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Article
Thermal Osmosis of Mixtures of Water and Organic Compounds through Different Membranes

Authors: Ahmed Faiq Al-Alawy --- Ramy Mohamed Al – Alawy
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2016 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 53-68
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present work aimed to study the efficiency of thermal osmosis process for recovery of water from organic wastewater solution and study the factors affecting the performance of the osmosis cell. The driving force in the thermo osmosis cell is provided by a difference in temperature across the membrane sides between the draw and feed solution. In this research used a cellulose triacetate (CTA), as flat sheet membranes for treatment of organic wastewater under orientation membrane of active layer facing feed solution (FS) and draw solution (DS) is placed against the support layer. The organic materials were phenol, toluene, xylene and BTX (benzene, toluene, and xylene) used as feed solution. The osmotic agent in draw solution was sodium chloride salt. The membranes have high rejection percentage for NaCl and organic materials. In this research, the operating conditions that have been studied are: temperature of draw and feed solution (18 – 45 °C) and the operating time of process was (0 – 3) hours. It was found that water flux in thermal osmosis process increases with increasing temperature of draw and feed solution ( by average ratio 1:2), and decreases with increasing operating time.


Article
Electroflotocoagulation of Emulsified Cooling Oils as a Method of Pollution Control

Authors: Thamer J. Mohammed --- Dhia AL-DeenMohammed --- Abbas A.K.AL-Rikaby
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 8 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1636-1650
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This research includes the removal of pollution produced from used coolant emulsion oils especially soluble oil (7201). In many types of liquid effluents, oil – water emulsions can be among the most vexing to treat, even through such streams may contain only very small quantity of oil. Untraditional oil removal operation (electroflotocoagulation) is used in this research, which consist of glass cell 102 cm in height. A sacrificial Aluminum Anode is placed on a perforated glass disc at a distance 24-cm from the bottom. Above it is placed the upper electrode, Aluminum cathode is fixed on a movable glass tube. Product water was fed into settling vessels from the outlet arm 17 cm above the glass disc. Oily flocs and aluminum hydroxide were removed by a second side arm 45.5 cm above the product water arm. Sets of experiments were carried out to find the efficiency of electroflotocoagulation to remove the concentrate soluble oil (7201) from water. Multivariables were studied such as: applied potential, space between the two electrodes, settling time and initial soluble oil (7201) concentration. These variables have effect on the soluble oil (7201) percentage removal. The experimental results were represented in two mathematical em-pirical correlations and three dimensional graphs which describe the soluble oil (7201) removal efficiency as a function of current, settling time and in the second, initial soluble oil (7201) concentration respectively.


Article
Phytoremediation of Cr and Pb from Soil Irrigated by Wastewater

Authors: Riyad Al-Anbari --- Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy --- Tiba J. Al-Imari
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 13 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 2380-2386
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

In order to evaluate the effect of agricultural crops, such as kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L.), corn (Zea Mays), and barley (Hordeum vulgare), in the removal of Cr and Pb from soil irrigated with wastewater, an experimental pot was conducted at Green House of University of Technology. Three levels of water were used for irrigation included tap water (control) (T1), 50% of wastewater+50% of tap water (50%WW) (T2) and 100% wastewater (100%WW) (T3). The obtained results, indicated that kenaf, and barley have been an effective plant in removal of Cr and Pb due to its high removal efficiency. Maximum values of removal efficiency were recorded in August 2015 for the (100%WW) and found 85.59%, 82.77, 93.27% of Pb and 85.67, 93.85, 87.24% of Cr for corn, kenaf and barley, respectively. Minimum removal efficiencies recorded at (50%WW) treatment for Pb were (5.66, 4.48, 0.99% ) and at control treatment for Cr were ( 0.99, 1.51, 2.37%) for Cr in May 2015 for corn, kenaf and barley, respectively. From the results obtained, kenaf, and barley were effective in removal of Cr and Pb due to its high removal efficiencies.


Article
Mycoremedation of total and hexavlent chromium from tannery wastewater using fungus Trichoderma harizianum

Authors: Nida'a S.Hamad --- Mayson M. Al-Taee --- Enas R.Al-kidsawey
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2016 Volume: 2 Issue: 3 Pages: 34-41
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The current study was conducted to study the ability of Trichoderma harizianum for removing total and hexavalent chromium from tannary wastewater in laboratory .The experiment continue for thirteen days ,chemical and physical characteristics total and hexavalent chromium concentration were tested in the days (1,4,7,10and 13) and biomass in the end of experimental is weighted. Results shows that pH value change from( 8.6-3.2) and removal percent for Total dissolved solids ,Total alkalinity, total hardness, calcium and magnesium hardness ,nitrite ,nitrate and ,sulphate, total chromium ,hexavalent chromium and biomass (97.54%,90%,97.77%,87.97%,99%,95%,84.66%,90%).While the removal percent for total and hexavalent chromium were 70.18% and 99.67% respectively . The experiment show increasing in fungus biomass in the end of experiment period .


Article
Separation of Lead (Pb2+) and Cadmium (Cd2+) from Single and Binary Salt Aqueous Solutions Using Nanofiltration Membranes
فصل ايونات الرصاص والكادميوم من المحاليل الملحية المفردة والثنائية باستخدام الاغشية النانوية

Authors: Ahmed Abed Mohammed احمد عبد محمد --- Qusay Fadhil Alsalhy قصي الصالحي --- Salwa Hadi Ahmed سلوى هادي احمد
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2016 Volume: 22 Issue: 4 Pages: 50-67
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present work reports on the performance of three types of nanofiltration membranes in the removal of highly polluting and toxic lead (Pb2+) and cadmium (Cd2+) from single and binary salt aqueous solutions simulating real wastewaters. The effect of the operating variables (pH (5.5-6.5), types of NF membrane and initial ions concentration (10-250 ppm)) on the separation process and water flux was investigated. It was observed that the rejection efficiency increased with increasing pH of solution and decreasing the initial metal ions concentrations. While the flux decreased with increasing pH of solution and increasing initial metal ions concentrations. The maximum rejection of lead and cadmium ions in single salt solution was 99%, 97.5 % and 98 % at pH 6, 6.5 and 6.2 and 78%, 49.2% and 44% at pH 6.5, 6.2 and 6.5 for NF1, NF2 and NF3 respectively. On the other hand, maximum permeate flux for single NF2 (32.2)> NF3 (16.1)>NF1 (14.2) (l/m2.h) for 100 ppm, higher than binary salt solution was NF2 (23.7) ˃ NF3 (13) ˃ NF1 (8) (l/m2.h) for (10 Pb2+/50 Cd2+) ppm. The NF membranes proved able to achieve high separation efficiency of both lead and cadmium ions in very suitable conditions, leaving wastewaters in a condition suitable prior discharged into the environment.

تقدم الدراسة الحالية إداء ثلاث انواع من الاغشية النانوية في ازالة ايونات الرصاص والكادميوم العالية التلوث والسمية من المحاليل الملحية المفردة والثنائية المماثلة لمياه الفضلات الحقيقية. تحديد تاثير المتغيرات التشغيلية ( (6.5 -5.5) pH , نوع الغشاء النانوي وتركيز الايون الابتدائي (250-10) جزء بالمليون) على عملية الفصل وتدفق الماء. لاحظ زيادة الرفض مع زيادة pH المحلول ونقصان التركيز الابتدائي للايون. بينما يتناقص الجريان مع زيادة pH وزيادة التركيز الابتدائي للايون. اعلى رفض للرصاص والكادميوم في المحلول المنفرد كان 98, 97.5, 99% عند pH 6.2, 6.5, 6 و44, 49.2, 78% عند pH 6.5, 6.2, 6.5 للاغشيةNF3,NF2, NF1 على التوالي. من جهة اخرى, اعلى جريان راشح للمحلول المنفرد كان NF2 (32.2)> NF3 (16.1)>NF1 (14.2) (l/m2.h) عند تركيز ابتدائي 100( جزء بالمليون), اعلى من المحاليل الثنائية NF2 (23.7) ˃ NF3 (13) ˃ NF1 (8) (l/m2.h) لتركيز ابتدائي (10 Pb2+/ 50 Cd2+) ( جزء بالمليون). الاغشية النانوية اثبتت قابليتها لتحقيق اعلى كفاءة فصل لايوني الرصاص والكادميوم في ظروف مستقرة جدا, لطرح مياه الفضلات بشكل مناسب الى البيئة.


Article
Removal of Cadmium Ions from Wastewater by Batch Experiments

Authors: Eman Abed M. --- Lahieb Faisal M. --- Younis Swadi T.
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2016 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 101-108
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Adsorption experiments were carried out using two different low-cost sorbent materials, date seeds and olive seeds. These sorbents used as a single phase (not as mixture) to remove cadmium ions from simulated wastewater by adsorption process. The equilibrium time was found at 2 hr. The experiments include different parameters such sorbent type and weight and contact time. It was found that both of olive seed and date seed have approximately the same adsorption capacity (qm) with 15.644 mg/g and 15.2112 mg/g, respectively. Equilibrium isotherms and kinetic studies have been carried out. Langmuir isotherm model better fits the experimental data compared with the Freundlich isotherm for olive seed, while Freundlich isotherm fits for date seed .A pseudo-second order kinetic model was appropriate to the experimental data for both seeds. It can be concluded that the olive seed and date seed could be a good sorbent for the removal of cadmium ions from wastewater.


Article
Produced Water Treatment Using Ultrafiltration and Nanofiltration Membranes
معالجة الماء المنتج بأستخدام أغشية الترشيح الفائق والترشيح النانوي

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Abstract

The application of ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) processes in the handling of raw produced water have been investigated in the present study. Experiments of both ultrafiltration and nanofiltration processes are performed in a laboratory unit, which is operated in a cross-flow pattern. Various types of hollow fiber membranes were utilized in this study such as poly vinyl chloride (PVC) UF membrane, two different polyether sulfone (PES) NF membranes, and poly phenyl sulfone PPSU NF membrane. It was found that the turbidity of the treated water is higher than 95 % by using UF and NF membranes. The chemical oxygen demand COD (160 mg/l) and Oil content (26.8 mg/l) were found after treatment according to the allowable limits set by means of world health organization WHO water quality standards. The final composition of SO4-2 (110 mg/l) and NO3 (48.4 mg/l) components within the produced water after treatment were agreed with the permissible limits of WHO, whereas Cl-1 (8900 mg/l) component is not in the allowable limits. Finally by the use of PVC, PES and PPSU hollow fiber membranes; this method is seen to be not sufficient to remove the salinity of the produced water.

في هذا العمل تم دراسة تطبيق عمليات الترشيح الفائق(UF) والترشيح النانوي (NF) في معالجة الماء المصاحب للنفط. تم اجراء تجارب مختبرية لكلتا عمليات الترشيح الفائق والترشيح النانوي بطريقة الجريان المتقاطع. تم أستخدام عدة انواع من أغشية الألياف المجوفة في هذه الدراسة مثل أغشية بولي فاينيل كلورايد PVC UF وغشائين مختلفين من بولي ايثر سلفون PES NF وغشاء بولي فينيل سلفون .PPSU NF وجد ان عكورة الماء المعالج هي اكثر من 95 % بأستخدام أغشية UF و NF. الاوكسجين الكيمياوي المطلوبCOD (160 ملغم/لتر) ومحتوى الزيوت (26.8 ملغم/لتر) وجدو بعد المعالجة وفقا الى الحدود المسموح بها حسب مواصفات الماء القياسية لمنظمة الصحة العالمية WHO . ان التركيز النهائي لمركبات SO4-2 (110 ملغم/لتر) و NO3(48.4 ملغم/لتر) خلال الماء المصاحب للنفط بعد المعالجة قد توافقت مع الحدود المسموح بها من قبل منظمة الصحة العالمية WHO, في حين مركب Cl-1 ( 8900 ملغم/لتر) ليس من ضمن الحدود السموح بها. اخيرا بأستخدام اغشية الالياف المجوفة من نوع PVC, PES و PPSUفان هذه الطريقة غير كافية لازالة ملوحة المياه المنتجة.


Article
Sorption of Nitrate Salts from Wastewater without and with Modification Orange Peel

Author: Zainab Abdulrazak N.
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2016 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 109-116
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This investigation deals with the use of orange peel (OP) waste as adsorbent for removal of nitrate (NO3) from simulated wastewater. Orange peel prepared in two conditions dried at 60C° (OPD) and burning at 500 °C (OPB). The effect of pH: 2-10, contact time: 30- 180 min, sorbent weight: 0.5- 3.0 g were considered. The optimal pH value for NO3 adsorption was found to be 2.0 for both adsorbents. The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Freundlich model was found to fit the equilibrium data very well with high-correlation coefficient (R2). The adsorption kinetics was found to follow pseudo-second-order rate kinetic model, with a good correlation (R2 > 0.95 and 0.94) for the orange peel adsorbent at 500 °C (OPB) and at 60 °C (OPD), respectively. The results showed that the orange peel was found to be an attractive low cost adsorbent for the treatment of wastewater.

Keywords

Orange peel --- OP --- Nitrate --- Sorption --- Isotherms --- Kinetics --- Wastewater.


Article
Performance Study of Electrodialysis for Treatment Fuel Washing Wastewater

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Abstract

In this work, electrodialysis (ED) has been demonstrated to be appropriate technique for reducing the electrical conductivity of real wastewater from fuel washing unit, which has been previously treated by other electrochemical technology (electrocoagulation and electrooxidation). A five cell electrodialysis stack, with an active membrane area of 60 cm2 per cell was employed. During a batch recirculation mode ED system, the effects of parameters such as electrical potential applied (6-18 V) and flow rate of streams (0.5-1.7 L/min.) on the performance of the total dissolved solids (TDS) separation and specific power consumption (SPC) were studied. The results indicate that the process of ED under potential (15 V) and flow rate (1.4 L/min) are recommended as operation conditions. The removal of TDS achieved was about 95% throughout (80 min.) time of electrodialysis and (1.72 kWh/m3) of SPC. Moreover, SPC increased with an increase in the applied potential of ED stack, while it was not intensely responsive to the change in the flow rate.


Article
REMOVAL OF VEGETABLE OIL FROM WASTEWATER BY PHOTO-FENTON PROCESS
ازالة الزيوت النباتية من المياه الملوثة بواسطة الاكسدة المتقدمة (Photo-Fenton)

Authors: Aola H. F. Tahir --- Nagam Obeid --- Shatha Abdul Jabbar
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 3 Pages: 36-46
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The present work evaluated the use of photo-Fenton process (UV/H2O2/Fe2+) for the treatment of oily aqueous solution using batch system. The photo-Fenton best operating conditions, such as time, pH, oil concentration, H2O2 dosage, Fe2SO4.7H2O concentration and temperature were evaluated. The efficiency of the treatment was measured by COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal. The results showed that the optimum pH for the photo-Fenton process was equal to 3. The increase in H2O2 application resulted in an efficiency increase of the photo-Fenton process at 800 mg/l, the optimum Fe2SO4.7H2O concentration found was 60 mg/l. It was found that the optimal temperature for the Photo-Fenton processes 30oC. Oil concentrations were varied and lower concentration was removed more efficient. Photo-Fenton process gave a maximum COD reduction of 80.59 % (COD from 2684 to 521 mg/l) after the total reaction time (180 min) at optimal operation conditions.

: تم دراسة عملية معالجة المياه الملوثة بالزيوت النباتية بطريقة الاكسدة المتقدمة(AOP) . حيث استخدم طريقة الـ .(UV/H2O2/Fe2+) عدة عوامل تاثر على التفاعلات لذلك تم دراستها معظمها و لعله اهمها هي تركيز بيروكسيد الهيدروجين H2O2 وتركيز كبريتات الحديد الثنائي Fe2SO4.7H2O كعامل مساعد. لقد تم ايضا دراسة الوقت ودرجة الحموضة والحرارة وتركيز الزيوت في المياه الملوثة. تم احتساب نسبة الازالة بالاعتماد على المتطلب الاوكسجين الكيميائي COD. اظهرت النتائج ان افضل درجة حموضية تساوي 3 في افضل وقت وهو 180 دقيقة. كما ان زيادة تركيز بيروكسيد الهيدروجين ادى الى زيادة في نسبة الازالة عند 800 mg/l و افضل تركيز لكبيرتات الحديد الثنائي كانت 60 mg/l. كما وجد ان افضل درجة حرارة لاجراء التفاعل هي 30 درجة سيليزية و كانت نسبة ازالة 80.59 % (COD من 2684 mg/l الى 521 mg/l ) في 180 دقيقة عند تركيز 1000 mg/l زيت. اظهرت النتائج بان هذه الطريقة قد تكون واعدة لازالة الزيوت النباتية في المصانع.

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