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Article
CREATE AND EVALUATE A TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM IN THE CONDITIONER IN PELLETED FEED.

Author: Dhia AL-Chalabi
Journal: Diyala Journal of Agricultural Sciences مجلة ديالى للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 20739524 Year: 2016 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 44-58
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

This project has been conducted in New Zealand in 1999, as a requirement for feed production companies to control salmonella in feed by Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAF). Feed is the most important factor in poultry production enterprises because of its impact on cost and health. It takes the feed about two minutes to reach the 80 ºC. The feed could be recycled if didn’t reach the 82-83 ºC planned. Steam temperature was stable and around 130 ºC. This temperature could be optimized to reduce energy cost without affecting the pelleting process through tracing the feed in temperature (ingredients) one can say, that some of the steam is entering to the feed-in tube and raising the feed-in temperature to 46-50 ºC. The regular incoming feed temperature was between 20-25 ºC. The die temperature was 92 ºC, and cooler temperature for the feed out was 20 ºC


Article
Modelling of Carburization Parameters Process for Low Carbon Steel

Authors: Abbas Khammas Hussein --- Laith Kais Abbas --- Jamal Jalal Dawood --- Nadeen Jaafar Ismae
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 6 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1069-1079
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This paper representsthe carburization parameters for steel (1020) using Desirability Function Analysis-DFA. The experiments were conducted using Taguchi (L9) orthogonal array. Carburization parameters such as carburization temperature, carburization time and tempering temperature were optimized by multi - response considerations depending onmicrohardnessand were rate measurements. The optimal carburizing parameters had been determined by composite desirability value obtained from desirability function analysis while significant contribution of parameter was determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The analyses results showed that optimal combination for higher hardness and lower wear rate were at (A2=920 oC, B2= 3 hours and C3=120 oC). Confirmation test was also conducted to validate the test results. Mathematical models for composite desirability, microhardness and rate wear were determined. Experimental results showed that the carburization performance can be improved effectively through desirability approach.


Article
Calculating the Temperature dependence Radiative recombination rate Coefficients for ions

Author: AlaaA.Khalaf
Journal: journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly) مجلة القادسية للعلوم الصرفة (فصلية). ISSN: 19972490 Year: 2016 Volume: 1 Issue: 21 Pages: 90-96
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Radiative recombination rate coefficients (RRC) are presented for several ions with open and closedshells, ( H I, He I, He II, N V, N VI, N VII) . The temperature of electron range 10-109 K is considered.The calculations have been performed in the framework of analytic fit parameters formula with noconsideration of relativistic effects. Our results of RRC compared with the theoretical data available as afunction of electron temperature, and the agreement was very good. Some data which had been dependedshowed a peak at high temperatures because of the influence of autoionizing resonance.


Article
Synthesis and Refractive Index Characterization of EBBA Liquid Crystal

Authors: Soror A.Mahdi --- Suha M.Khorsheed --- Hussein T. Salloom --- Ahmed K. Ahmed
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2016 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 98-103
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

In this paper, the Nematic Liquid Crystal (NLC) N-(4'-ethoxybenzylidene)-4-n-butylaniline (EBBA) with transition temperature range between (36-80) ℃ was prepared and identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).The prepared compound (EBBA) was used to calculate the values of refractive index at different temperatures and measurements were done in the temperature range (25-80)℃. The result shows, the values of refractive index values decreases with increase temperature in thermal range.

في هذا البحث تم تحضير المركب البلوري السائل (النيماتي) N-(4-ايثوكسي بنزلدين)-4-ن-بيوتل انيلين (EBBA) الذي يكون الطور البلوري السائل النيماتي له بدرجة حرارة انتقالية بمدى (080م-036م) وتشخيص التركيب الكيمياائي له باستخدام مطياف الاشعة تحت الحمراء FTIR.المادة البلورية السائلة (EBBA) تم استخدامها في حساب قيم معامل الانكسار بدرجات حرارية مختلفة والقياسات اجريت عند المدى الحراري (080م-025م). النتائج توضح ان قيم معامل الانكسار تتناقص بزيادة درجة الحرارة.


Article
Determination of Mono-crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Module Parameters Using Three Different Methods
حساب عوامل لوح السلكون الفوتوفولتائي احادي التبلور باستخدام ثلاث طرق مختلفة

Author: Emad Talib Hahsim عماد طالب هاشم
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2016 Volume: 22 Issue: 7 Pages: 92-107
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

For modeling a photovoltaic module, it is necessary to calculate the basic parameters which control the current-voltage characteristic curves, that is not provided by the manufacturer. Generally, for mono crystalline silicon module, the shunt resistance is generally high, and it is neglected in this model. In this study, three methods are presented for four parameters model. Explicit simplified method based on an analytical solution, slope method based on manufacturer data, and iterative method based on a numerical resolution. The results obtained for these methods were compared with experimental measured data. The iterative method was more accurate than the other two methods but more complexity. The average deviation of the iterative method not more than 5% of current- voltage values with the corresponding experimental data. The average deviation for the other two method 9.3% for slope method and 7.9% for simplifies method.

من الضروري لنمذجة اللوح الفوتوفولتائي حساب العوامل الاساسية التي تحكم بمنحنيات التيار- الفولتية والتي لا تعطى من قبل الجهة المصنعة. تم انجاز عمل جاد لحساب لحساب تلك العوامل. بشكل عام ، مقاومة التوالي تكون عالية بالنسبة للوح الشمسي نوع السيليكون احادي التبلور وفي هذا النموذج يمكن اهمالها. وبهذه الدراسة تم استخدام ثلاث طرق .الطريقة الضمنية المبسطة وتعتمد على الحل التحليلي، طريقة الميل وتعتمد على بيانات المصنع وطريقة التكرار وتعتمد على حل عددي.تمت مقارنة النتائج المستخلصة من الطرق المذكورة مع نتائج القياسات المختبرية وكانت طريقة التكرار الاكثر دقة ولكن الاكثر تعقيدا من بين الطرق الثلاث. معدل الانحراف لطريقة التكرار لم تكن اكثر من 5% لقيم التيار – الفولتية مقارنة مع القيم العملية. معدل الانحراف للطرقتين الاخرى كانت 9.3% لطريقة الميل و 7.9% لطريقة للطريقة الضمنية المبسطة.


Article
The Effect of Annealing Temperature on Structural & Optical Properties of Nanocrystalline SnO2 Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Technique

Authors: Selma M.H. AL-Jawad --- Abdulhussain K. Elttayf --- Amel S. Sabr
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 4 Part (B) Scientific Pages: 490-498
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

In this work, studying the structural and optical Nano crystalline SnO2 thin films grown on cleaned glass substrates by using sol- gel (dip coating) technique. It is worthy to say that the thickness of the deposited film was of the order of (300-400)nm . The films are annealed in air at , 300◦C, 400◦C and 500◦C temperatures for 60 minutes. The films that are analyses by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) , atomic force microscopy and optical absorption spectroscopy technique. The size of crystalline was observed, as well as, so as to increase with increasing annealing temperature . XRD analysis reveals that the whole films are polycrystalline with tetragonal structure with preferred orientation of (110),(101),(200) and (211) . The increase of annealing temperature leads to raise the diffraction peaks and decrease of FWHM. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the average grain size was increase with the increase in annealing temperature. Spectra of transmittance and absorbance was recorded at wavelengths range (300-1000)nm .The optical properties showed high transmission at visible regions. The optical band gap energy was found to be (3.5 , 3.75 , 3,87) eV at annealing temperature (300,400,500 )°C respectively.


Article
Temperature Effect on the Effective Secondary Emission Coefficient for He and Ne Gases
ﺛﺆﻤﻟا يﻮﻧﺎﺜﻟا ثﺎﻌﺒﻧﻻا ﻞﻣﺎﻋ ﻰﻠﻋ ةراﺮﺤﻟا ﺔﺟرد ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ نﻮﯿﻨﻟاو مﻮﯿﻠﯿﮭﻟا يزﺎﻐﻟ

Author: Salman Hamza Hussein ﻦﯿﺴﺣ ةﺰﻤﺣ نﺎﻤﻠﺳ
Journal: journal of al-qadisiyah for pure science(quarterly) مجلة القادسية للعلوم الصرفة (فصلية). ISSN: 19972490 Year: 2016 Volume: 1 Issue: 21 Pages: 77-89
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

The relation between the effective secondary emission coefficient (ESEC)  andtemperature has been studied for He and Ne atoms. So we are studied the variation of withreduced electric field to the gas pressureE p between electrodes at different temperature (T ) for each gas.It has beenfound that the ESEC increase with ( E p ) at constant (T ) anddecreases with temperature at constant ( E ).

م دراسة العلاقة بین عامل الانبعاث الثانوي المؤثر  ودرجة الحرارة لغازي الھیلیوم والنیون. كذلك تم دراسة تغیر  مع النسبة بین الجھد المسلط بین قطبین وضغط الغاز p E عند درجات حرارة مختلفة لكل غاز. وجد بان عامل الانبعاث الثانوي المؤثریزداد مع النسبة p E عند ثبوت درجة الحرارة T ویتناقص مع زیادة درجة الحرارة عند ثبوت المجال الكھربائي المسلط ().ﻦﯿﺒﻄﻘﻟا ﻦﯿﺑ


Article
VERVICATION OF PROCESS DESIGN OF AN EXTENDED AERATION FOR AL-SHURQAT WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
التحقق من تصميم عملية التهوية المطولة لمحطة معالجة مياه مجاري الشرقاط

Author: Mohammed Saiwan Shamkhi
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 48-58
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The aim of this paper is to verify the treatment process design of Shourqat wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), taking into account the high yearly average temperature that occurs in Iraqi territory. An experimental observed yield (Yobs) has been detected in the laboratory and verified at different temperatures by application of GPS-X model. This paper described the equations of the process design for WWTP. Sludge age (θc) has been correlated to the observed yield (Yobs) and to the mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) showing that a valid correspondence has been found between the θc calculate by dividing the total biomass present in the oxidation basin by the total biomass wasted and the θc calculated with taking into account Y, MLSS and BOD removed. An experimental value of the observed yield (Yobs) has been detected, with high values ranging from 0.56 to 0.75.

يهدف البحث الى التحقق من تصاميم محطة معالجة مياه المجاري في الشرقاط أخذين بنظر الأعتبار التغييرات الكبيرة في معدلاتدرجات الحرارة خلال السنة. تم قياس Yobs مختبريا واجري التحقق منه في درجات الحرارة المختلفة بأستخدام برنامج GPX-X . كذلكاستعرض البحث معادلات تصميم محطة المعالجة. في هذا البحث ظهر تطابق وثيق بين عمر الحمأة θc المحسوب من تقسيم MLSS على Qwوبين θc المحسوب مع الأخذ بنظر الأعتبار MLSS و Y و BOD المزال. قيمة Yobs التي تم الحصول عليها مختبريا كانت تتراوح بين 0.56الى 0.75 .


Article
The oxidation reduction potential distribution along Diyala river within Baghdad city

Authors: Safaa Nasser Hassan Al-Hussaini --- Adnan Abbas Ali Al-Samawi
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2016 Volume: 2 Issue: 4 Pages: 54-66
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The reach of the Diyala river just before its confluence with Tigris River south of the capital city Baghdad was taken as a case-study. Its aquatic physicochemical characteristics were investigated and its pollution status was assessed in this study according to ORP (oxidation reduction potential) levels and other parameters. This segment of Diyala river was exposed to multiple points of treated and raw municipal waste water discharges, represented by the outfalls and bypass of three wastewater treatment plants of Al-Rustimiyah.Diyala River's aquatic parameters represented by DO, BOD, COD, ORP, pH, and others were monitored and measured at nine stations along the river reach for a period of one year to assess seasonal variations. It was found that station two, which lies downstream the bypass of R3, was the most polluted station among all.With regard to the ORP concentrations, the river was classified as anoxic conditions during winter to anaerobic conditions during summer from station two and downstream. Furthermore, it has been reached that the strong odor observed on site especially during summer, might be attributed to the formation of acid and methane production that goes with the obtained low levels of ORP.The COD and BOD5 levels classified the river as medium to low strength untreated wastewater during summer at station two and the downstream stations respectively.The effect of temperature on DO and ORP was found to be reversed, while a positive nonlinear relation combined the DO concentrations with ORP levels.The COD/BOD ratio of the river was found to be 1.2, which indicates the presence of biodegradable matter at high concentrations.A statistical model relating DO concentration to BOD, ORP, EC and temperature was established. It was proved to be accurate.To sum up, Diyala River at the reach of interest was found heavily polluted. The need for an urgent makeover of the water body characteristics of the river via mechanically assisted methods was found necessary to restore its original usages and ensure public health safety.

Keywords

Diyala River --- ORP --- DO --- COD --- BOD --- Temperature


Article
The impact temperature of substrate on the basic and optical properties of CuO slender movies acquired by shower pyrolysis technique
تأثيردرجة حرارة الاساس على الخواص التركيبيه والبصريه لغشاء رقيق أوكسيد النحاس المرسب بطريقة رش الانحلال الحراري

Authors: Mohammed. A. Al-Hur.Kahdim --- Ahmed. Jumah Mhawes
Journal: journal of kerbala university مجلة جامعة كربلاء ISSN: 18130410 Year: 2016 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 140-146
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

In this research the structural and optical Properties of copper oxides, Cu2O and CuO semiconductor films had been concentrated on, which arranged with 300 nm thickness by spray pyrolysis method at 200, 250 and 300oC substrate temperatures on glass substrates from 0.2M (CuCl2•2H2O) broke down in refined water. The phase existed were studied by the X-ray diffraction analysis and their effect on the optical properties.

تمت دراسة الخواص التركيبيه والبصريه لمركب شبه الموصل كبريتيد النحاس وكبريتات النحاس (cu2o, cuo) المرسب على الزجاج غشاء رقيق بسمك nm 300 بطريقة رش الانحلال الحراري لدرجات حرار للاساس Cᵒ(200و 250 300) الاطوار التي وجدت من خلال حيود الاشعه السينيه وكذلك تأثير درجات الحراره الاساس على الخواص البصريه للغشاء

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