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Stresses and Displacements Analyses around Tunnel Opening Under Water Body Using Finite Element Method (FEM) in Baghdad City/Middle of Iraq
تحليل الاجهادات والهبوط حول فتحة نفق تحت جسم مائي باستخدام طريقة العناصر المحددة (FEM) في مدينة بغداد/ وسط العراق

Authors: Hamed H. Abdullah حامد حسن عبد الله --- Ameer H. Al-Saffar أمير حيدر الصفار --- Raed S. Jasim رائد ساعي جاسم
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2016 Volume: 57 Issue: 2B Pages: 1267-1279
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In this study, the stresses and displacement around a tunnel opening under water body in Baghdad city, middle of Iraq, during excavation and lining are discussed. For this purpose, the finite element method (FEM) was adopted as an effective approach to analyze the problem using (SIGMA/W) program. The research includes the study of the behavior of soil due to excavation of a tunnel by calculating the displacements and stresses in three positions of the tunnel (crown, wall, and invert) during the various stages of construction. The surface settlement is also studied. The finite element analyses were carried out Using (Elastic- plastic) and (linear elastic) models for the soil and the concrete liner respectively.

في هذه الدراسة تم تحليل الاجهادات والازاحة خلال مراحل الحفر والتبطين لنفق تحت جسم مائي في مدينة بغداد وسط العراق. تم اعتماد طريقة العناصر المحددة (FEM) كمنهج فعال لتحليل تصرف النفق باستخدام برنامج (Sigma/W). وتضمن البحث دراسة سلوك التربة نتيجة حفر النفق عن طريق حساب الازاحات والاجهادات في مواقع ثلاثة وهي (Invert, Wall, Crown) من النفق خلال الحفر والتبطين.أجريت التحليلات باستخدام العناصر المحددة بأعتماد نموذجين وهما اللدن مرن والمرونة الخطية لتمثيل التربة ومادة بطانة النفق على التوالي.


Article
Malondialdehyde in preeclampsia

Authors: Suha Hussien Hayawii --- Eaman Hussein Raoof --- Takwa Nehad Mohammad
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 1-4
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Preeclampsia is multiorgan disorder, and important cause of maternal, fetal, neonatal morbidity and mortality ,It is characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Lipid peroxidation is an important factor in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Objective: To study the relation of lipid paroxidation which is measured by plasma Malondialdehyde (MDA) to preeclampsia. Design: Case –control study. Setting: The study was carried out at the Al-Imamain Al-Kadhemain Medical City/ Department of obstetrics and gynecology. Methods: The study included 70 women. We studied 30 patient preeclamptic women 30 apparently healthy women, 10 apparently healthy non pregnant ladies. Their age range between 18-30 year ,gestational age is between 24-40week /primigravida/non smoker or have evidence of nutritional deficiencies. Lipid peroxidation assessed by (Fong etal)method ,and it is end products,particularly Malondialdehyde . Results: We observed that serum malondialdehyde were significantly increased in preeclamptic women (P<0.000) as compared to that of normotensive pregnant women. Conclusion: Increased levels of lipid peroxidation product –MDA may contribute to pathophysiology of preeclampsia.


Article
The Effect of In-situ Stress on Hydraulic Fractures Dimensions

Authors: Mohammed Al Humairi --- Hassan Abdul Hadi حسن عبد الهادي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2016 Volume: 17 Issue: 4 Pages: 113-123
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Understanding of in-situ stress profiles and orientations plays a vital role in designing a successful hydraulic fracturing treatment. This paper is an attempet to examine the effect of lithology and in situ stress on geometery of hydraulic fractures. A hydraulic fracturing design simulator software called FracproPT with various capabilities for designing most of hydraulic fracture was used for simulate and optimize the hydraulic fracturing. For studying purpose, three different cases of stress gradient contrast between different formations are considered in this study (0.4, 0.5 and 0.75 psi/ft). The results obtained from the simulator showed that lithologies surrounding the pay zone have an effect on the fracture’s height, width, and length. Also, Maximum height is achieved when the stress contrast between the pay zone and the surrounding layers is very small.


Article
Role of Oxidative Stress and Some Antioxidant Enzymes in Male Infertility

Author: Hazim Ismaeel AL-Ahmed
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 68-72
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

More than half of all infertile male suffer from oxidative stress. Seminal plasma have antioxidant mechanisms to suppression the reactive oxygen species. The aims of the project was to evaluate the levels of protein peroxidase, lipid peroxidase and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase in blood sample of infertile male and control group. Samples were collected from 50 infertile men and 25 apparently healthy men to measure the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers: protein peroxidase (PPO), lipid peroxidase (LPO) and antioxidant enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD). Results show highly significant differences in patients with male factor infertility in PPO and LPO (76.48+9.51; 58.22+5.33) compared with control group (54.72+8.63; 39.05+4.74) respectively. While GPX and SOD enzymes levels show significant differences in patients with infertility (8.01+1.04; 12.26+2.17) compared with control group (11.23+1.74; 18.26+3.24) respectively. In conclusion oxidative stress was associated with infertility and this may help for treatment of male factor infertility by using proper antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin E and selenium.


Article
Effect of adding Betaine to the diet inWater Intake Pattern of Japanese quail exposed to heat stress
تأثير اضافة البيتين Betaineالى العليقة في نمط استهلاك الماء لطير السمان الياباني المعرض للإجهاد الحراري

Authors: عقيل يوسف الشكري --- فاضل رسول الخفاجي --- علي فرعون الجبوري
Journal: Euphrates Journal of Agriculture Science مجلة الفرات للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 38752072 Year: 2016 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 64-73
Publisher: Al-kasim University جامعة القاسم الخضراء

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Abstract

This study was conducted at the poultry farm -Animal Department of Resources College Agriculture -AlQasim Green University, from 17/10/2014 To 4/12/2014 to investigate the effect of supplement Betaine to the diet on Water Intake Pattern during entire day and 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of Japanease quailthat exposed to heat stress.The trial was started at the age of 8 daysandthree hundred unsexed birds were used . Birds were raised in cages and randomly distributed into 5 treatments with 3 riplicates for each treatment and , 20 birds eachriplicate. Birds were exposed to the cyclic temperature (29-36.5-31.5)˚C . Treatments were as follows:T1: Control treatment (without supplementation) T2 : Diet supplemented with 500 mg betaine /kg diet . T3 : Diet supplemented with 1000 mg betaine /kg diet .T4 : Diet supplemented with 1500 mg betaine /kg diet .T5 : Diet supplemented with 2000 mg betaine /kg diet .The results:showed thatWater consumption for 24 hours by birds of T5 at 3rd and 4th weeks was significantly higher as compared with other treatments whileat 5th and 6th weeks, birds of T5 were superior compared with those of T1 and T2 .

اجريت هذه الدراسة في حقل الطيور الداجنة التابع لقسم الثروة الحيوانية , كلية الزراعة / جامعة القاسم الخضراء . للمدة من 2014/10/17 ولغاية 2014/12/4 , للتحري عن تأثير البيتين المضاف الى العليقة في نمط استهلاك الماء خلال يوم كامل وللأسابيع 3 , 4 ,5 و6 لطائر السمان الياباني المعرض للإجهاد الحراري . بدأت التجربة من عمر 8 يوم واستخدم في التجربة 300 طائر سمان ياباني غير مجنس , ربيت الطيور في بطاريات , وقسمت الطيور عشوائيا الى 5 معاملات بواقع 3 مكرر لكل معاملة و20 طير لكل مكرر , عرضت الطيور الى درجة حرارة دورية ( 29- 36.5-(31.5 م˚ والمعاملات على النحو الاتي : (T1) : عليقة اساسية من دون اضافة البيتين . ( T2) : عليقة اساسية + بيتين بتركيز 500 ملغم / كغم علف .(T3) : عليقة اساسية + بيتين بتركيز 1000 ملغم / كغم علف . (T4) : عليقة اساسية + بيتين بتركيز 1500 ملغم / كغم علف. (T5) : عليقة اساسية + بيتين بتركيز 2000 ملغم / كغم علف . وكانت النتائج على النحو الاتي : حصل تفوق معنوي لطيور المعاملة T5 على باقي المعاملات في استهلاك الماء ليوم كامل في الاسبوعين 3 و4 وتفوقت المعاملة T5 على المعاملتين T1 و T2 في الاسبوعين 5 و6 .


Article
FRACTURE PROPERTIES OF LOCAL ASPALT CONCRETE
خواص الكسر للخرسانة الاسفلتية المحلية

Authors: HAMED M. H. AL-HAMDOU حامد محمود حمدو --- ABDUL-HAQ HADI ABED-ALI عبد الحق هادي عبد علي --- MOHAMMED Z. MOHAMEDMEKI . محمد زهير محمد مكي
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2016 Volume: 22 Issue: 7 Pages: 118-141
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The local asphalt concrete fracture properties represented by the fracture energy, J-integral, and stress intensity factor are calculated from the results of the three point bending beam test made for pre notches beams specimens with deformation rate of 1.27 mm/min. The results revealed that the stress intensity factor has increased by more than 40% when decreasing the testing temperature 10˚C and increasing the notch depth from 5 to 30mm. The change of asphalt type and content have a limited effect of less than 6%.

خلال هذه البحث تم دراسة خصائص التصدع للخرسانة الاسفلتية المحلية المتمثلة بطاقة التصدع؛-Integral J و معامل شدة الاجهاد والتي تم احتسابها لنماذج العتبات المسبقة الشق من خلال فحصها باستخدام فحص الانثناء وبسرعة تشوه مقدارها 1.27mm/min. اوضحت الدراسة بان معامل شدة الاجهاد قد ارتفع اكثر من 40% بخفض درجة حرارة الفحص 10 درجات مئوية وبزيادة عمق الشق المسبق (pre notch) من 5mm الى 30mm بينما كان لتغييرنسبة ونوع الاسفلت تأثير محدود لم يتجاوز 6%.


Article
Effect of Exam Stress on Salivary Interleukin-6 level in Healthy Students

Authors: Ban Jaber Edan --- Seenaa Badr Mohammed --- Ali Jasim Mhaimeed Al-Sultani --- Maan Abdulameer Kitab --- et al.
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 4 Pages: 786 -790
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Cytokines are important small protein molecules one of them is Interleukin-6 (IL-6) .Many tissues secretes IL6 like activated leukocytes .In immune system , IL6 plays main role in production of acute-phase proteins like C- reactive protein . Human labial salivary glands, contain Messenger RNA for IL-6 .Aim of study was to demonstrate the effect of exam stress onsalivary concentrations of interleukin- 6 (IL-6) in healthy secondary school students . Salivary specimens were collected from thirteen male students before and after final academic exam. Cytokine levels were measured by commercial enzyme linked immunoassay. Salivary IL-6 was insignificantly higher after final exam when compared with its level before exam. (P >0.05).students after exam have increased level of inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) in their saliva. TheIL6 level may be used for monitoring the stress.

Keywords

Saliva --- interleukin -6 --- IL-6 --- stress


Article
STUDY THE ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF TOMATO EXTRACT IN OXIDATIVE STRESSED RATS.
دراسة التأثير المضاد للتاكسد لمستخلص الطماطم ضد الإجهاد ألتأكسدي في الجرذان

Author: Haider H. Humaish
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: 18138497 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 66-80
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Tomato, is today the most popular garden vegetable in worldwide, because of its high consumption. Tomato contain a variety of phytochemical , such as lycopene , flavonoids, glycosides and other chemical constituents that have been beneficial protective effect. The present study carried out to evaluate the effect of two different doses (2 mg/kg BWand 4 mg/kg BW) of tomato extract against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in albino rats. Thirty two adult male albino rats randomly divided into four equal groups were used in this study, the results revealed that administration of 0.75% H2O2 in drinking water (groupI) produced significant decline of antioxidant enzymes ( superoxide dismutase (SOD) , glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) ) and serum albumin concentration , with significant elevation of lipid peroxidation rate by estimation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and peroxynitrite radical (ONOO). Also, H2O2 caused significant increase in serum concentration of alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin . On the other hand the animals treated with H2O2 plus 4 mg/kg BW of tomato extract (groupIII) showed significant increase of SOD, GSH, CATand albumin with significant reduction of MDA ,ONOO, ALT, AST, ALP, and bilirubin comparing with control group. Depending on the above oxidant and antioxidant markers, it seems that 4 mg/kg BW. of tomato extract exert beneficial action protect against H2O2 induced oxidative stress in rats.

Keywords

Oxidative stress --- GSH --- Tomato extract --- ALT


Article
The effect of physical effort for football on some kidney outputs players Diwaniyah club football season 2015-2016
تأثير جهد بدني لمباراة كرة قدم على بعض نواتج الكلى للاعبي نادي الديوانية لكرة القدم للموسم 2015-2016

Author: M.Dr. Nawar Abdullah al-Lami م.د. نوار عبد الله اللامي
Journal: JOURNAL OF SPORT SCIENCES مجلة علوم الرياضة ISSN: 20746032 Year: 2016 Volume: 8 Issue: 24 Pages: 165-173
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Abstract The use of tests and measurements important need to develop the performance of the player football in order to determine the most prominent real causes of cases of positive and negative for the players in order to promote the positive cases and the development of negative situations Among the most prominent of these tests is that measure physical effort and its impact on the body's systems, with the use of a researcher experimental method pretest design and post players on the Diwaniya sports club football through part of the outputs of the output device after the test voltage and the voltage before.Among the most prominent results of the tests is the presence of some significant changes and others are not significant. Where were the variables (red blood cells and proteins) Significant results gave either (ph blood glucose and bilirubin) the results were not significant We therefore conclude from it that the physical effort of some responses in kidney happen.

ملخص البحث ان استخدام الاختبارات والقياسات ضرورة مهمة لتطوير اداء اللاعب بكرة القدم وذلك للوقوف على ابرز المسببات الحقيقية للحالات الايجابية والسلبية للاعبين من اجل تعزيز الحالات الايجابية وتطوير الحالات السلبية ومن ابرز هذه الاختبارات هي التي تقيس الجهد البدني وتأثيره على اجهزة الجسم اذ استخدام الباحث المنهج التجريبي بتصميم ذي المجموعة الواحدة في الاختبار القبلي والبعدي على لاعبي نادي الديوانية الرياضي بكرة القدم من خلال اختبار جزء من نواتج جهاز الاخراج بعد الجهد وقبل الجهد. ومن أبرز نتائج الاختبارات هي وجود بعض المتغيرات معنوية والبعض الاخر غير معنوي اذ كانت المتغيرات (كريات الدم الحمراء والبروتينات) اعطت نتائج معنوية اما (ph الدم والكلوكوز والبيليروبين) كانت النتائج غير معنوية لذلك نستنتج منه ان الجهد البدني يحدث بعض الاستجابات في الكلى.


Article
Theoretical and Experimental Stress Analysis of Cam With Simple Harmonic Motion
تحليل الإجهادات نظرياً وعملياً للحدبات ذات الحركة التناغمية البسيطة

Author: Aveen Ahmed Abdulkareem أفين أحمد عبد الكريم
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2016 Volume: 22 Issue: 1 Pages: 198-214
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Cams are considered as one of the most important mechanical components that depends the contact action to do its job and suffer a lot of with drawbacks to be predicted and overcame in the design process. this work aims to investigate the induced cam contact and the maximum shear stress energy or (von misses) stresses during the course of action analytically using Hertz contact stress equation and the principal stress formulations to find the maximum stress value and its position beneath the contacting surfaces. The experimental investigation adopted two dimensions photoelastic technique to analyze cam stresses under a plane polarized light. The problem has been numerically simulated using Ansys software version 15 as FE solver and depending on Lagrange and Penalty contact algorithm. The effect of cam geometry, characterized by some parameters such as follower radius, face width, rise and return angles, and modulus of elasticity on the contact stress is investigated aiming to minimize the induced stresses.

تعتبر الحدبات كواحدة من اهم العناصر الميكانيكية التي تعتمد فعل التلامس للقيام بوظيفتها وتعاني العديد من المعوقات التي يجب تنبأها والتغلب عليها في عمليات التصميم. يهدف هذا العمل لتحري اجهادات التلامس واجهادات طاقة القص العظمى خلال العمل نظريا باستعمال معادلة اجهادات التماس لهيرتز وعلاقات الاجهادات الاساسية لايجاد قيمة الاجهاد الاعظم وموقعة تحت سطوح التلامس . التحري العملي اعتمد تقنية المرونة الضوئية ثنائية البعد لفحص اجهادات الحدبة تحت الضوء مستوي الاستقطاب. تمت محاكات المشكلة عدديا باستخدام برنامج Ansys النسخة الخامسة عشر كمحلل عناصر محدد بأعتماد خوارزمية (Lagrange and penalty) . تم تحري تأثير شكل الحدبة , مميزا بمجموعة من العوامل كنصف قطر الحدبة وعرض الوجه وزوايا الصعود والنزول ومعامل المرونة , على إجهاد التماس بهدف تقليل الاجهادات المتولدة .

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