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Article
POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGIES IN ISLAM

Author: Ammar Saadoon Albadry عمار سعدون البدري
Journal: AL-Mostansiriyah journal for arab and international studies مجلة مركز المستنصرية للدراسات العربية والدولية ISSN: 2070898X Year: 2016 Issue: 54 Pages: 339-365
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The study illustrates the twofold nature of poverty dynamics of eradication in the Islamic system, which unites (a) boosting income via a vital anti-hoarding and pro-investment Zakat system with (b) efficiently redistributing the revenues for the sake of the needy. The research specifies the distinct elements that balance those two aspects of the Islamic system to fight poverty, implies that development is all-embracing, sustainable, equitable, and free of deficiencies noted in other similar systems. These deficiencies consist of looking at poverty as an minor failure at any moment in time to get essential material requirements, and a failure to value these requirements are not the similar for all. The aims remain; introducing a theoretical outline, the poverty concept in Islam, conceptualize poverty from the perspective of Islam, focus on the flaws of the poverty concept in the existing literature, provide an overview of the development concept in Islam, and concentrate on how Islam views poverty? What measures are provided in Islam to combat poverty? What is the common denominator in Islam?. This study used a survey technique through studies conducted in the poverty reduction strategies in Islam in general and studies that are related to that in particular. The case studies mostly relied on reviewing and synthesizing on the verses from the Koran and the “hadith” based poverty, and conducting a number of interviews with specialists. Also a number of Islamic literatures were addressed, insofar as their direct or indirect impact on poverty. The study continues in highlighting the additional security nets established by Islam to liberate the poor people and their communities from the social, material, political and spiritual ills of poverty.

الدراسة توضح الطبيعة المزدوجة من ديناميات القضاء على الفقر في النظام الإسلامي، الذي يجمع (أ) زيادة الدخل عن طريق مكافحة الاكتناز والمشجعة لاستثمار نظام الزكاة مع (ب) إعادة توزيع الإيرادات بكفاءة من أجل المحتاجين. البحث يحدد العناصر المتميزة التي توازن بين هذين الجانبين من النظام الإسلامي لمكافحة الفقر، يعني أن التنمية هي جامعة مانعة ومستدامة ومنصفة، وخالية من العيوب الملحوظة في أنظمة مماثلة أخرى. هذه العيوب تتكون في النظر إلى الفقر باعتباره فشل بسيط في أي لحظة في وقت مناسب للحصول على الاحتياجات المادية الأساسية، والفشل في قيمة هذه المتطلبات ليست مماثلة للجميع. الأهداف تبقى تقدم المخطط النظري، مفهوم الفقر في الإسلام، تصور الفقر من وجهة نظر الإسلام، التركيز على عيوب مفهوم الفقر في الأدبيات الموجودة، تقديم لمحة عامة عن مفهوم التنمية في الإسلام، والتركيز على كيف وجهة نظر الاسلام للفقر؟ ما هي التدابير المنصوص عليها في الإسلام لمكافحة الفقر؟ ما هو القاسم المشترك في الإسلام؟ استخدمت هذه الدراسة أسلوب المسح من خلال الدراسات التي أجريت في استراتيجيات الحد من الفقر في الإسلام بشكل عام ,والدراسات التي تتعلق بذلك على وجه الخصوص. دراسات الحالة في الغالب اعتمدت على مراجعة وتجميع آلايات من القرآن الكريم و الحديث النبوي التي تناولت الفقر، وإجراء عدد من المقابلات مع المختصين. كما تم تناول عدد من الآدبيات الإسلامية من حيث التأثير المباشر أو غير المباشر على الفقر. الدراسة تستمر في تسليط الضوء على الامان التي وضعه الإسلام لتحرير الناس الفقراء ومجتمعاتهم من البلاء الاجتماعي، المادي، السياسي والروحي للفقر.


Article
Preliminary over-Head Traction Followed by Closed Reduction Versus Closed Reduction without Preliminary over-Head Traction; A Comparative Study Discussing The Treatment of Developmental Dysplasia of The Hip (DDH) From The Age of 6 To 24 Months

Authors: Adnan Esa Alkilaby --- Mohammed Jaafer Alwash
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Pages: 691 -700
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

There is a controversy whether to use preliminary over-head traction or not prior closed reduction in infants treated for DDH.The aim of this study was to compare the results of treatment of 2 groups of patients; the first group was treated by closed reduction preceded by overhead traction for 2 weeks, while the second group was treated by closed reduction without preliminary traction.This prospective study reviewed the clinical and radiological outcome of 84 hips in 67 patients having DDH treated in Al-Sader Teaching Hospital between March 2005 & January 2014. The mean age at the time of the operation was 14 months. The female to male ratio in our study was 8.5: 1.5. The mean period of follow up was 58 months.The rate of satisfactory results in the first group was 89.5% which is higher than that of the second group in which the rate of satisfactory results was 80.4%. This study revealed that overhead traction followed by closed reduction give better results and low rate of complications and this justified in patients with DDH aging 6-24 months old.


Article
Improvement Heavy Oil Transportation in Pipelines (Laboratory study)

Authors: Ayad A. Abdulrazak --- Haidar A. Faris
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2016 Volume: 272 Issue: 13 Pages: 200-209
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

Since from the past, drag has been identified as the main reason for the loss of energy in pipelines and other similar transportation channels. The contribution of this drag is due to mainly viscous of the flow as well as friction against the pipe walls. These energy losses can be identified through pressure drop, which will results in more pumping power consumption.Due to their very high viscosity heavy oil cannot be transported as such in pipelines and required additional treatments [1].This work studied flow increase (%FI) in heavy oil at different flow rates (2 to 10 m3/hr) in two pipes (0.0381 m & 0.0508 m) ID. By using different additives (toluene and naphtha) with different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) %wt at 27ᵒC.The results of this study showed Increasing values of FI % and Maximum Dr% of 40.48% and 37.03 % were obtained using heavy oil containing 10% wt of naphtha flowing in pipes of 0.0508 and 0.0381 m I.D. at 27°C respectively.Increasing values of %Dr with increasing of Reynolds number, fluid velocity and additive concentration, the used additives (toluene and naphtha) reduce the high viscosity of used heavy oil, and naphtha is more efficient as viscosity reducer than toluene.All these results show treatment heavy oil and improvement their transport in pipelines.


Article
Efficient PAPR Reduction Technique for MC-CDMA System Based OFDM-Discrete Multiwavelet Critical Sampling Transform using Hill Climbing Method
تقنية فعالة لتقليل نسبة القدرة العظمى الى القدرة المعدلة في نظام تقسيم الرموز لعدة حوامل بتعدد الدخول المبني على مقسم التردد العامودي-التحويل المنفصل لمتعدد المويجات العينة الحرجة باستخدام طريقة تسلق التل

Author: Mohammed Aboud Kadhim محمد عبود كاظم
Journal: Journal of Al-Ma'moon College مجلة كلية المأمون ISSN: 19924453 Year: 2016 Issue: 28 Pages: 278-287
Publisher: AlMamon University College كلية المامون الجامعة

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Abstract

“Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)” is widely made use of in various digital communication systems primarily aligned for its benefits of “Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA)”. It is also compounded due its robustness in the presence of multipath and selective fading, widely mitigated scheme complexity. This is as a result of equalization in the frequency domain. As a further result, it produced losses such as a “Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR)” at the show signal. With no thought at present for sign corruption, it is super huge to equipment with PAPR a diminishing in OFDM system. This work proposes a new theory that elaborates a new method which is mathematically analyzed, for MC-CDMA system based OFDM-“Discrete Multiwavelet Critical-Sampling Transform (DMWCS (”for reduced PAPR this uses “hill climbing technique” and comparison has been done with conventional techniques as well. Simulated results approved that the suggested method is more efficient for PAPR Reduction than another conventional technique.

مضاعفة تقسيم التردد متعامد (OFDM) يستخدم على نطاق واسع في مختلف أنظمة الاتصالات الرقمية لما اثبتته في المقام الأول من فوائدها في نظام نظام تقسيم الرموز لعدة حوامل بتعدد الدخول (MC-CDMA) يضاف إلى ذلك أيضا بسبب متاننتها في وجود قنوات التلاشى المتعددة الانتقائية، في هذه القنوات التخفيف على نطاق واسع يكون معقد. هذا هو نتيجة معادلة في مجال التردد. نتيجة أخرى، فإنه يحدث خسائر مثل طاقة متوسط نسبة معدل الذروة (PAPR) في الإشارة الحاصلة. عند عدم الاخذ بنظر الاعتبار تلك المساوى فتكون النتيجة تقليل الكفاءة لنظام مضاعفة تقسيم التردد متعامد. في هذا العمل نظرية جديدة مقترحة تم شرحها وتحليلها رياضيا، لنظام MC-CDMA لمضاعفة تقسيم التردد متعامد - التحويل المنفصل لمتعدد المويجات العينة الحرجة (DMWCST) باستخدام تقنية تسلق التل ( Hill Climbing) لتقليل طاقة متوسط نسبة معدل الذروة (PAPR) ومقارنتها مع الطرق التقليدية .نتائج المحاكاة اثبتت ان الطريقة المقترحة فعالة جدا لتقليل طاقة متوسط نسبة معدل الذروة (PAPR) من الطرق التقليدية الاخرى.

Keywords

MC-CDMA --- OFDM system --- DMWCST --- PAPR reduction.


Article
THERMAL LOSSES REDUCTION FOR A TROUGH SOLAR COLLECTOR: PART 1 FLUID FLOW
تقليل الخسائر الحرارية من مجمع شمسي: الجزء الاول جريان المائع

Authors: Wisam A. Abd Al-Wahid وسام عبد الواحد --- Dhafer M. H. Al-Shamkhee ظافر الشمخي
Journal: KUFA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING مجلة الكوفة الهندسية ISSN: 25230018 Year: 2016 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 20-37
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

The flow of the wind near an absorber of a trough collector is analyzed. Since this absorber loss useful heat into the ambient, it is necessary to reduce that heat. The common strategy of reduction is the use of a vacuum tube. The maintaining of vacuum is difficult due to air leak or glass fracture led to find another replacement for this strategy. The idea of the present work is to put a half circular disc in front of the receiver in order to reduce the air velocity near the tube and reduce the heat transfer process. The flow is analyzed in the area to find the streamlines of flow and the behavior of air for a different air velocities and trough orientations. The analysis is done by using COMSOL Multiphysics program V4.4. The data show that the overall air velocity is reduced near the receiver as predicted.

في هذا البحث، تم تحليل جريان الرياح بالقرب من انبوب التجميع في المجمع الشمسي. وقد وجد بأن الالية المتبعة لتقليل انتقال الحرارة هي باستخدام انبوب مفرغ من الهواء يغطي انبوب التجميع. وبما ان تكلفة هكذا انبوب هي عالية ناهيك عن صعوبة المحافظة على التفريغ بسبب التسرب أو كسر الانبوب. لذا فقد قدم هذا البحث اسلوب جديد في تقليل الخسائر يقضي بوضع مصدات هوائية على شكل نصف دائري وبمختلف الاقطار أمام انبوب التجميع وذلك للتأثير في عملية انتقال الحرارة. حيث تم تحليل الجريان وأيجاد خطوط جريان الهواء عند سرع جريان مختلفة واتجاهات مختلفة للمجمع الشمسي. وقد تم COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS استخدام برنامج لغرض التحليل الرياضي المتبع. اظهرت النتائج التي تم V4.4 التوصل اليها ان سرعة الهواء قرب انبوب التجميع في المجمع الشمسي تقل كما متوقع.


Article
Noise Reduction and Gestational Age Estimation for Ultrasound Fetuses Images.
الحد من الضوضاء وتقدير عمر الأجنة لصور الموجات فوق الصوتية.

Authors: Ebtesam F. Kanger ابتسام فاضل خنجر --- Ahlam A. Hussein احلام علي حسين
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2016 Volume: 57 Issue: 4B Pages: 2780-2789
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Ultrasound imaging is often preferred over other medical imaging modalities because it is non-invasive, non-ionizing, and low-cost. However, the main weakness of medical ultrasound image is the poor quality of images, due to presence of speckle noise and blurring. Speckle is characteristic phenomenon in ultrasound images, which can be described as random multiplicative noise that occurrence is often undesirable, since it affects the tasks of human interpretation and diagnosis. Blurring is a form of bandwidth reduction of an ideal image owing to the imperfect image formation process. Image denoising involves processing of the image data to produce a visually high quality image. The denoising algorithms may be classified into two categories, spatial filtering algorithms and transform domain based algorithms. In this work three adaptive filters are used to denoising speckle noise in ultrasonic (B-mode) images based on calculating the Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) value as a metric is presented, then estimated the gestation age from filtered images using MATLAB program, as well as using Wiener filter to restore the degradation images.

التصوير بالموجات فوق الصوتية غالباً ما يفضل على تقنيات التصوير الطبي الأخرى لأنها تقنيىة غيرظارة وغيرمؤينة ومنخفضة التكلفة. ان نقطة الضعف الرئيسية في الصور الطبية للموجات فوق الصوتية هي رداءة نوعية الصور وعدم وضوحها، وذلك بسبب وجود ضوضاء البقع واللطخ. ان ضوضاء البقع واللطخ هي ظاهرة مميزة في عملية التصوير بالموجات فوق الصوتية، والتي يمكن وصفها بأنها ضجيج عشوائي مضاعف ,وجود هذه الضوضاء امر غير مرغوب فيه لأنها تؤثر سلبآ في عملية التشخيص الطبي. ان تقليل ضوضاء الصورة تنطوي على معالجة بيانات الصورة لإنتاج صورة ذات جودة عالية بصريا. وخوارزميات ازالة العشوائية يمكن تصنيفها إلى فئتين، خوارزميات التصفية المكانية وخوارزميات تستند إلى مجال التحويل. في هذا العمل استخدمنا ثلاث انواع من الفلاتر لتقليل ضوضاء البقع واللطخ في صور الموجات فوق الصوتية B-mode)) استناداً إلى حساب متوسط مربع الخطأ (MSE) وذروة إشارة إلى قيمة نسبة الضوضاء ( PSNR) ، ثم خمنا عمر الجنين من الصور التي تمت فلترتها باستخدام برنامج الماتلاب. ايضآ استعملنا المرشح(Wiener) للتخلص من عدم وضوحية الصور.


Article
Management of DDH in children between age of (1-2.5) years old by open reduction & derotation osteotomy without pelvic osteotomy

Authors: Raed Abbas Saadoon --- Mohammed Jafer Jawad
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-8
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background; Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) means femoral head subluxation or dislocation and/or acetabular dysplasia. Management of neglected (DDH) in children after the walking age is challenging to the orthopedic surgeons. It is usually surgically demanding procedures at this age group. There will be always children who reach walking age with DDH, either secondary to failed treatment or delayed diagnosis. Aims: To evaluate the results of open reduction & derotation osteotomy in treatment of DDH in children without pelvic osteotomy. Methods: At the Orthopedic Department in AL-Yarmook hospital from the period of December 2010 to November 2015. Twenty-three patients (3 patients had bilateral DDH) [26 hip joints] with DDH, the age of patients at time of the operation ranged from (12-30) months, treatment done in two stages open reduction (1st stage) and derotation osteotomy of femur (2nd stage), except Five cases, we did open reduction, shortening & derotation osteotomy in one session because of difficulty in reduction. Final functional & clinical evaluation of patients were done according to a combination of modified MacKay criteria and modified Harris hip score. Radiological evaluation at the end of follow-up was done according to the modified Severin radiographic criteria. Results: - The overall final clinical results were excellent in 8 hips (30.8%), good in 16 hips (61.6%), fair in one hip (3.8%) and poor in one (3.8%), satisfactory (excellent and good) in 24hips (92.3%) and unsatisfactory (fair and poor) in 2 hips (7.7%).The radiological end result was Class I (excellent) in 15 hipss (57.7%), Class II (good) in 10 (38.5%), Class III (fair) in one (3.8%). The results were satisfactory in 25 (96%) hips and unsatisfactory in one (4%) hip. Conclusion: We concluded that operative treatment of neglected DDH ( after the age of walking ) is a surgically demanding procedure but when it performed properly by an open reduction & derotation osteotomy with spending good time for cleaning of acetabulum & excise part of capsule with secure capsulorraphy without need for pelvic osteotomy for those children below age of 2.5 years old.


Article
Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Polymeric Drag Reducing Agent in Turbulent Pipe Flow

Author: Izzat Niazzi Slaiman
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2016 Volume: 23 Issue: 2 Pages: 46-53
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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In the present work, the drag reduction effectiveness of water soluble Carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) was studied as a function of polymer concentration and flow rate. Drag reduction results were assessed by measuring pressure drop over a one meter test section from the selected pipe. The effect of additives concentration was investigated over a range of 0 – 85 wppm, the solvent (water) flow conditions that were studied included higher flow rates. The experimental work was performed in a constructed re–circulating closed loop system. Maximum drag reduction percent (MDR%) of 17.3 % was obtained by using 85 wppm of CMC. The friction factor was calculated from experimental data with an acceptable average absolute percent Deviation. Correlation equation for fanning friction factor was suggested as a function of Re. The drag reduction results have been correlated based on an modification of a theoretical model available in the literature. The functional form of the model requires knowledge of the velocity profile, ratio of mixing length, friction factor, and the additive concentration as dependent variables.


Article
An Experimental Investigation for Water Flow Enhancement in Horizontal Pipes by Using Nanoparticles
تحقق عملي لتحسين جريان الماء في الانابيب الافقية باستخدام دقائق نانوية

Author: Hashim A. Hussein
Journal: University of Thi-Qar Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة جامعة ذي قار للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 26645564/26645572 Year: 2016 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 90-103
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

This work has been devoted to investigate experimentally, the increase in range of horizontaldischarge distance and velocity of water flow for pipes of fire-hoses and water jet propulsionsystems in small ships. The enhancement method of water flow depends on increase the dragreduction and best uniform flow. One of the important practice techniques is adding a smallamount of some materials, cheap and locally available added into water flow in a horizontalpipe. A simple experimental system is designed and constructed to investigate the increase indrag reduction. Nanoparticles (aluminum oxide – 30 nm diameters) and polyacrylamide (PAM)have been added alone and gain time together. Experimental calculations of average flowvelocity, Reynolds number, and friction factor and percentage drag reduction areexperimentally calculated under water heads of 75,100, 125,150,175 and 200 cm. The effectsof concentration ratios of nanofluid (AL2O3) on friction factor and drag reduction are studiedand calculated. The present results showed that addition of AL2O3 and PAM are causedreducing in friction factor, increase in range of horizontal discharge distance and the velocityof water flow. Also the results indicated that, drag reduction was 26% increased at addition ofAL2O3 and 39% at PAM while at mixing them together was 52 % as average for six headswere chosen. The results are represented graphically to explain the degrees of enhancement ofincreasing in drag reduction, flow velocity and the range of discharge distance for water inhorizontal pipes. The originality of this work was addition materials of nanopartcles withpolyacrylamide together.

الخلاصةاختص هذا العمل على التحقق العملي من امكانية زيادة مدى التدفق الافقي للماء وسرعة جريانه في الانابيب الافقية المستخدمةلخراطيم اطفاء الحرائق ومنظومات الدفع النفاث للمياه في السفن الصغيرة. تركز طريقة التحسن المقترحة على تنظيم افضلللجريان و تحقيق زيادة في تقليل الاحتكاك . واحدة من اهم التقنيات العملية هي اضافة دقائق متناهية الصغر من بعض الموادالرخيصة والمتوفرة محليا الى جريان الماء في الانابيب الافقية . تم تصميم وبناء منظومة مبسطة للتحقق العملي من استخداماضيفت (PAM) تلك الدقائق النانوية وتم اختيار دقائق اوكسيد الالمنيوم بقطر 13 نانوميتر ودقائق من مادة بوليميرية تسمىكل مادة لوحدها مرة و مرة اخرى اضيفتا معا. عمليا تم حساب معدل سرعة الجريان ونسبة الزيادة في التدفق الافقي وعدد 175,150 و 233 سم . تم حساب , 125,100, رينولد ومعامل الاحتكاك والنسب المئوية لتقليل الاحتكاك تحت ارتفاعات 75تاثيرات النسب الوزنية للدقائق النانوية لثنائي اوكسيد الالمنيوم على تقليل الاحتكاك وبقية المتغيرات الاخرى . نتاتج العملالحالي اثبتت عمليا تحقيق زيادة في مدى تدفق الماء افقيا وفي سرعة الجريان نتيجة لتقليل الاحتكاك وتنظيمه بصورة افضلباضافة الدقائق النانوية والبوليمرية الى الماء. كذلك بينت النتائج ان نسب الزيادة في تقليل معامل الاحتكاك كانت 26 % عنداضافة دقائق ثنائي اوكسيد اللامنيوم و 19 % عند اضافة المادة البولميرية و 22 % عند اضافة المادتين معا . تم تمثيل النتائجبيانيا لتوضيح نسب الزيادة في تقليل الاحتكاك وسرعة الجريان ومدى التدفق الافقي للماء في الانابيب الافقية . الاصالة فيهذا العمل هو اضافة المواد النانوية والبولميرية معا.


Article
Dynamic Hip Screw Versus Proximal Femoral Nail in the Treatment of Stable Intertrochanteric Fractures

Author: Mohammed Hatem Salal
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 4 Pages: 406-412
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Intertrochanteric fracture is a common injury among older age group , it occupy a high percentage of fragility fractures admitted to the casualty department , lots of methods have been used over decades. Dynamic hip screw (DHS) was the gold standard technique since its invention, however after introduction of the proximal femoral nail (PFN) to the markets in the 90s, this represented a major turning point in the management of intertrochanteric fracture especially the unstable ones. OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of DHS versus PFN in the management of stable intertrochanteric fractures.PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective study included 35 patients who underwent operation by either DHS or PFN, all patients sustained stable intertrochanteric fracture and operated within one week. Closed reduction was done in all patients, PFN cases were done through small incisions under fluoroscope guidance, while DHS cases were operated through standard lateral approach. Patients were assessed according to intraoperative parameters of blood loss, duration of surgery and postoperative parameters regarding partial and full weight bearing, amount of shortening in mm, rate of union, functional score using palmar and proud score , rate of infection and implant complication. RESULTS:Significant differences were noted regarding blood loss and weight bearing in favor of PFN, while duration of surgery was less in DHS. No significant differences were noted regarding other parameters.CONCLUSION: The study revealed significant difference in favor PFN regarding blood loss, weight bearing and shortening..

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2016 (17)