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Article
The Relationship between Periodontal Disease and Predisposing Factors

Authors: Mohemid M. Al- Jebouri. --- Hadeel M. Younis
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2016 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 68-80
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Periodontitis is an inflammatory lesion mediated by host-bacterial interactions which results in a non-resolving inflammation that leads to local connective tissue attachment loss from the tooth surface, loss of alveolar bone and ultimately tooth loss Indeed, periodontal disease is the leading cause of tooth loss in the western world and developing countries. The aims of this study was to estimate the relationships between periodontal disease and predisposing factors. One hundred eighty samples (paper point inserted into periodontal pocket) were examined in the present study . Patients were of both sexes(140 males and 40 females).Their ages ranged from 16-69 years old. Clinical measurements of periodontal parameters used included dental plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss . The results showed that periodontal disease was the most common in age group 20-29 years old and only a case reported with periodontal disease in 65 years old patients. According to sex distribution of patients, periodontal disease was mostly found in males than females. The periodontitis was more common in non-educated,treated ,smoking patients they living in rural area than educated,non treated ,non-smoking patients . they living in urban area.The most common anaerobic periodontal bacteria isolated from patients were peptostreptococcus prevotii which represented 15(8.3%) isolates, while prevotella intermedia, prevotella melani, prevotella disiens, Bifidobacterium sp., Fusibacterium mortiferum peptostreptococcus tetradius ,and Wolinella sp. represented only 1 (0.5%) of anaerobic isolates .Also another anaerobic subgingival bacteria isolated from inflamed sites in patients were fusibacterium varium, vellionella sp., campylobacter gracilis, capnocytophaga sp., peptostreptococcus magnus, peptostreptococcus micros, peptostreptococcus niger,peptostreptococcus anaerobius, staphylococcus saccharolyticus, streptococcus consellatus, and gemella morbillorum.


Article
Association between periodontitis and acquired coronary heart disease

Author: *Nadia Aftan AL Rawi M.Sc., Ph.D. **Athra M. Al. Waheb M.Sc.
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2016 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 10-15
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The association between oral microbial infection and systemic disease is not a new concept. A major confounding issue is that oral infections often are only one of the many important factors that can influence systemic diseases .Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the periodontal health status of patients with acquired coronary heart disease. Type of the study: Cross-sectional study.Methods: The study group consisted of 200 patients with an age range (35-70) years, having coronary heart disease .This study group were compared to a control group of non-coronary heart disease (200 individuals ) matching with age and gender. The oral parameters were examined including the periodontal conditions, assessment of periodontal loss of attachment as well as the missing teeth according to the World Health Organization criteria (1997)(1) were followed for diagnosis and recording of oral health status.Results: Results of the present study show that the total sample had a highly significantly periodontitis and periodontal loss of attachment with advancing age (P<0.01), while no statistically significant differences were found between males and females with periodontal condition and periodontal loss of attachment among the study group (P>0.05), while there was significant differences among their corresponding controls (P<0.05). High percentage of missing teeth was recorded among the study and control group. Highly statistically significant differences were seen between study and control groups in all the degree of severity related with periodontal conditions (P<0.001).Conclusion: The data showed that 50.5%, 35% of the control group were with periodontal disease and loss of attachment respectively compared with study group 68%, 58.5% . The present study indicate that periodontal disease more common among patients with CHD than among controls matched for age and gender. Thus the possibility that chronic oral infection or similar factor may he positively associated with CHD at least in form patients susceptible to CHD.Although causality cannot be inferred from the present data, the observed association between chronic oral infections and CHD for susceptible patients in the present study can not be excluded.


Article
PREVALENCE OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE AMONG RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS PATIENTS
مدى انتشار امراض اللثة في المرضى المصابين بالتهاب المفاصل

Authors: MOHAMMED TAHIR RASOOL محمد طاهر رسول --- SUZAN M. SALIH سوزان سليم --- HASHIM D. MOUSA هاشم موسى
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2016 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 69-76
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Abstract

Background: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may have higher prevalence ofperiodontitis.Aim: To determine the prevalence of periodontal disease among rheumatoid arthritis patients.Patients and methods: Cross-sectional study was done on 250 patients, who were selected byfrom patients attending Duhok Center for Rheumatic Disease and Medical Rehabilitation.Periodontal health status of the patients based on probing pocket depth score, clinicalattachment loss, and disease activity score was determined. Validated questionnaire was usedto record smoking, body mass index, tooth brushing, duration of rheumatoid arthritis disease.Results: The age range of patients was 35-60 years. All rheumatoid arthritis patients havesome degree of periodontal diseases, 133(53.2%) with mild and 117(46.8%) with moderateperiodontitis.A significant prevalence of periodontal diseases occurred in patients with age group (40-54)years was 144 (57.6%) compared to younger age 46 (18.4%) and older age 60 (24%)respectively, p-value <0.001 The duration of diseases was more significant in intermediate (1year to 3 years) 125 (50%) compared to early (< 12 months) 45 (18%) and longer disease (>3 years) 80 (32%) p-value<0.001.Conclusion: All patients were suffering from some degree of periodontal diseases with nosignificant difference in severity between males and females.

الخلفية والأهداف: احتمالية ان يكون التهاب اللثة اكثر انتشارا في المرضى المصابين بالتهاب المفاصل.تهدف الدراسة الى ايجاد مدى انتشار امراض اللثة في المرضى المصابين بالتهاب المفاصل.طريقة البحث: تمت الدراسة على 250 من المرضى الدين تتراوح اعمارهم بين 30-60 الدين يراجعون مركز التاهيل الصحي لامراض المفاصل. مدى صحة الفم واللثة يعتمد على قياس عمق الجيوب اللثوية و مدى فعالية المرض.النتائج: انتشار امراض اللثة في المرضى المصابين بالتهاب المفاصل كانت 133(53.2%) التهاب لثة خفيف و 117 (46.8%) التهاب لثة متوسط . يوجد اختلاف معنوي في امراض اللثة في المرضى الذين تتراوح اعمارهم بين (40-54) سنة كانت 144 (57.6%) مقارنة بالاقل اعماراً 46 (18.4%) والاكبر أعماراً 60(24%). الاستنتاجات: توصلت الدراسة الى انه لا يوجد اختلاف معنوي في شدة امراض اللثة بين الجنسين ولو ان نسبة الاناث اكثر من نسبة الذ كور.


Article
Detection of Granulocyte Chemotactic Protein 2 in Serum of Periodontitis Patients

Authors: Saja GH. Hussien سجى حسين --- Basima Gh. Ali باسمة غفوري علي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 4 Pages: 122-127
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Chronic periodontitis defined as “an infectious inflammatory disease within supporting tissues of the teeth, progressive attachment loss and bone loss". Aggressive periodontitis is rare which in most cases manifest themselves clinically during youth. It characterized by rapid rate of disease progression .Pro-inflammatory chemokines organized inflammatory responses. Granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 is involved in neutrophil gathering and movement. The purpose of the study is to detect serum of Granulocyte Chemotactic Protein 2 and correlate to periodontal condition in patients with chronic periodontitis, Aggressive periodontitis and Healthy Control subjects and measurement the count of neutrophils for the studied groups.Subjects and methods: Eighty four male and female were enrolled in this study .They were divided into three groups (18) patients with Aggressive periodontitis with age range (20-45) years, (33) chronic periodontitis patients and (33) Healthy control with an age range (30-50). Clinical periodontal parameters were recorded for each group. The concentration of granulocyte chemotactic protein- 2 in serum was quantified by a high-sensitivity enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Blood neutrophils count were detect for five subjects from each group using light microscopeResult: ANOVA analysis revealed high significant differences in Granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 means between aggressive, chronic and controls. Neutrophils count in aggressive periodontitis is higher than chronic and controls .No significant difference in neutrophils count between aggressive and chronic periodontitis, while significant difference when correlate them with controlsConclusion The concentration of granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 increased with the increase in severity of periodontitis. Higher neutrophils count was found in aggressive periodontitis than chronic and controls. As higher granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 that chemoattract more neutrophils recruitment to the site of inflammation


Article
Correlation between Visfatin and Creatine Kinase Levels with Periodontal Health Status of Patients with Coronary Atherosclerosis and Chronic Periodontitis

Authors: Basma R. Omer بسمة عمر --- Maha Sh. Mahmood مها محمود
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 3 Pages: 121-125
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Visfatin is a novel adipokine that mainly secreted by visceral adipose tissue, had an important role ininflammation and immune system. Creatine Kinase (CK) which is an enzyme that is involved in energy metabolism,found in large amounts in myocardium, brain and skeletal tissues.This study is carried out To evaluate the periodontal health status of the study groups (chronic periodontitis andchronic periodontitis with coronary atherosclerosis) and control groups, to measure the salivary levels of visfatin andCreatine Kinase in these groups and compare between them, and to determine the correlations between salivaryvisfatin and Creatine Kinase levels with the periodontal parameters in the three groups.Materials and Methods: eighty participants, males and females were recruited in this study with age ranged from (30-60) years, they were divided into three groups: the first study group was the Chronic periodontitis group (n=30), thesecond study group was chronic periodontitis and coronary atherosclerosis (n=30) and the control group(n=20)which was healthy systemically with healthy periodontium. Periodontal health status was determined by measuringplaque index(PLI),gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth(PPD), bleeding on probing (BOP) and clinicalattachment level (CAL),salivary samples were taken from each participants, salivary visfatin levels were determinedby enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay(ELISA) while the activity of salivary Creatine Kinase was determinedspectrometrically by using the International Federation of the Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) method on Hitachi 911Automatic analyzer.Results: The results of the study showed that the mean values of PLI, GI, visfatin, Creatine Kinase and the percentagesof sites according to PPD scores, CAL scores, BOP were higher in the second study group with chronic periodontitisand coronary atherosclerosis than in the other groups with highly significant differences between the groups at(P≤0.01). Also by using Pearson Correlation Coefficient, salivary visfatin levels were correlated positively with allclinical periodontal parameters with a strong and positive correlation between salivary visfatin levels and CAL scoresand PPD scores. Salivary Creatine Kinase levels were correlated positively with all clinical periodontal parameters witha strong and positive correlation between its levels and mean values of GI and percentages of BOP.Conclusion: The present study showed that salivary visfatin can be used as a marker for the development ofcoronary atherosclerosis and its levels are associated with the degree of periodontal destruction and showed thatCreatine Kinase may be used as a marker for coronary atherosclerosis and chronic periodontitis.


Article
Interleukine-6 Level in Saliva of Patients with Chronic Periodontitis: A Case-Control Study

Author: Haween T. Nanakaly
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 1 Pages: 103-108
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background:Periodontal diseases are infectious diseases in which periodontalpathogens trigger chronicinflammatory and immune responses. Interleukine-6 is a multifunctional cytokine playing a central role ininflammation and tissue injury.The aim of the study IS to determine the level of Interleukin-6(IL-6) in saliva of patientswith chronic periodontitis compared to healthy subjects.Materials and Methods:The total subjects of the present study is 60, divided into 3 groups; 20 patients with chronicperiodontitis with pocket depth(PD ≥4 mm)(group I), 20 patients with pocket depth(PD <4 mm) with clinicalattachment loss (group II), and 20 healthy controls with pocket probing depth (PPD ≤ 3 mm) without clinicalattachment loss (group III). Un-stimulated salivary sample was taken from each subject and was investigated for thepresence of Interleukine-6by using Enzyme‑linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technology.Results:Mean IL-6 levels in saliva in patients with chronic periodontitis (98.40 ± 18.44 ng/L)was significantly higher thanin controls (11.67 ± 3.32; p=0.001). Also a significant difference in IL-6 levels in saliva was observed between the PPD ≥4 mm and PPD < 4 mm groups and between PPD ≥ 4 mm and control groups, as well as statistically significantdifferences were observed between PPD < 4 mm and control groups (P < 0.001).Conclusion:The Interleukine-6 level in saliva can be considered as one of inflammatory biomarker indicators ofseverity of periodontitis


Article
Assessment of Alkaline Phosphatase, Salivary Flow Rate and Salivary Potential of Hydrogen in Relation to Severity of Chronic Periodontitis

Authors: Saif S. Saliem سيف سهام سليم --- Hussein A. Mousa حسين موسى
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 3 Pages: 126-131
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The cells of periodontium contain many intracellular enzymes like (alkaline phosphatase ALP) that arereleased outside into the saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) after destruction of periodontal tissue. The aim ofstudy was to determine the activity of this enzyme in saliva and its relation to the salivary flow rate, PH and clinicalperiodontal parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis.Subject, Materials and methods: Sample population consist of 75 individuals ;divided into four groups , the first group(15):control subject, the second group (20):mild chronic periodontitis, the third group(20) moderate chronicperiodontitis and the fourth group (20) sever chronic periodontitis, Measurements of plaque index (PLI), gingival index(GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL), only male wereincluded and saliva was collected from them and subjected to biochemical analysis of the alkaline phosphataseenzyme (ALP), and also measurement of salivary flow rate(FR) and PH.Results: Statistical analysis of the results revealed the presence of a highly significant difference in the enzymaticactivity between healthy and chronic periodontitis subjects (mild, moderate, severe) with positive correlationbetween the activity of this enzyme and the clinical periodontal parameters, and negative correlation between thisenzyme and Salivary flow rate and pH.Conclusion: From this study it can be concluded that a number of markers show promise as sensitive measures ofdisease and the effectiveness of therapy. At this time enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase ALP, is goodbiochemical markers of screening chronic periodontitis. Also ALP can be used as a monitor for healthy individualsand patients with different periodontal diseases. Furthermore, analysis of saliva may offer a cost effective approachto assessment in controlling progression of chronic periodontitis in large populations


Article
Is A Chronic Periodontitis Patient Likely To Be An ABO Secretor

Author: Basima GH.Ali باسمة غفوري علي
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2016 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 136-140
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Chronic periodontitis is the most prevalent oral inflammatorydisease that affect teeth supporting tissues in response to microbialinfection. A secretor is aterm applied to anyone who secret his/herblood type antigen into their body fluids as saliva in the oralcavity. Forty eight males were participated in the present research.Their age ranging from 35 to 55 years. The clinical periodontalparameters included Plaque index (PLI), Gingival index (GI),bleeding on probing (BOP) and Probing pocket depth (PPD) wereexamined also. .The secretory ABO blood groups from saliva byusing Blood Typing Kit # 11 were assessed. After that the patientswere divided into secretors and non-secretors and the comparisonswere done between them. There was highly significance differencebetween secretory and non-secretory chronic periodontitis patientsin all periodontal parameters (PI, GI and PPD), from the totalsample the Proportional ratio for secretory chronic periodontitisgroup was 58.33% while the proportional ratio for the nonsecretarychronic periodontitis was 41.66%. Group O is thepredominant type of ABO for both groups. Chronic periodontitis ismore likely to occur in secretor ABO more than non-secretorABO.


Article
CAN PERIODONTAL THERAPY REDUCES THE SEVERITY OF ACTIVE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
تاثير علاج امراض اللثة على شدة التهاب المفاصل

Author: HASHIM D. MOUSA هشام موسى
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2016 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 40-48
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Abstract

Background: A significant association between periodontitis and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)has been reported.Aim: This study was done to determine the effect of periodontal treatment on severity of RA.Patients and Methods: This study was done on 60 patients, age 30-60 years, who wererandomly selected from patients attending Duhok Center for Rheumatic Diseases andMedical Rehabilitation. The patients were classified into two groups: Group 1: patients withdiagnosis of RA and periodontal disease who received Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatment(NSPT) during the study and group 2: patients with diagnosis of RA and periodontal diseasewho were monitored during the study but did not receive periodontal treatment. At the initialvisit, periodontal health status of the patients based on clinical attachment loss and probingpocket depth score, and disease activity score were determined. After six month, theperiodontal status and severity of rheumatoid arthritis were rescored and reassessed for bothgroups following the same procedure.Results: Initially, there were no significant difference in periodontal status and severity ofRA for both groups. After 6 months period, there was significant difference in intra-groupanalysis for both groups regarding periodontal status and severity of RA but there was nosignificant difference in inter-group analysis of periodontal status and disease activity score.Conclusion: There is no significant difference in the improvement of severity of RA andperiodontal disease in patients with RA treated with NSPT, compared to control cases withRA.

الهدف: علاقة معنوǽة بین التهاب اللثة و التهاب المفاصل تم طرحها. الهدف من الدراسة لایجاد مدȐ تاثیر علاج امراض اللثة على التقلیل من شدة التهاب المفاصل.طرȂقة الǺحث: دراسة تتاǼعǽة اجرȄت على ٦٠ مرȄض الذین اعمارهم تتراوح بین ال(٣٠-٦٠ (سنة و الذین اختیروا عشوائǽا من المرضى الذین یراجعون مرȞز الروماتیزم والتهاب المفاصل في دهوك . تم تصنیف المرضى الى مجموعتین المجموعة الاولى: المرضى الذین لدیهم التهاب المفاصل و التهاب اللثة والذین استلمواعلاج امراض اللثة خلال الدراسة. المجموعة الثانǽة: المرضى الذین لدیهم التهاب المفاصل و التهاب اللثة والذین لا ǽستلمون اȑ علاج للثة خلال الدراسة.في البداǽة صحة اللثة و الانسجة الداعمة ǽعتمد على قǽاس جیوب اللثة و قǽاس مدȐ فقدان الانسجة الداعمة و قǽاس شدة المرض Ǽعد ستة اشهر لمعرفة تاثیر علاج اللثة على شدة المرض.النتائج: في البداǽة لم ǽلاحظ اȑ فرق معنوȑ بین اللثة و شدة المرض. Ǽعد ستة اشهر هناك فرق معنوȑ ملحوض داخل المجامǽع للمجموعتبن الاولى والثانǽه ǼالنسǼه لحالة اللثة و شدة التهاب المفاصل.الاستنتاجات: في البداǽة لم ǽلاحظ اȑ فرق معنوȑ بین اللثة و شدة المرض. Ǽعد ستة اشهر هناك فرق معنوȑ ملحوض داخل المجامǽع


Article
Assessment of Salivary α-amylase and Flow Rate Levels and Their Correlation with Gingivitis and Severity of Chronic Periodontitis (Part: 1)

Authors: Haider J. Talib حيدر طالب --- Maha A. Ahmed مها احمد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 4 Pages: 115-121
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Periodontal diseases are bacterial infections of the gingiva, bone and attachment fibers that support the teeth and hold them in the jaw. α-amylase is an enzyme, produced mainly by parotid gland and it seems to play a role in maintaining mucosal immunity.Aims of the study: Determine the salivary levels of α-Amylase and flow rate and their correlations with clinical periodontal parameters(Plaque Index , Gingival Index , Bleeding on Probing , Probing Pocket Depth , and Clinical Attachment Level ) and the correlation between α-Amylase with flow rate of study groups that consist of ( patients had gingivitis and patients had chronic periodontitis with different severities(mild ,moderate ,severe) and control group .Materials and Methods: Salivary α-Amylase and flow rate levels with clinical periodontal parameters(Plaque Index , Gingival Index , Bleeding on Probing , Probing Pocket Depth , and Clinical Attachment Level ) were measured from 75 males , age ranged (30-45) years old, that divided into study groups(group of 45chronic periodontitis patients with different severities which sub-grouped into (Mild=15, Moderate=15 and Severe=15), group of 15 patients with gingivitis) and control group comprised 15 subjects had clinically healthy periodontium.Results: The levels of salivary α-amylase in patients had chronic periodontitis were the highest followed by patients had gingivitis .Highly significant differences were demonstrated between each pairs of chronic periodontitis subgroups hence, the highest level at severe chronic periodontitis subgroup patients. Flow rate decreased in gingivitis group and chronic periodontitis with its different severities. Highly significant strong positive correlations were found between α-amylase with clinical periodontal parameters at all groups and subgroups.Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that salivary α-Amylase can help to monitor the progression of the periodontal disease.

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