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Article
Incomplete Vaccination among Children below Two Years in a sample of urban Primary Health Care Centers at Al-Karkh Baghdad City

Authors: Lamia Dhia AlDeen --- Lena Mustafa Abbas
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2016 Volume: 29 Issue: 3 Pages: 139-145
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Vaccines are among the most cost effective tools available for preventing some infectious diseases and their possible complications and squeals. A target of (90%) of immunization coverage is necessary for sustained control of vaccine preventable diseases.Objectives of The Study: To determine the reasons of incomplete vaccination as well as to identify factors that contributed to missed opportunities for vaccination among children less than two years of age in Baghdad city. Method: A cross sectional study with an analytic element, was conducted in the period from the beginning of March to the end of July 2015. A convenient sample of. Data were collected from a sample of children attending the Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs) in Al-Karkh Baghdad city for immunization by a direct interview with their mothers using a special structural questionnaire sheets, the immunization card was utilized to check for completeness of immunization schedule for each child.Results: A sample of 820 children was collected. The proportion of incomplete vaccination was (22.3%). Males showed higher proportions of incomplete vaccination (55.7%) than females (44.3%). There were direct and indirect reasons for incomplete vaccination, the main direct reasons were Social events and busy family (63.4%), change the place of residence; internal and external displacement (35.5%), and child illness (24.6%). Indirect reasons include low mother`s and father`s education, and large family size. Missed opportunities for vaccination represent (15.8%) and were mainly due to sick child or unavailable vaccine. (Children might have more than one reason)Conclusion: The study revealed that the percentage of vaccination was higher than that found in Iraq at 2015, but still did not reach the level of the developed countries.


Article
IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO HEPATITIS B VACCINE IN END STAGE RENAL DISEASES

Author: Jawad K. Manuti جواد كاظم مناتي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2016 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 62-66
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:End stage renal diseases patients have lower seroconversion rates compared with the subjects with intact renal function. Moreover, even after the completion of vaccination schedule anti-hepatitis B titers of responder who kept on dialysis, patients are low and decline logarithmically with time.Objectives:To determine the response of patients with end stage renal disease undergone hemodialysis to hepatitis B virus vaccination and to identify the factors that could affect this response.Methods:One hundred patients with an age range from 21 to 75 years complaining of chronic renal failure on regular hemodialysis. Patients negative for hepatitis B antigen and anti-hepatitis C were vaccinated with 40µg of Euvax B intramuscularly in the deltoid muscle by following a schedule of 0, 1 and 2 months. The antibody titer was tested at third month and if titer was <10 or 10-100IU/mL (patients whom regarded as non-responded or poor responded). Then they were given another fourth dose (40µg) of vaccine at sixth month.Results:The rate of seroconversion to hepatitis B vaccine among individuals with end stage renal disease is 63%. Thirty one (31%) patients were anti hepatitis C virus positive. Eighteen (58%) were responsive to hepatitis B vaccination and 13 (42%) did not response to Hepatitis B vaccination. Advanced age, sex and diabetes mellitus show no effect on response to vaccination. The response to hepatitis B vaccine is significant in patient's well control of hemoglbulin, calcium, albumin and long duration on hemodialysis.Conclusion:Patients on maintenance dialysis typically show a suboptimal immune response to hepatitis B virus vaccine compared with the non-uraemic population.Keyword: Hemodialysis, chronic renal failure, HBsAg, vaccination.


Article
Global Stability of an epidemic model with vaccine involving stage structure
الاستقرارية الشاملة لنموذج وبائي مع اللقاح متضمنا مراحل عمرية

Author: Hassan Fadhil Al-husseiny حسن فاضل الحسيني
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2016 Volume: 57 Issue: 4C Pages: 2922-2931
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In this paper a mathematical model that analytically as well as numerically the flow of infection disease in a population is proposed and studied. It is assumed that the disease divided the population into five classes: immature susceptible individuals , mature individuals , infectious individual removal individuals and vaccine population . The existence, uniqueness and boundedness of the solution of the model are discussed. The local and global stability of the model is studied. Finally the global dynamics of the proposed model is studied numerically.

الخلاصة في هذا البحث أقترحنا وحللنا نموذج رياضي لمرض معدي. أفترضنا أن المرض المعدي يقسم المجتمع الى خمسة أصناف : مجتمع سليم غير بالغ ، مجتمع سليم بالغ ، مجتمع مصابين ، مجتمع مشافين ومجتمع ملقحين . بحثنا كلا من وجود ، وحدانية وقيود الحل للنموذج ، وحددنا شروط الاستقرارية المحلية والشاملة لكل نقاط التوزان . اخيرا ، أستخدمنا المحاكاة العددية لدراسة الديناميكية الشاملة للنموذج

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