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Article
Synthesis and Curing of New Phenolic Resins Containing Pendant TetrachloroPhthalimides
تحضير ومعالجة راتنجات فينولية جديدة تحتوي على رباعي كلوروفثال ايمايدات متدلية

Authors: Ahlam Marouf Al-Azzawi احلام معروف العزاوي --- HibaKhadim Yaseen هبة كاظم ياسين
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2016 Volume: 57 Issue: 2C Pages: 1345-1356
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Four new phenol-formaldehyde resins containing tetrachlorophthalimides in their repeating units were synthesized via condensation of formaldehyde with N-(hydroxy phenyl)tetrachlorophthalimides under conditions similar to those used in novolac preparation. In this work structural modifications were performed first via design and synthesis of new phenolic component represented by phenolic ring linked to thermally stable tetrachlorophthalimide moiety which condense with formaldehyde and second via introducing of phenolic hydroxyl groups present in the new synthesized resins by esterification reaction with acetyl chloride producing the corresponding acetoxy substituted resins. Both the prepared and the cured resins have new properties which may serve different applications.

تم في هذا البحث تحضير اربعة راتنجات فينولية جديدة معوضة بمجاميع متدلية من رباعي كلوروفثال ايمايد في وحداتها المتكررة وذلك من خلال تكاثف الفورمالديهايد مع مركبات N-(هيدروكسي فنيل)رباعي كلوروفثال ايمايدات تحت ظروف مماثلة لظروف تحضير النوفولاك. تم انجاز التحوير التركيبي في هذه التحاضير من خلال تحضير مكونة فينولية جديدة متمثلة بحلقة فينول مرتبطة بمكونة رباعي كلوروفثال ايمايد المستقرة حرارياً ثم ادخالها في تفاعل تكاثف مع الفورمالديهايد.اما التحوير التركيبي الثاني فقد تم انجازه من خلال معالجة الراتنجات الفينولية المحضرة وذلك بادخال مجاميع الهيدروكسي المعوضة اساساً في حلقاتها في تفاعل استرة مع كلوريد الاستيل مما اسفر عن تكوين راتنجات فينولية معوضة بمجاميع الاسيتوكسي. امتازت كل من الراتنجات المحضرة والراتنجات بعد المعالجة بمواصفات جديدة مما قد يسمح باستخدامها في تطبيقات مختلفة.


Article
A comparison between polyaniline coated fibers and polyaniline-CNT fibers for solid phase micro extraction of phenols from aqueous sample

Author: Rahil Farahani راحيلة فرحاني
Journal: Iraqi National Journal Of Chemistry المجلة العراقية الوطنية لعلوم الكيمياء ISSN: 22236686 Year: 2016 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 143-152
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The current study established a method for preparation of polyanilie-CNT coated platinum wire (SPME Fiber) and investigated their capability to extract phenol from aqueous samples.The Platinum wires were polished with a weighing Paper, then rinsed with double- distilled water and cleaned in an ultrasonic bath and finally electrochemically treated in 0.1 M sulfuric acid by potential cycling between – 0.1and 1.5 V versus Ag/AgCl electrod until a stable cyclic voltammogram was obtained. the Stability of these type of polymers are being studied under different conditions in order to find out whether they are capable of being used for several times. Apart from being easy and inexpensive, electrochemical preparation of CNT-doped coatings of CNT- doped coatings for SPME purposes is also quite flexible and the thickness of the fibers can be controlled by the number of CV cycles.


Article
Extraction of Phenol from Aqueous Solutions Using Bulk ionic Liquid Membranes

Authors: Sawsan A.M. Mohammed --- Mohammed Saadi Hameed
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2016 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 83-97
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Room temperature ionic liquids show potential as an alternative to conventional organic membrane solvents mainly due to their properties of low vapour pressure, low volatility and they are often stable. In the present work, the technical feasibilities of room temperature ionic liquids as bulk liquid membranes for phenol removal were investigated experimentally. In this research several hydrophobic ionic liquids were synthesized at laboratory. These ionic liquids include (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide[Bmim][NTf2], 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide[Hmim][NTf2], 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide[Omim][NTf2],1‐butyl‐1‐methylimidazoliumhexafluorophosphate[Bmim][PF6], 1‐hexyl‐1‐methylimidazoliumhexafluorophosphate[Hmim][PF6], 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide[Bmpyr][NTf2], and 1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetra fluoroborate[Omim][BF4]. The distribution coefficients for phenol in these ionic liquids were measured at different pH values and found to be much larger than those in conventional solvents. Through the values of the distribution coefficients and the experiments that were conducted on bulk liquid membrane applying various types of prepared ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide was selected as the best ionic liquid which gave the highest extraction and stripping efficiencies. The effect of several parameters, namely, feed phase pH(2-12), feed concentration(100-1000 ppm), NaOH concentration(0-0.5M), temperature (20-50oC), feed to membrane volume ratio (200-400ml/80ml ionic liquid) and stirring speeds(75-125 rpm) on the performance of the choosen ionic liquid membrane were also studied. The preliminary study showed that high phenol extraction and stripping efficiencies of 97% and 95% respectively were achieved by ionic liquid membrane with a minimum membrane loss which offers a better choice to organic membrane solvents.


Article
Removal of phenol from Industrial Effluents using Activated Carbon and Iraqi Porcelanite Rocks – A Comparative Study

Author: Dr. Mohammad R. MohammadDr. Adnan H. AfajMarwa Nazeh Mahmoud
Journal: journal of the college of basic education مجلة كلية التربية الاساسية ISSN: 18157467(print) 27068536(online) Year: 2016 Volume: 21 Issue: 91/علمي Pages: 1-12
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

ABSTRACTThe current study aims to remove organic pollutants (phenol) from industrial effluent using batch adsorption on activated carbon and Iraqi porcelanite rocks, and also to compare the removal efficiency of phenol for both adsorbents. Batch mode adsorption experiments were performed by varying different fractional size of adsorbent. The obtained results indicated that the adsorption of phenol increases with decreasing particle size of adsorbent. It seems that activated carbon with 45 μm particle size is more effective in removal of phenol than Iraqi porcelanite rocks powder of the same particle size. The results also proved that the activated carbon has the ability to remove organic pollutant (phenol) more efficient than Iraqi porcalenite rocks. In addition, the adsorption data fit vary well with freundlich model of adsorption isotherm.Key words: Activated carbons,Iraqi porcelanite rocks, Phenol, Adsorption ,Adsorption Isotherm.


Article
Study the Effect of Phenol on formation of Supramolecular gel
دراسة تاثير الفينول على تكوين الجزيئات الكبيرة الهلامية

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Abstract

In this work, the cationic surfactant hexacetyl pridinium chloride (HCPC) was blended with anionic surfactant Sodium Dodecyl benzene Sulfate (SDBS) by using different concentrations (0.0025 - 0.1M) of phenol and at temperature ranges (20-35 Co). It was found that the viscosity values for the mixture of SDBS / HCPC at a certain mixing ratios (12/3, 10.5/4.5 and 9/6), were increased in the presence of phenol, due to formation of self-assembled supramolecular. Moreover, the thermodynamic functions as well as the activation energy for the process of self-assembled were calculated. Conductivity measurements were also performed for further support. The results revealed a physical interaction insight intermolecular forces.

يتضمن البحث دراسة لبعض محاليل المواد الفعالة سطحيا بوجود الفينول. اذ تم استخدام المضافات على النظام الثنائي للمواد الفعالة سطحياً من خلال إضافة الفينول بتراكيز مختلفة ((0.0025 - 0.1M) على مزيج من الـ صوديوم دودايسيل بنزين سلفونيت SDBS والسالب الـ هيكساسيتايل بريدينيوم كلورايد الموجب HCPC وتأثيره على اللزوجة وبدرجات حرارية مختلفة بمدى (20-35 Co) ،اذ وجد ان التفاعل ما بينSDBS / HCPC وبنسب تتراوح ( (12/3 ,10.5/4.5 and 9/6 بزيادة تركيز الفينول تقود الى زيادة في تكوين التجميع الذاتي للمذيلات. كما تم قياس التوصيلة للمحاليل المحضرة والتي تعتبر من القياسات الرئيسية والمدعمة في اعطاء قيم تثبت تكوين التجميع الذاتي اذ وجد ان التوصيلية تزداد كلما قلت اللزوجة. وتم حساب الدوال الثرموديناميكية للمذيلات المتكونة، بالاضافة الى حساب طاقة تنشيط التمذيل والتجمع لذاتي والتي تدل على التفاعلات الفيزيائية هي تفاعلات ذات قوة بين الجزيئات.


Article
Indirect Electrochemical Oxidation of Phenol Using Rotating Cylinder Reactor

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Abstract

Indirect electrochemical oxidation of phenol and its derivatives was investigated by using MnO2 rotating cylinder electrode. Taguchi experimental design method was employed to find the best conditions for the removal efficiency of phenol and its derivatives generated during the process. Two main parameters were investigated, current density (C.D.) and electrolysis time. The removal efficiency was considered as a response for the phenol and other organics removal. An orthogonal array L16, the signal to noise (S/N) ratio, and the analysis of variance were used to test the effect of designated process factors and their levels on the performance of phenol and other organics removal efficiency. The results showed that the current density has the higher influence on performance of organics removal while the electrolysis time has the lower impact on the removal performance. Multiple regressions was utilized to acquire the equation that describes the process and the predicted equation has a correlation coefficient (R2) equal to 98.77%. The best conditions were found to get higher removal efficiency. Removal efficiency higher than 95% can be obtained in the range of C.D. of 96-100 mA/cm2 and electrolysis time of 3.2 to 5 h. The behavior of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) mineralization denotes to a zero order reaction and the rate of reaction controlled by active chlorine reaction not by mass transfer of phenol towards the anode.


Article
Treatment of wastewater of Oil Refinery by Ozone
معالجة المياه الناتجة عن العمليات النفطية باستخدام الاوزون

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Abstract

The goal of the research to find the effect of ozone concentration on treatment of oil refinery wastewater and removal chemical of oxygen demand(COD), phenolic compound and total dissolved solid(TDS). The feed concentration of COD and Phenol equal to 1260 and 1.95 mg/lit respectively while the feed concentration of TDS equal to 1800 PPM. The air was input to ozone generation by pipes then go to bubble reactor that full by wastewater to treatment it. The concentration of ozone that uses in the treatment is (125, 188,250, 313, 375 mg/lit.hr) whiles the other condition was kept constant (Temperature=27 c, PH=10). The results show the efficiency of ozone to treatment of wastewater where the removal of COD, Phenol & TDS are 69.87 %, 77.78 %, 78.76 % at reaction time 90, 65, 65 minute respectively, then the results showed that the typical con. f ozone equal to (313 mg/lit.hr) when removal of COD, while the typical concentration Of ozone equal to (250 mg/lit.hr) at removal of Phenol & TDS.

يهدف البحث الحالي لدراسة تأثير تركيز الاوزون على معالجة المياه الصناعية الناتجة عن المصافي النفطية لإزالة المركبات العضوية المتمثلة بالمتطلب الكيميائي للاوكسجين(COD) وإزالة عنصر الفينول و إزالة المواد الصلبة الذائبة الكلية(TDS). حيث بلغ تركيز كل من (COD) و الفينول 1.95 , 1260 ملغم/لتر على التوالي بينما بلغ تركيز (TDS) 1800 PPM. تتم عملية المعالجة بضخ الهواء عن طريق انابيب بلاستيكية الى الجهاز الخاص بتوليد الاوزون الذي يتم ايصاله بشكل مباشر الى المفاعل الفقاعي الذي يتم ملئه بالمياه المراد معالجتها, حيث تم استخدام التراكيز الاتية من الاوزون (125, 188, 250, 313, 375 ملغم/لتر.ساعة) بينما تم تثبيت الظروف الاخرى (درجة الحرارة=27 مْ, الرقم الهيدروجيني=10). اظهرت النتائج كفاءة الاوزون في معالجة المياه الصناعية حيث بلغت كفاءة إزالة COD 69,87 % عند زمن تفاعل مقداره 90 دقيقة وكفاءة ازالة الفينول 77,78% عند زمن تفاعل مقداره 65 دقيقة بينما كانت كفاءة ازالة TDS 78.76 % عند زمن تفاعل مقداره 65 دقيقة, كما اظهرت النتائج ان افضل تركيز للاوزون خلال عملية إزالة COD هو 313 ملغم/لتر.ساعة بينما افضل تركيز لإزالة الفينول و TDS هو250ملغم/لتر.


Article
Treatment of Freckles Among Patients with Dark skin Complexions. A Comparison of Intense Pulsed Light, Q-Switched 532 nm Laser and Phenol 80% Spot Peel

Author: Husam Ali Salman
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 215-219
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: Intense pulsed light (IPL), Q-switched 532 nm laser and phenol peels are useful for pigmentary lesions but with limited comparative studies in dark skin peoples and a presumed pigmentary changes. OBJECTIVE:To compare the efficacy and safety of IPL, Q-switched 532 nm laser and phenol 80% peel in the treatment of frecklesMETHODS:Twenty six patients with freckles were enrolled in the study. They had Fitzpatrick skin type III and IV. From each patient, the freckles on the right and left cheeks were treated with a single session of IPL or phenol 80% spot peel respectively. Freckles on the midface were treated with Q-switched 532 nm laser. Patients were seen after 1, 2, 6 and 16 weeks RESULTS:Nineteen (73.07%) patients were females and 7 (26.92%) were males, their ages ranged from 19-36 (27.53±5.88) years. Immediate darkening was seen at the IPL treated lesions. Frosting was the result at the laser and phenol ones. Dry scab developed on all lesions and falls after 5-7 days. At 16 weeks of follow up, score 1 was maintained in 18 (69.23%) versus 6 (23.07%) patients at the IPL and phenol sides respectively, while at the laser treated lesions 19 (73.07%) patients were having score 2. No one had score 1. After 16, good satisfaction was obtained in 61.53%, 38.46% and 26.92% on the IPL, phenol and laser sites respectively.CONCLUSION:ll 3 modalities are beneficial, but intense pulse light was more effective and safe..


Article
Aerobic biodegradation of phenol by Immobilized Pseudomonas sp. cells in two different bio-carrier matrices
التحلل الهوائي للفينول باستخدام خلايا البكتريا الزائفة المقيدة في نوعين من الحوامل الاحيائية

Authors: Zainab Ziad Ismail زينب زياد اسماعيل --- Haneen Ahmed Khudhair حنين أحمد خضير
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2016 Volume: 22 Issue: 4 Pages: 68-78
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Biotreatment using immobilized cells (IC) technology has proved to be the most promising and most economical approach for the removal of many toxic organic pollutants found in petroleum-refinery wastewater (PRW) such as phenol. This study was undertaken to evaluate the degradation of phenol by Pseudomonas cells individually immobilized in two different bio-carrier matrices including polyvinyl alcohol-guar gum (PVA-GG) and polyvinyl alcohol-agar agar (PVA-AA). Results of batch experiments revealed that complete removal of phenol was attained in the first cycle after 150 min using immobilized cells (IC) in both PVA-GG and PVA-AA. Additional cycles were confirmed to evaluate the validity of recycling beads of immobilized cells for phenol biodegradation. Results revealed that the phenol percentage removals were 95, 92, 86, and 84 % for second, third, fourth, and fifth cycles, respectively using Pseudomonas immobilized in PVA-GG beads. Whereby they were 96, 92, 90, and 84 % using Pseudomonas immobilized in PVA-AA beads for the same sequence of cycles.

ان المعالجة الاحيائية باستخدام تقنية الخلايا المقيدة من اهم الاساليب الحديثة والمجدية اقتصاديا لازالة معظم المواد العضوية المثبطة والمقاومة للتحلل البايولوجي والتي تتواجد ضمن مخلفات المصافي النفطية ومن ضمنها الفينول. اذ تم اجراء هذا البحث لغرض دراسة تحلل الفينول بتركيز ابتدائي 20 ملغم/لتر باستخدام خلايا البكتريا الزائفة والمقيدة ضمن نوعين من الحوامل الاحيائية وهما البولي فينيل الكحول- صمغ البازلاء والبولي فينيل الكحول- المادة الطحلبية الهلامية. بينت النتائج التجريبية عملية ازالة كلية للفينول بعد 150 دقيقة في الدورة الاولى باستخدام الخلايا المقيدة. تم استخدام خرز الخلايا المقيدة في دورات اعادة استخدام اضافية لتقييم اعادة استخدام تلك الخرز في عملية التحلل البايولوجي للفينول. وقد كانت النسب المئوية لازالة الفينول كالتالي: 95، 92، 86 و 84 % للدورات الثانية، الثالثة، الرابعة والخامسة على التوالي بعد مرور 150 دقيقة باستخدام الخلايا المقيدة في خرز PVA-GG، في حين كانت نسب الازالة: 96، 92، 90 و 84 % لنفس تسلسل الدورات على التوالي باستخدام الخلايا المقيدة في خرز .PVA-AA


Article
Demulsification of Remaining Waste (Water In Oil Emulsions) After Removal Of Phenol In Emulsion Liquid Membrane Process
كسر الاستحلاب للمخلفات المتبقيه (مستحلبات الماء في النفط) بعد إزالة الفينول بعملية الغشاء السائل المستحلب

Authors: Najwa Saber Majeed نجوى صابر مجيد --- Manal Adnan Mohammed منال عدنان محمد
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2016 Volume: 22 Issue: 9 Pages: 83-102
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The aim of present work is to study the removal of phenol present in aqueous feed solution by the emulsion liquid membrane technique using kerosene as a diluent, sodium hydroxide as a stripping agent, and sorbitan monooleate (Span 80) as a surfactant. The parameters studied were: surfactant concentration, volume ratio of membrane phase to internal phase, and stirring speed. It was found that more than 98% of phenol can be removed at the conditions were surfactant concentration 2% (v/v), volume ratio of membrane phase to internal phase 5:1 and stirring speed 400 rpm. Maximum phenol extraction efficiency at 7 minutes of process time was observed. It was found that there was a good agreement between the standard kerosene and the upper layer that resulted after the demulsification of the remaining waste by applying centrifuge. Thus, it is possible to reuse this layer to prepare a new emulsion of the membrane phase.

الهدف من هذا العمل هو دراسة إزالة الفينول من المحاليل المائية باستخدام تقنية الغشاء السائل المستحلب بواسطة استخدام الكيروسين كمخفف، هيدروكسيد الصوديوم كعامل انتزاع و (Span 80) كمادة منشطة للسطوح. تم دراسة العوامل وهي: تركيز المادة المنشطة للسطوح, النسبة الحجمية لمرحلة الغشاء إلى المرحلة الداخلية، و سرعة التحريك. وقد وجد أن أكثر من 98٪ من الفينول يمكن ازالته عند الظروف وهي تركيز للمادة المنشطة للسطوح 2٪ (حجم / حجم)، النسبة الحجمية لمرحلة الغشاء إلى المرحلة الداخلية 5:1 , و سرعة التحريك 400 دورة في الدقيقة. و لوحظ ان أقصى كفاءة لاستخراج الفينول في 7 دقائق من وقت العملية. و وجد أن هناك توافق جيد بين الكيروسين القياسي والطبقة العليا الناتجه بعد عملية كسر الاستحلاب للمخلفات المتبقية من خلال تطبيق جهاز الطرد المركزي. وبالتالي, فإنه من الممكن إعادة استخدام هذه الطبقة لتحضير مستحلب جديد لمرحلة الغشاء.

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