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Article
Immunohistochemical Study of Natural Killer Cells in Patients with Bladder Cancer
دراسه مناعيه نسيجيه كيميائيه للخلايا اللمفاويه القاتله في سرطان المثانه

Authors: Mustafa A. Abdulameer مصطفى عبد الحسين عبد الامير --- Dhuha S. Salih ضحى سعد صالح --- Munther J. Hussain منذر جاسم حسين
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2016 Volume: 57 Issue: 1C Pages: 583-587
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Bladder cancer is the ninth most common malignancy all over the world. Immune picture is important in predicting clinical outcome with bladder cancer, so the aim of the present study was to investigate the number of killer cells in the tissue of the patients with the malignant and benign bladder cancer before treatment by using an antigen retrieval immunohistochemical method on archived bladder tumors tissue. In our study, the number of the patients tissue with malignant cancer that staining by immunohistochemistry of NK cells (20%) was lower than in benign (80%) (p≤0.01). The results of the present study were indicated that the lower level of the NK cells in the malignant tissues may be leads to impaired anti-tumor immune response toward the tumor cells and is subsequently unable to suppress progression of the tumor.

يأتي سرطان المثانه بألمرتبه التاسعه من حيث الانتشار عالميا , حيث ان الصوره المناعيه لمرضى سرطان المثانه هامه في ما يتعلق بالواقع السريري للمرضى وتطوره ولهذا هدفت الدراسه الحاليه الى التحري عن اعداد الخلايا القاتلات الطبيعية في انسجة مرضى سرطان المثانه الخبيث والحميد قبل العلاج. وقد بينت نتائج الدراسه الحاليه 23.3% من الانسجة السرطانيه من النوع الخبيث فقط ايجابيتها الى الصبغه الخاصه بخلايا القاتلات الطبيعيه بينما كانت النسبه الاكبر 80%الى الانسجه من النوع الحميد . استنتج من الدراسه الحاليه ان النسبه المئويه القليله لخلايا القاتلات الطبيعيه في انسجة السرطان من النوع الخبيث تعكس ضعف المناعه الطبيعيه في المرضى وقد تكون السبب في نشوء وتطور سرطان المثانه .


Article
The Value of Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging 3 Tesla in Detection and Staging of Bladder Carcinoma

Author: Raad H. Abed Tawfeeq*,Thaair A. Kameel Alkhuzaie**, Shameem Ali Hussein
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 266-271
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACK GROUND:To evaluate the value of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI) indetection and T- staging of bladder carcinoma and correlation with histopathological staging.PATIENTS AND METHODS:An analytic prospective study was conducted at the MRI units of Al-yarmook teaching hospitalin the period from January of 2015 to December 2015, 42patients (36male and 6 female)presented with hematuria (40 patients ) and 2 patients presented with pelvic pain were enrolledprospectively ,they underwent conventional magnetic imaging(MRI) and diffusion weightedMRI using 3 tesla MR units (Achieva ; Philips medical systems, the Netherlands).Diffusion weighted images were obtained using a single shot echo planar imaging sequence EPIwith b value 0,500sec/mm2.ADC value map was reconstructed and mean ADC value weremeasured in 42 patients .and histological examination was done to all patients.RESULTS:Correlation between standard MR staging of bladder carcinoma and histopathological resultsrevealed that 17 patients (40%) had the same T -staging while 17 patients(40%) over staged.DWI and ADC values were able to declare the cause of overstating by discrimination betweentumoral tissue and peritumoral inflammation. Statistically significant difference is found betweenADC value of bladder tumor and those of urine.CONCLUSION:Diffusion weighted MR imaging at 3 tesla is new and good imaging modalities for detection andstaging of bladder carcinoma, , without using contrast media, so can used in patient with renalimpairment or contrast media allergy


Article
Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis In Urinary Bladder Cancer Tissues By Using Transmission Electron Microscope
الكشف عن وجود عصيات السل الرئوية باستخدام المجهر الإلكتروني الانتقالي

Authors: Asaad Aljanabi --- Hashim Raheem Tarish --- Zina Mohammed Abdul-Hussein
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2016 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 53-61
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background:Bladder cancer is one of the most common human cancers in Iraq and the world. While smoking, age sex, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines are the most prominent among the risk factors identified, long term Inflammation and chronic infection may largely play some role in urinary bladder cancer (UBC) development. In the present study we worked on urinary bladder cancer and noncancerous Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) Tissue specimens of Iraqi patients, the current study used Acid Fast Stain and Transmission Electron Microscope for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Urinary Bladder tissues.Objectives: microscopical detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in urinary bladder cancer.Methods: The current study used urinary bladder cancer (UBC) formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues (FFPET) specimens of Iraqi patients collected from several privet histopathology labs in AL-Najaf province, the specimens were 50 specimens of UBC patients and 25 different noncancerous pathological bladder specimens. Slides of urinary bladder FFPE tissues were stained with Ziehl-Neelsen(ZN) stain. Examining of slides were conducted using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) imaging was performed special procedure was used for TEM slides preparation.Results: FFPE tissues were stained with Ziehl-Neelsen(ZN) stain. Examining of slides showed presence of high number of acid fast bacilli (AFB) in one microscopical field. UBC tissue slides showed the highest percentage comparing to noncancerous patients (76.6% and 23.4%) respectively. For further confirmation and study of ZN stain results, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) imaging was performed. The results showed presence of different morphological shapes of acid fast bacilli cells appeared in TEM fields and most cells were observed attaching to the urothelial cell membrane.Conclusions: high percentage of MTBC and MTB were detected among patients with UBC compared to noncancerous cases. Recommendations: modern techniques should be used for MTBC and MTB detection in laboratories, and further study for the relationship between chronic MTB infection and UBC are required.

خلفية البحث: سرطان المثانةِ هو أحد الأمراضِ السرطانية الإنسانيةِ الأكثر شيوعاً في العراق والعالم. ويعتبر التدخين ,الجنس ,العُمرِ،و التعرض المهني إلى الأماينِ العطريِ من بين عواملِ الخطورة الأبرز َ لهذا المرض, يضاف إلى هذه العوامل عاملا الالتهاب لفترة طويلة و الإصابات ألمرضية المُزمنةِ واللذان قَدْ يَلْعبانِ دورِ كبير في نشوء سرطانِ المثانةِ. في الدراسةِ الحاليةِ عَملنَا على عينات نسيجِ المثانة المحفوظة في الفورمالينَ لمرضى عراقيينِ وقد شملت العينات عينات سرطانِ المثانةِ وعينات لإصابات مرضية غير سرطانيَة، أجريتْ الدراسةُ الحاليةُ للكشفِ عن عصيات السُلِّ في الإنسان باستعمال صبغة زيهيل- نيلسون وتصوير الشرائح بإستخدام مجهر الالكتروني الانتقالي.الهدف: الكشف ألمجهري عن وجود عصيات السُلِّ في عينات سرطانِ المثانةِ ومقارنتها بعينات لإصابات مرضية غير سرطانيَة .المنهجية: الدراسةُ الحاليةُ عملت على 75 نموذج من الأنسجة المثبتة بالفورمالين للمثانة خمسون عينة مِنْ العيناتِ كانت لمرضى سرطان المثانة وخمس وعشرون عينة مثانةِ لإصابات غير سرطانيةِ مختلفةِ جمعت العينات من عِدّة مختبرات خاصة في محافظةِ النجف. 84 % مِنْ عينات سرطان المثانة كَانتْ المجموعةَ السائدةَ فيها من الذكورَ والفئة العُمرية كَانتْ 61-80 سَنَوات (60 %) لكلا الجنس. حالات انتشار من مستوى الدرجةِ واطئِ كَانتْ الأكثر شيوعاً وقد سجّلتْ (64 %). جزء كبير من ألدراسةِ تم إجراءه في مركز البحوث الطبية في كلية الطبِّ / جامعة آيوا/ الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية. تم التقطيع النسيجي للعينات وتحضير العينات للتصوير الالكتروني باستخدام تقنية خاصة.النتائج: أظهرت نتائج فَحْص شرائح أنسجة المثانةِ والتي لُطّختْ بصبغة زيهيل-نيلسون، وجود العديدِ من عصيات السل الحمضية (أي إف بي) في الحقلِ الواحد النسبة المئوية الأعلى سجلت بمرضى سرطان المثانة مقارنة بمرضى الحالات الغير سرطانيِة (76.6 % و23.4 %) على التوالي. لدراسة نتائج صبغة زيهيل-نيلسون والتأكيدِ مِنْها تم فحص اللطخات باستعمال المجهرَ ألالكترونِي ,التصوير اظهر وجود أشكال مختلفة مِنْ خلايا العصيات ظَهرتْ في حقولِ المجهرِ ألالكترونِي وغالبية الخلايا كَانت خارج غشاءِ الخلايا البولية الظهارية.الاستنتاج: تم الكشف عن وجود نسبة عالية من عصيات السل في سرطان المثانة مقارنة بحالات إصابات المثانة الغير سرطانية.التوصيات: اعتماد التقنيات الحديثة والبسيطة في التشخيص ألمجهري للكشف عن علاقة عصيات السل وتحديد العلاقة بين الإصابة المزمنة بعصيات السل وتأثيرها في استحداث سرطان المثانة قد يساهم في تقليل الإصابة بهذا المرض.


Article
Detection similarity and differences between Uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from recurrent urinary tract infections and bladder cancer patients

Author: *Jafar Jumaa Hassooni Ph. D. ** Amina N. Al-Thwani Ph. D.
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2016 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 21-26
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and their complications such as Bladder cancer (Bl. C.) are a health growing problem worldwide. Objective: To shed light on this subject, present study was done to investigate relationship between recurrent urinary tract infection (RUTI) due to Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bl. C.Type of study: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study included 130 patients with RUTI, 50 patients with Bl. C. and 50 control of both sexes (aged 7-85 years) attending Al-Zahra Teaching Hospital in Al-Kut/Wassit governorate and Al-Harery Teaching Hospital of specialized surgeries/Baghdad. The patients were divided into two groups: the first group (n=130) included those who were suffering from recurrent UTI without bladder cancer and diagnosed clinically as having recurrent UTI. The second group(n=50) included those who had bladder cancer. One hundred and thirty morning midstream urine specimens were collected from recurrent urinary tract infection patients and 50 from healthy persons as a control and also 50 biopsy specimens collected from recurrent UTI with bladder cancer(after surgical operation to these patients) during beginning of October 2012 to end of March 2013. Results: Intracellular bacterial communities (ICBC) (namely Escherichia coli) was isolated from (68/130) 53% from patients with RUTI while (12/50) 24% isolated from patients with Bladder cancer In this study, other molecular technique called Repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) were used for drawing the genetic map of bacteria to know the points of similarity and differences between isolated bacteria. A difference between bacteria in each group were found, but when comparing the genetic map of UPEC isolated from patients with Bl. C. with those isolated from patients with recurrent UTI high difference between them were seen. Conclusion: Detecting the intracellular bacterial communities (namely E. coli) in patients with recurrent UTI, with or without bladder cancer. Detecting similarity and difference in genetic map of UPEC isolated from RUTI and Bl. C. by Repetitive extragenic palindromic DNA (REP) technique, in which found high similarity between UPEC isolated from each group but difference from UPEC isolated from other group.


Article
Urinary marker (MMP-9) and bladder cancer
المؤشر البولي )9-MMP ( وسرطان المثانة

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Abstract

Bladder cancer is a complex disease and this study of bladder cancer was conducted to assess the signi cance of level dif- ference of MMP-9 in urine and tissue biopsy which has a role in tumor progression in bladder cancer patients. MMP-9 evaluated in urine of 48 bladder cancer patients and 40 healthy controls by ELISA test, and in 57 biopsies of bladder cancer and 40 normal urothelium (autopsies) by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Result indicated that urine MMP-9 showed high speci city in diagnosis bladder cancer patients, and has a role in discrimination between (newly diagnosed vs recurrence), but urine level and tissue expression of MMP-9 were unrelated to grade, muscle invasion. Some risk factors like Schistosomiasis and family history of cancer showed a signi cant association with MMP-9 tissue expression.

سرطان المثانة هو مرض معقد وقدأجريت هذه الدراسة لتقييم أهمية مستوى الفرق في المؤشر الحيوي 9-MMP والذي له دور في تطور الورم في مرضى سرطان المثانة في بول 48 مريضا بسرطان المثانة و 40 من ا صحاء بواسطة اختبار ا ليزا وفي 57 خزعة من سرطان المثانة و 40 من الظهارة البولية الطبيعية من المتوفين في الطب العدلي من خ ل فحص التعبير المناعي النسيجي Immunohistochemistry. وأشارت النتائج أن التركيز البولي لل-MMP 9 أظهر خصوصية عالية في تمييز مرضى سرطان المثانة، و في التمييز بين )المشخصين حديثا مقابل متكررين ا صابة(، إ أن التركيز البولي والتعبيرالمناعي النسيجي لل 9-MMP ليس له صلة بدرجة تصنيف ومرحلة الورم،. وأظهرت بعض عوامل الخطر المصاحبة لسرطان المثانة مثل البلهارسيا والتاريخ العائليللسرطان وجود ع قة وثيقة مع 9-MMP


Article
Association of Exon 9 FGFR3Mutations and Cancer Grads in Patientswith Bladder Cancer

Author: Abdul Hussein M. AL-Faisal and Sabah Bresam
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 109-118
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer diagnosis worldwide, with more than 330,000 new cases each year and more than 130,000 deaths per year, with an estimated male:female ratio of 3.8:1.0. According to the most recent Iraqi cancer record (Iraqi cancer registry, 2010), bladder carcinoma is currently ranks sixth among the commonest ten cancers. Previous studies indicated that genetic alterations were involved in bladder cancer. To detect genetic alteration in exon 9 of FGFR3 gene, 50 patients with different grads of bladder cancer who admitted to Ghazi AL-Hariri Hospital in Baghdad and 25 healthy persons aged between 30 to 86 years were included in this study. DNA was extracted from blood samples from patients and healthy control. PCR was conducted using special primers. Mutations of exon 9 of the FGFR3 gene were screened by sequencing and the patients sequencing results were compared with human reference FGFR3 gene sequence (NCBI Reference Sequence: NG_012632.1). Among 50 patients included in this study, 30 (37%) patients were with mutations detected in exon 9 which include novel g.16026 del G and g.16024 sub G>C mutations. The more frequent mutation was g.16026 del G (22, 70%) followed by g.16024 sub G>C mutation (8, 30%). Moreover, the results showed that three patients were with compound mutations (with both exon 9 mutations). Exon 9 mutations (g.16024 sub G to C and g.16026 del G) showed an association with cancer initiation and metastasis since they detected in grad I and II.

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