference is specified with in class II malocclusion of Egyptian population.Conclusion: Anterior Bolton ratio can be standardized for both Iraqi and Egyptian orthodontic populations. While the overall ratio can be standardized only in class I and III malocclusions of both populations


Article
organizational climate and Impact in employees infiltration: Exploratory : Research in Iraqi carpets factory
المناخ التنظيمي وتأثيره في تسرب الموظفين: بحث استطلاعي في معمل السجاد العراقي

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Abstract

The present search addressed the " organizational climate and impact in employees infiltration " Where has the objective organizational climate of and Employees Infiltration of increasing importance at the present time , for being fairly modern topics,which have a tremendous impact on the success of organizations.. Research aims to identify the relationship and influence the organizational climate, as represented by its dimensions (leadership, incentives, technology) in the employees infiltration staff leak carpets Inc know levels of organizational climate available to employees of the company discussed and most importantly, searches the Iraqi carpets factory, To achieve the research objectives identified was developed consisting of (22) to collect data from a sample of the study (31), the researchers have used descriptive analytical using statistical software (SPSS) for access to the results, the research found that most hypotheses of relationship and impact between organizational climate and employees infiltration between dimensions are hypotheses and inverse function It also recommended a number of recommendations including: intensification of seminars,


Article
ABCG2 (BCRP) m RNA expression level by using real- time PCR and immunohistochemistry associated with clinicopathological features in Iraqi women with stage II-III breast cancer.
دراسه التعبير الجيني لل ABCG2عند المريضات العراقيات المصابات بسرطان الثدي المرحله الثانيه والثالثه باستخدام طريقه الاستنساخ العكسي- تفاعل سلسلة البلمرة و باستخدام طريقة Immunohistochemistry

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Background: Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer and cause of death among women worldwide. ABCG2 (ATP–bind- ing cassette sub-family G member 2) is an ABC transporter superfamily and endogenous expression of ABCG2 in different certain cancer re ect intrinsic drug resistance. It is also a molecular determinant of pharmacokinetic properties of many drugs in humans. In this study, we determined the expression levels of ABCG2 in breast tissues of Iraqi women with stage II and III breast cancer. The correlation between the expression levels of ABCG2 and clinicopathological features was analyzed. Methods: The expression levels of ABCG2 in the breast was determined by using real- time PCR and immunohistochemistry in 64 patients with stage II and III samples and in 21 benign tumors from Iraqi women.Results: We found that the expression level of ABCG2 mRNA were signi cantly increased in breast cancer stage II-III tissues than those in benign tumor tissues. There was a signi cant variation between the mRNA levels of ABCG2 in stage II and stage III at P< 0.05. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the protein expression levels of ABCG2, was also increased in 83% of patients with stage II and III breast cancer as compared to 17% in benign tumor. The increased expression levels of ABCG2, in stage II-III breast cancer were correlated to tumor stages (P=0.03), tumor grades (P=0.01), tumor types (P=0.01) and lymph node metastasis (p=0.0001), respectively.Conclusion: ABCG2 expression level in Iraqi women with stage II and III breast cancer were highly correlated with tumor stages, grades, types and metastasis and they could be used a potential markers which can prediction tumor behavior, pro- gression and prognosis. Over expression of ABCG2 protein lead to treatment failure, tumor relapse and tumor metastasis by induction cancer cells against cytotoxic drugs.

هدفت هذه الدراسه الى دراسة التعبير الجيني للد له الخاصة للخ يا الجذعيه السرطانيه )بروتين المقاوم للع ج في سرطان الثدي ABCG2( عند المريضات للعراقيات المصابات بسرطان الثدي في المرحلتين الثانية و الثالثة وذلك باستخدام طريقه ا ستنساخ العكسي- تفاعل سلسلة البلمرة و باستخدام طريقة -Im . munohistochemistryشملت الدراسة )64( مريضه مصابة بسرطان الثدي قسمت الى 39 مريضه مصابه بسرطان الثدي المرحلة الثانية )%)60.9, و25 مريضة مصابة بسرطان الثدي من المرحلة الثالثة )39.1 (. وقد قورنت هذه النتائج مع 21 عينه لنساء مصابات باورام حميده في الثدي. جمعت العينات من المريضات في مستشفى الكرامه التعليمي - بغداد –من الفترة من حزيران 2013 الى نيسان 2014 وتم اخذ عينات نسيجيه من ا ورام من المريضات وتم تقسيم هذه العينات الى جزئين : الجزء ا ول تم حفظه في ماده الفورمالين لغرض التشخيص النسيجي و Immunohistochemistry و الجزء الثاني تم تبريده وحفظه في النايتروجين السائل لغرض دراسه التعبير الجيني للد ت السرطانيه بواسطه طريقه ا ستنساخ العكسي- تفاعل سلسلة البلمرة. بينت نتائج هذه الدراسه ان مستوى الد له لل ABCG2 قد ارتفعت بشكل معنوي 0.008=P في عينات المرحله الثانيه من السرطان و كانت الزياده معنويه ايضا في المرحله الثالثه من سرطان الثدي 0.0045=P وذلك عند المقارنه مع مستوى الد له في اورام الثدي الحميده. وعند استخدام طريقه Immunohistochemistry بينت هذه الدراسه وجود فروقا في تعبير هذه الد له ABCG2 في عينات مرضى السرطان المرحله الثانية والثالثة %82.8 مقارنه ب%14.3, في اورام الثدي الحميده. اوضحت هذه الدراسه وجود ع قة وثيقة بين زيادة التعبير لهذه الد له ABCG2 مع الحاله السريريه للمرضى, حيث ارتبط زياده التعبير مع نوع السرطان 0.01 =P و درجه السرطان 0.01=P ومع ا نبثاث العقدي اللمفاوي 0.0001=P بينما ارتبط زياده التعبير لل ABCG2مع المرحله الثانيه و المرحلة الثالثة للسرطان 0.006 =P. نستنتج من هذه الدراسه ان التعبير الجيني لد له الخ يا الجذعيه السرطانيهABCG2 قد ارتفع بشكل كبير عند المريضات العراقيات المصابات بسرطان الثدي من المرحلة الثانية و الثالثة وان هذه الزياده قد ارتبطت مع حاله المرضيات السريريه وان هذه الزيادة توضح زياده عدد الخ ي الجذعيه السرطانيه وقد تكون هذهالزياده احد ا سباب المهمه في زياده انتشار سرطان الثدي وا نبثاث الى اعضاء اخرى داخل الجسم.


Article
CONVENTIONAL METHODS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED IRAQI PATIENTS

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Abstract

Background: Pneumocystis jirovecii is the causative agent of pneumocystis pneumonia, one of the most frequent and severe opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. Objectives:To determine the possible implication of pneumocystis jirovecii in immunocompromised Iraqi patients with pulmonary infections, and investigate the efficiency of indirect qualitative immunofluorescence diagnosis in compared with conventional stains for the detection of this agent.Methods:A total of 200 clinical samples from 100 immunocompromised patients (70 bronchoalveolar lavage, 21 sputum samples and 9 pleural fluids). One hundred samples from immunocompetent individuals (50 bronchoalveolar lavage, 30 sputum samples and 20 pleural fluids). Detection of pneumocystosis was done by conventional satins and indirect qualitative immunofluorescence technique.Results:Fourteen samples gave positive results by indirect immunofluorescence monoclonal antibody test. Twelve out of 100 samples were positive by each Gomori methenamine silver, modified toluidine blue O stains and Diff-Quik stain (modified Giemsa).Conclusion: Pneumocystis jirovecii is the fundamental opportunistic infection among immunocompromised patients. The indirect qualitative immunofluorescence method gives a promise for use as a primary method for diagnosis of pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia or as rapid screen to exclude the presence of pneumocystis jirovecii in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples.Keywords: Pneumocystis jirovecii (carinii), pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, immunocompromised, Iraqi patients.


Article
ARZI KANBER HİKAYESİ'NİN IRAK TÜRKMENLERİ ARASINDA TESPİT EDİLEN YENİ BİR VARYANTI'NIN İNCELENMESİ
تحليل نص جديد لحكاية ارزوقنبر بين تركمان العراق

Author: Necdet Yaşar
Journal: Journal of the College of Languages مجلة كلية اللغات ISSN: 20479279 25203517 Year: 2016 Issue: 34 Pages: 337-366
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Arzo and Qenber " tale is considered one of the most well-known and widespread folktales. Many texts of " Arzo and Qenber " were written down in Anatolia, Rome, Turkistan, Azerbaijan and Iraq. It talks about tragic love story. It is one of the most famous Turkish folktales and very popular in several places in Anatolia. Also, it is common, popular and prevalent among Iraqi Turkmens and this can be seen through the several textual copies of " Arzo and Qenber ". In this paper , we deal with a new text of this tale which was written in handwriting and change it to Latin letters .Then , we analyse it and figure out its techniques and motifs and make a comparison between it and the two other recorded texts which were written by Iraqi Turkmens, Beside the fact that this new text has not been discussed before .

الحكاية الشعبية تعد من نتاجات الادب الشعبي تتكون من احداث لها اثار عميقة على المجتمع ، وتحتوي في طياتها على خليط من الاحداث الواقعية والخيالية ، كما تتكون من النثر والنظم . وتعد مرحلة انتقالية بين الاساطير والرواية الحديثة ايضاً . تركمان العراق من احد المجتمعات التركية الغنية من ناحية الادب الشعبي . والحكاية الشعبية تعد من اهم نتاجات هذا الادب بين تركمان العراق ، وحكاية ارزوقنبر لها مكانه خاصة بين هذا المجتمع . حيث انها احدى الحكايات الاكثر أنتشاراً في العالم التركي اذ تم تدوين نصوص كثيرة لهذه الحكاية في الاناضول والروميلي وأذربيجان وتركمان العراق . اذ أن هذه الحكاية تعد حكاية محبوبة جداً بين الاتراك لما تحتويه من حادثة حب كبيرة تحمل في طياتها التراجيديا ، حيث ان هذه الحكاية تعد الاكثر شيوعاً وأنتشاراً بين تركمان العراق لو تم مقارنتها بباقي الحكايات الشعبية الاخرى .اذ تم تدوين نصين لهذه الحكاية ليومنا هذا . النص الاول تم تدوينه من لدن الباحث التركماني الكبير الاستاذ عطا ترزي باشي في مدينة كركوك ونشر النص على شكل كتاب سنة ( 1971 ) ، اما النص الثاني تم تدوينه من لدن الباحث عبد اللطيف بندراوغلو في مدينة طوز خورماتو وتم نشره سنة ( 1993 ) في بغداد وتم تحويل هذا النص من قبلنا الى اللغة التركية الحديثة سنة ( 2009 ) ومن ثم دراستها وتحليلها مع النص المدون من لدن عطا ترزي باشي . هنا في هذا البحث تم تناول نص جديد لهذه الحكاية نشره الباحث الباحث حسن علي سنة ( 2015 ) وتم تدوينه في سبعينات القرن الماضي ، اذ قمنا بتحويل النص من اللغة التركية المكتوبة بالاحرف العربية الى الاحرف اللاتينية ، ومن ثم قمنا بتحليل الموتيف والانماط في الحكاية ، وبعد ذلك تم مقارنتها بالنصين السابقين ، كما قمنا بتحليل ودراسة الابعاد الاجتماعية والثقافية للحكاية واسباب إنتشارها بهذا الشكل الواسع بين تركمان العراق .


Article
الخطاب الثقافي وانعكاسه في الخزف العراقي المعاصر

Authors: انغام سعدون --- يوسف حسين حمدان
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2016 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 1054-1075
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Associated with the civilization of nations cultural throated which represents progress and constitutes a privacy arts, was the Iraqi cultural discourse as a distinguishing mark of the Iraqi art, as it holds this speech legacy and lectured Iraqi human behavior in all its details, and because the ceramic art and since ancient measure of paperwork Nations, has been associated with intellectually Iraqi cultural discourse contemporary be a catalyst for the advancement of the achievement, the first chapter to discuss the problem came questions such as: Are ceramic art has been associated with cultural diversity in Iraq and then target revealed that influential cultural diversity in ceramics from 1980 until 2003. Chapter II came framework and theoretical first topic: the culture and civilization and the relationship between art and society, and the second topic of cultural discourse in contemporary Iraqi art, and the third chapter was to analyze the sample then the fourth quarter of its findings, and it was the most important conclusions: able prevailing civilization culture that casts a shadow to become stimuli move contemporary ceramics in Iraq, Metaphors put forward by the Iraqi potter have caused shifts in artistic discourse like Fashion prevalent or artificial waves driven by societal and personal culture.

ارتبطت حضارة الأمم بخطابها الثقافي الذي يمثل تقدمها ويشكل خصوصية فنونها، وقد كان الخطاب الثقافي العراقي بمثابة العلامة الفارقة للفن العراقي، اذ يحمل هذا الخطاب ارثا وحاضر السلوك الإنساني العراقي بكل تفاصيله، ولان فن الخزف ومنذ القدم مقياس لرقي الأمم، فقد ارتبط فكريا بالخطاب الثقافي العراقي المعاصر ليكون محفزا للرقي في الانجاز، جاء الفصل الأول للبحث في تساؤلات المشكلة ومنها: هل ارتبط فن الخزف بالتنوع الثقافي في العراق ومن ثم الهدف في كشف ذلك التنوع الثقافي المؤثر في الخزف للمدة من 1980 الى 2003 . جاء الفصل الثاني بالإطار النظري والمبحث الأول: الثقافة والحضارة والعلاقة بين الفن والمجتمع، والمبحث الثاني الخطاب الثقافي في الفن العراقي المعاصر، والفصل الثالث كان لتحليل العينة بنماذجها ثم الفصل الرابع بنتائجه، وكان من أهم استنتاجاته: استطاعت الثقافة السائدة والحضارة ان تلقي بظلالها لتصبح مؤثرات تحرك الخزف المعاصر في العراق، فالاستعارات التي عرضها الخزاف العراقي قد أحدثت تحولات في الخطاب الفني وكأنها موضة سائدة او موجات مفتعلة تحركها الثقافة المجتمعية والشخصية.

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