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Article
Salivary Physicochemical Characteristics in Relation to Oral Health Status Among Institutionalized Autistic Adolescents in Baghdad/Iraq

Authors: Ali Hadi F. Al-Fatlawi --- Nada Jafer MH. Radhi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 3 Pages: 68-74
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, restricted patterns of behavior, and unusual sensory sensitivities. Saliva may provide an easily accessible sample for analysis. Some salivary constituents levels altered in adolescents with ASD including antioxidants . This study aimed to investigate salivary physicochemical characteristic in relation to oral health status among adolescents with ASD.Materials and methods: Two groups were included in this study: 40 institutionalized autistic adolescents and 40 apparently healthy school adolescents control group with age range (12-15 years old, only males) selected randomly from Baghdad. Each group subdivided into two groups according to the severity of dental caries: caries free group (20 child, DMFT=0) and high caries group (20 child, DMFT≥6). Decayed, missing and filled surfaces (DMFS), plaque (PlI), Gingival (GI) and calculus (CI) indices were used to measure oral health status for both groups. Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and thiocyanate (SCN) in saliva measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and glutathione (GSH) assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Salivary pH and flow rate were measured directly. The data of current study was analyzed using SPSS version 21.Results: A higher value of salivary pH, flow rate, sAA, SCN, Cu and Zn were found among study group than control group with significant difference, also higher in caries free subgroup than high caries subgroup. While GSH was significantly higher in control group than study group. Moderate negative correlations between sAA, Cu, Zn and PlI, CI, GI with highly significant and salivary pH correlate moderately with PlI and CI with highly significant.Conclusion: There was alteration in salivary constituents levels which related to oral health status in adolescents with ASD and can act as adjunctive diagnostic aid for diagnosing autism.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorder --- sAA --- SCN --- GSH


Article
Oral health status in relation to nutritional status among institutionalized autistic children and adolescents in Baghdad city, Iraq

Authors: Ali Hadi F. Al-Fatlawi --- Nada Jafer MH. Radhi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 1 Pages: 117-124
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) describes a wide range of symptoms, including difficulty with social interaction and communication skills. Controversial thinking about oral health of children with ASD, in general may have a lower hygiene level than healthy individuals, low caries rate and high body weight in comparison to healthy children. This study was conducted to assess the oral health status in relation to nutritional status among institutionalized autistic children and adolescents.Materials and methods: From 12 institutes in Baghdad, the study group contained 364 child and adolescent with ASD (Male= 294, Female=70), while control group included 441 normal child and adolescent (Male=357, Female=84) from primary and secondary schools. The age range (6-15) years old categorized to two age groups, children age group (6-10) years and adolescents age group (11-15) years. Decayed, missing and filled surfaces (dmfs, DMFS), plaque (PlI), Gingival (GI) and calculus (CI) indices were used to measure oral health status for both groups. Assessment of nutritional status performed by using BMI for age z-score value. The data of current study was analyzed using SPSS version 21.Results: Mean rank values of (dmfs, DMFS) were lower in study group than control group with high significant differences. The mean rank values of PlI, GI, and CI in study group were found to be higher than control group with high significant differences. A moderate positive high significant correlation was found between ds, dmfs, DS, DMFS and PlI, GI, CI in both groups. The mean rank values of body mass index (BMI) for age z-score were higher in study group than control group. Very weak negative high significant correlation between BMI for age z-score and ds, dmfs, DS, DMFS in study group.Conclusion: Dental caries severity, oral hygiene and gingival health were lower in ASD group than control group. Dental caries severity was related to oral health status in both groups. Possible of overweight, overweight and obesity were most common in children and adolescents with ASD than control group. Body weight of autistic children was related to dental caries severity.

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