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Article
Effect of Vitamin E on Sperm Motility and Survival in Chilled-Stored Semen

Author: Ilaf H. Hadi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2016 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-7
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Sperm cells are well equipped with a powerful defense system of antioxidants, but an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the available antioxidant-defenses result in oxidative stress. Therefore, antioxidants are supplemented extracellularly under in vitro conditions. Antioxidants are the main defense factors against oxidative stress induced by free radicals. Vitamin E is believed to be the primary component of the antioxidant system of the spermatozoa and is one of the major membrane protectants against ROS and lipid peroxidation (LPO) attack. It appears to be the first line of defense against the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) contained in the cellular and sub-cellular membrane phospholipids because of its lipid solubility.Objective:The aim of the current study to evaluate effects of supplementing semen extender with vitamin E, at various concentrations (2, 6 and 12 IU/ml) on sperm motility, survival and morphology on the releases of free radicals and antioxidant enzymes within semen.Patients ,Materials and Methods:Twenty two patients were involved in the present study semen samples were obtained, and sperm count was assessed. The antioxidant (vitamin E) was formulated to be tested at three different levels as follow; 2, 6 and 12 IU/ml; Therefore, control and 3 antioxidant-containing extenders were prepared for semen dilution. The sample was divided into 4 aliquots. One volume of semen was added to 5 equal volumes of the designed extender. Extended semen samples (37¢ªC) were gradually cooled to 4¢ªC in the refrigerator and stored for 48 hours. A semen sample was taken out after 48h of storage, then warmed to 37¢ªC and checked for progressive motility, viability and abnormality.Sperm viability was assessed by Eosin Y. (0.5%).Nigrosin (0.1%) staining mixture. A total of 200 sperm were assessed under oil immersion with a high-resolution (X100) objective. Sperm morphology was assessed by Hematoxylin- Eosin satin, at least 200 sperm were scored on randomly chosen field, under oil immersion with a high-resolution (X100) objective.Results:The highest post-thaw motility and sperm survival (44% and 51.7%) 48 h after storage at 4¢ªC (Table 1) were attained (P < 0.01) in the basal diluents containing 6 IU vitamin E. Likewise, the correspondent percentages of live spermatozoa were 59%. Contrariwise, percentage of sperm abnormalities for the previous treatment was 25% significantly (P < 0.05) decrease compares with basal diluents containing 2, 12 IU vitamin E. The lowest (P ¡Ã 0.05) survival (23.5%, Table 1) was found in the basal diluents containing 12 IU vitamin. Beyond 6 IU vitamin E, there appears to exert adverse effects on sperm viability and survival.Conclusions:For the best protection against the increased free radicals production during chilling-preservation of human semen, extenders must contain 6 IU vitamin E per ml. The intensive production of free radicals in seminal plasma was counteracted by the inclusion of vitamin E at the above mentioned concentrations.

Keywords

vitamin E --- sperm --- extender.


Article
The Cytogenetic Effects of Dexamethazone Drug Sperm on Musmusculus
التأثيرات الوراثية الخلوية للعقار Dexamethazone علن ىطف الفئران المختبرية

Authors: Abbas A. Mohammad عباس عبدلله محمد --- Amer H. Abbas عامر حسن عباس --- Safa S. Salman صفا صلاح سلمان
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 5 Part (B) Scientific Pages: 163-168
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to detect the cytogenetic effects of Dexamethazone drug by using head sperm abnormalities test on white mice (Musmusculus) fivety five male mice were used in this study, these animals were divided into five groups. The first was the negative control group while the second was treated with MMC as positive control, and the three groups (45 mice) treated with three doses (0.02, 0.04 ,0.08mg/kg.bw) from dexamethasone drug.The result refer that the dexamethasone cause increasing in many kind of head sperm abnormality (p<0.01).Which indicate the high side effect of this drug on germ cells so we can conclude that this drug may permanently sterilize in the mice.

هدفت هذه الدراسة للكشف عن التأثيرات الوراثية الخلوية للعقار Dexamethazone من خلال أختبار التشوهات في رؤوس النطف للفئران البيض) Musmusculus (أستخدمت) 55 (فأراً ذكراً قسمت الى خمس مجاميع المجموعة الاولى ) 5(فئران أعتبرت كسيطرة سالبة)أعطيت الماء المقطر( والمجموعة الثانية ) 5(فئران أعتبرت كسيطرة موجبة عوملت بالماده المسرطنة المايتومايسين سي في حين قسمت الباقية الى ثلاث مجاميع عوملت كل مجموعة) 55 ( فأراً بالتراكيز التالية 0.02) ، 0.04 ، 0.08 (ملغم/كغم من وزن الجسم وجرى أختبار التشوهات في رؤوس النطف للفترات 55،15،7 ( يوم بعد التجريع وقد أظهرت النتائج زيادة حصول التشوهات في رؤوس النطف بأنواعها المختلفه مقارنة (بالعينة القياسية.)الاحتمالية p<0.01 (مما يشير الى التأثير الجانبي السلبي للعقار على الخلايا الجنسية ،والتي يمكن أن تؤدي الى حالات عقم في الفئران.


Article
Effects of Metformin on Sperm Parameters in Mice: as a model for human being

Authors: Muhammad –Baqir M-R Fakhrildin --- Mohammad 0. Selman --- Ahmed. Kh. Rashid
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2016 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 45-60
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Metformin is anti-hyperglycemic effect due to decrease of hepatic glucose production. Another effect, leading decrease insulin resistance, regarded a safe drug, treatment of choice for overweight.Objective:To investigate the effects of 3 concentration of MF administered orally to male mice on sperm parameters as model for human being.Materials and Methods:In current study, 80 male mice were taken with age ranging between 1.5-2 month and weights ranging between 25-30 grams males classified into four groups of a control group (G1) and treated group (G2, G3 and G4) doses of MF were employed, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mg/mice daily to groups, given orally for 6 weeks and then the animals were scarified.ResultsResults have revealed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in sperm concentration for 3 groups compared to G1 group. Progressive motility (%) appeared with significant difference (P< 0.05) for G3 group as compared to other treated and G1 group. Furthermore, the result illustrated a significant decreased (P< 0.05) in the abnormal sperm morphology for G3 group compared with treated and control. However, sperm agglutination (%) confirmed that the G3 group exhibited highly statistical significant decrease (p≤0.001) compared to G1, G2 and G4.ConclusionsFrom results of the present study, it was concluded that the administration of MF doses reduce sperm concentration .while, 0.4mg dose improve certain sperm parameters.


Article
Assessments of Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Prednisolone Drug in Male Mice

Author: Farha A. Ali Shafi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 71-77
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Prednisolone is a corticosteroids drug widely used for treatment of numerous conditions such as inflammation, asthma, allergies, cancer and immune diseases. The cytotoxic and mutagenic impact of this drug was evaluated in male mice by using mitotic index and sperm head abnormality assays. The study was carried out with thirty six adult male albino mice (Mus musculs).They were divided into the following groups: Treated group which orally given 0.1 mg/Kg of Prednisolone for 30days, the positive control group which take a single dose of cyclophosphamide drug (5mg/kg body weight) for 7 days other group considers as negative control received distilled water only for 30days. The drug did not induce a significant difference in the mean count of mitotic index of bone marrow and germ cells. As well as it doesn't induce a significant increase in sperm head abnormality. It can be concluded that tested dose of Prednisolone failed to induce genotoxic and cytotoxic impact in bone marrow and germ cells.


Article
Estimation of Aromatase Enzyme in Obese Infertile Men

Authors: Ula M. AL-Kawaz --- Nawal K. AL-Ani --- Hikmat F. Wassef
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2016 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 22-31
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Male obesity is associated with physiological changes that can negatively affect male fertility. Obese men have demonstrated a 3-fold increase in the prevalence of oligozoospermia when compared with men with normal Body Mass Index (BMI). Objective: To estimate the role of aromatase enzyme in decreasing sperm parameters in obese infertile men. Subjects, Materials and Methods: Seventy obese infertile male (patients) and twenty obese fertile male (control) are enrolled in this study. Seminal fluid analysis done according to criteria of WHO (2010). Results: A significant negative correlation was found between human cytochrome enzyme and sperm concentration, progressively motile sperm, non-progressively motile sperm, immotile sperm and normal morphology.Conclusion:The present study showed clearly that male obesity negatively impacts fertilitythrough direct association between increased (BMI) and semen parameters. Theresults suggest that increased estrogen as a result of aromatization in the fattytissue, reflected through the increase in human cytochrome enzyme (aromatase),may be an important mechanism for the hypoandrogenemia and altered spermparameters


Article
The Role of Honey Supplementation to Cryopreservation Solution on Human Sperm Parameters and DNA Integrity during Cryopreservation

Author: Rana A. R. Al-Saadi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2016 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 13-21
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Semen cryopreservation is a useful tool for preserving fertility for men involved in ART program who have been diagnosed with cancer and will undergo chemotherapy, radiotherapy or testicular surgery. Objective: The objective of this study to evaluate the effect of honey bee supplemented to cryoprotectant medium on post-thaw sperm DNA integrity ,morphology and round cells. Subjects ,Materials and Methods: Thirty semen samples were collected from 30 infertile patients. After assessment of semen analysis, semen samples were divided into 3 aliquots (0.7ml for each sample) and mixed with 1 ml of cryopreservation solution (G1,control) alone, enriched with 5% honey bee(G2) with 10% honey bee (G3) for cryopreservation. Current study used the acridine orange test to investigate the effect of honey bee in two concentration (5%, 10%) on the integrity of sperm chromatin structure pre- and post cryopreservation. Cryopreservation was done at -196 Co in liquid nitrogen and thawing was performed after six months. Direct swim up technique was used for in vitro sperm preparation post- thawing, sperm parameters were assessed and data were statistically analyzed pre- and post- thawing. Results: The results show there was a significant(P<0.05) increase in the percentage of morphologically normal sperm for all groups post-thawing, particularly for G3 group that was significantly (P<0.05) increased as compared to G1 and G2 groups, In contrast, non-significant differences (P>0.05) were observed between G1 and G2 groups. Sperm DNA fragmentation percentage (%) was significantly(P<0.05) increased in G1 post thawing without any additives as compared to pre-cryopreservation , where as in G2 and G3 sperm DNA fragmentation were increased but not significantly as post-cryopreservation groups. Also the results show that there were no significant differences between G2 and G3 whereas G3 gives better result as compared to G1 with significant differences. Round cells counts for all groups of post cryopreservation were significantly(P>0.05) decreased as compared to pre-cryopreservation. Non significant (P>0.05) differences in the round cells counts among all the groups of post -thawing in spite of G3 group has the lowest mean. Conclusions: From these results we concluded that supplementation of 10% of honey bee to the freezing cryoprotectant medium gives best protection to the morphology and DNA integrity of human sperm.


Article
Evaluation of the Sperm Cervical Mucus Contact test (SCMC) for Assessment of Cervical Factor Infertility

Authors: Faris Naji Abood Al-Hady --- Bushra Gaber Al-Rubaye --- Alaa Omran Al-Hesnawy
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2016 Volume: 24 Issue: 5 Pages: 1206-1213
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background:Cervical mucus is a necessary component of human fertility. Cervical mucus is considered a main barrier for sperms for passing to the upper female reproductive tract, only less than 1% of the spermatozoa in vagina can penetrate the cervical mucus successfully.Objective:Use in vitro sperm cervical mucus contact test (SCMC) to evaluate the fertility of couples complaining from unexplained infertility.Methods:This study was conducted in the Infertility Unit/ Babylon Hospital of Gynecology and Children. Seminal fluid analysis was performed for all 45 studied specimens. SCMC test was performed by aspirating a cervical mucus at 12-14 day cycle of females. One drop of semen mixed with a drop of cervical mucus and covered with cover slide. The slide is then incubated at 37C° for 30 minutes.The sperm concentration and sperm motility due to grading activity were evaluated and compared with semen parameters.Results:The results showed a significant decrease (p<0.001) of sperm concentration and forward sperm motility (grade a & b ), while a significant increase (p<0.001) in grade c and d sperm motility compared to their values in seminal fluid analysis.The correlation (r) study showed significant negative correlation between forward sperm motility a+b with age of females, while a positive correlation between grade c of sperm motility and age of females, and non-significant correlation between all studied sperm parameters with infertility period.Conclusion:It was concluded that sperm SCMC test is necessary for detecting the causes of infertility for Normospermic men.

الخلفية العلمية:يعد مخاط عنق الرحم مكون مهم لخصوبة البشر. يعتبر مخاط عنق الرحم الحاجز الرئيسي لعبور النطف الى الجزء الاعلى من القناة التناسلية الانثوية, فقط أقل من 1% من النطف في المهبل بإمكانها عبور مخاط عنق الرحم بنجاح.الهدف:اجراء فحص اتصال النطف بمخاط عنق الرحم لغرض تقييم خصوبة الازواج الذين يعانون من العقم غير المفسر.طرائق العمل:أجريت الدراسة في وحدة العقم/ مستشفى بابل للولادة والاطفال. تم اجراء فحص السائل المنوي لعينات المني المدروسة والبالغ عددها 45 عينة. تم اجراء فحص اتصال النطف بمخاط عنق الرحم عن طريق سحب مخاط عنق الرحم في اليوم 12-14 من دورة الطمث للزوجات. تم مزج قطرة واحدة من السائل المنوي مع قطرة من مخاط عنق الرحم على شريحة زجاجية وغطيت بغطاء الشريحة ووضعت الشريحة في الحاضنة بدرجة 37م° لمدة نصف ساعة , ومن ثم تم اجراء الفحص المجهري لحساب تركيز النطف والنسبة المئوية لحركة النطف وحسب درجات نشاط النطف وقورنت مع قيمها في فحص السائل المنوي.النتائج:اظهرت النتائج نقص معنوي (p<0.001 ) في تركيز النطف والنطف ذات الحركة الامامية (aوb ), في حين لوحظ زيادة معنوية (p<0.001) في حركة النطف درجة c وd عند مقارنتها بقيمها في فحص السائل المنوي. أما دراسة علاقة الارتباط فقد لوحظ علاقة سلبية معنوية بين حركة النطف بدرجة b+a وعمر الاناث, في حين وجدت علاقة ارتباط موجبة معنوية بين حركة النطف بدرجة c مع عمر الاناث, في حين لم تحصل أي معنوية بعلاقة الارتباط بين معايير النطف ومدة العقم.الاستنتاج:يستنتج من الدراسة بأن اختبار اتصال النطف بمخاط عنق الرحم ضروري لتشخيص حالات العقم للأشخاص الذين يعانون من العقم غير المفسر والذين لديهم معايير نطف طبيعية .


Article
Effect of Tannery Work Exposure on Seminal Fluid Parameters in Iraqi Men

Authors: Alaa N. Mohammed Ali --- Samal H. Kareem --- Noor AL-Huda A. Abdul Hussein --- Ali I. Mohammed
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2016 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 72-86
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Tannery work share exposure to solvents and chemicals , which has been linked with inverse pregnancy and fertility outcomes in human being as reported in some studies .Objective:The current study aimed to through some light on the harmful pollutant chemicals effect on tannery workers reproductive health. Literature in this portion are rare in Iraq, so it had been tested the hypotheses that leather workers suffered from male infertility parameters due to the continuous exposure to chemicals that used in this industry.Subjects, Materials and Methods:This study included 60 subjects can divided into 2 groups: 30 males as study group and 30 males as control group, the period of study was between October 2014 to April 2016, the samples were taken from tanneries workers from various governorates of Iraq.Results:The data clearly showed a significant infertility parameters among these workers represented by low total sperm number, low sperm activity the significance levels were within the value of P ≤0.05 accompanied with a significant high seminal fructose.Conclusion:The main conclusion was that chronic exposure to these chemicals in tannery workers especially Cr VI and N,N-dimethyle form amide may cause male infertility parameters


Article
* Evaluation of interleukins (IL-1α and IL-18)in the sera of patients and associated cases of male infertility in AL-Najaf AL-Ashraf Governorate.
*تقيم مستويات تركيز الحركيات الخلوية (IL-1α,IL-18) في مصول المرضى والمرافقة لحالات العقم لدى الرجال في محافظة النجف الاشرف .

Authors: Kais KhudhairAbdulabbasALhadrawi قيس خضير عبد العباس الحدراوي --- SihamJasim Mohsen AL- Kaabi سهام جاسم محسن الكعبي --- Ihsan Edan .AL-Saimary أحسان عيدان عبد الكريم السيمري
Journal: Al-Kufa University Journal for Biology مجلة جامعة الكوفة لعلوم الحياة ISSN: 20738854 23116544 Year: 2016 Issue: العدد الخاص بالمؤتمر العلمي الدولي الثاني لعلوم الحياة / كلية التربية للبنات / جامعة الكوفة / 2016 Pages: 12-18
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

A total of 328 seminal fluid samples were collected from infertile patients with various types of infertility; Azoospermia, oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia aged between 19 to 60 years, in comparison with control group (Normospermia) for the period from 25/3/2013 to 17/8/2013. The following results had been obtained:- The interleukins (IL-1α and IL-18) concentration were measured in the present study by using enzyme linked Immune sorbent assay (ELISA). The result illustrated that there are highly significant correlation between IL-1α concentration in infertile patients and bacterial infection . There are elevation in IL-1α concentration reached to 35.9 mg/dl in comparison with uninfected infertile patients and control group (2.95 and 2.88) mg/dl respectively . It has been found elevation of IL-18 concentration in infertile patients with bacterial infection reached to 394.15mg/dl and 214.97 and 186.74 mg/dl for uninfected infertile patients and control group respectively with highly significant differences between concentration of IL-18 (P˂0.001) .All of these findings evidenced that there are strong relationships between immunological markers (Immunoglobulin ;IgG , IgM ,IgA and cytokines ;IL-1α and IL-18) that measured in various groups with bacterial infections may be enhanced immunological responses –especially –in infected infertile patients in comparison with other group.

جمعت 328) )عينة من عينات السائل المنوي من الأشخاص الذين يعانون من حالات العقم المختلفة ( اللانطفية Azoospermia,وقلة النطف Oligozoospermia , ووهن النطف Asthenozoospermia , وتشوه النطف Teratozoospermia) تراوحت أعمارهم بين (60-19) سنة والذين كانوا يراجعون مركز الخصوبة / مدينة الصدر الطبية / محافظة النجف الأشرف للمدة 25/3/ 2013وحتى 17/8/2013 , إذ آمكن الحصول على النتائج الموضحة في التالي : وجدت نتائج الدراسة الحالية ارتباطا معنويا عاليا p˂0.001)) بين تراكيز الـ IL-1α في المرضى العقيمين مع الخمج البكتيري إذ لوحظ ارتفاعاً كبيراً في هذه التراكيز بلغتmg/dl (35.9) بالمقارنة مع تراكيزها في مصول المرضى العقيمين بدون خمج بكتيري والبالغة mg/dl (2.95) و مجموعة السيطرة والبالغ فيها تركيز الـ IL-1αmg/dl (2.88).كما وجدت نتائج الدراسة الحالية ارتفاع كبير0.001˂ p.في تركيز الـ IL-18 في مصول المرضى العقيمين مع خمج بكتيري والبالغة mg/dl (394,15) بالمقارنة مع تراكيزه في مصول العقيمين بدون خمج بكتيري والبالغةmg/dl (214,97) و مجموعة السيطرة البالغ mg/dl (186,74) وجدت الدراسة علاقة قوية بين زيادة مستوى تركيز الكلوبيولينات المناعية و الحركيات الخلوية في مصول المرضى والأصحاء وحصول حالات الخمج المسبب الى العقم لدى الرجال مقارنة بالعقيمين بدون التهابات ومجموعة السيطرة .


Article
التغييرات الحاصلة في معايير نطف ذكور الأرانب المختبرية نتيجة التجريع بتراكيز تصاعدية لمستخلص التربين لبذور نبات الرشاد

Authors: ندى سعد ناجي الطائي --- فارس ناجي عبود الهادي
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2016 Volume: 24 Issue: 6 Pages: 1501-1510
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The study had been performed at college of science/Babylon university, the study included 60 male rabbits. The study aimed to determine the effect of extract of Rashid seeds Lepidium sativum in the sperm parameters of adult male rabbits. The In Vivo study include the estimation of the medium effect dose (MED50) for terpen extraction by using Dose-Response Curve. The mean of MED50 was 53.3 mg /kg body weight of terpen extraction. The effect dose of terpene revealed insignificant increase (P in sperm parameters, which included the rate of sperm concentration in the testis and epididymis tail, and the average number of sperm in one gram of testicular and sperm motility percent, grade activity, and sperm viability percent of epipdidymis caudal, and non-significant decreased (P> 0.05) in the abnormal sperm morphology percent in the epipdidymus caudal.

أجريت هذه الدراسة في كلية العلوم, جامعة بابل, وقد شملت اختيار 30 ذكرا" أرنبا". واستهدفت الدراسة معرفة تأثير مستخلص بذور الرشاد Lepidium sativum في معايير نطف ذكور الأرانب البيض, إذ شملت الدراسة داخل الجسم الحي تقدير الجرعة المؤثرة للنصف لمستخلص التربين, باستخدام منحني الجرعة-الاستجابة, وقد بلغ المعدل الحسابي للتركيز المؤثر 53.3 ملغم/كغم من وزن الجسم لمستخلص التربين. أظهر التركيز المؤثر لمستخلص التربيني زيادة غير معنوية (P ) في معايير النطف, والتي شملت معدل تركيز النطف في الخصية وذيل البربخ, ومعدل عدد النطف في غرام واحد من الخصية والنسبة المئوية للنطف المتحركة, ودرجة نشاط النطف والنسبة المئوية لحيوية النطف لذيل البربخ, وأنخفاض غير معنوي (P ) في النسبة المئوية للنطف اللاسوية في ذيل البربخ.

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