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Article
Radioactivity and annual effective dose in some types of drug
الفاعلية النوعية والجرعة المكافئة السنوية في بعض عينات الادوية

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Abstract

The aim of this research is to know danger of radioactive isotopes that are found in samples of drugs traded in Iraqi markets. The samples are Iraqi Amoxicillin, English Amoxicillin, UAE Amoxicillin, Indian Amoxicillin, Iraqi Paracetamol,English Paracetamol, UAE Paracetamol and Indian Paracetamol. By high purity germanium the activity of the following isotopes 40K, 214Pb, 228Ac and 137Cs is measured and the specific activity was used to calculate the annual effective dose. Then the calculated annual effective dose values are compared with the allowable annual effective dose values of each part of digestive channel. This research concluded that the measured annual effective dose values are not dangerous.

الهدف من هذا البحث هو معرفة خطر النظائر المشعة الموجودة في عينات من الادوية الموجودة بالاسواق العراقية. وهذه العينات هي الاموكسسلسين العراقي, الاموكسسلين الانكليزي, الاموكسسلين الاماراتي, الاموكسسلين الهندي. كذلك البراسيتول العراقي, البراسيتول الانكليزي, البراسيتول الاماراتي, البراسيتول الهندي. بواسطة كاشف الجرمانيوم عالي النقاوة تم قياس الفاعلية النوعية للنظائر الاتية 40K, 214Pb,228Ac,137Cs ثم استخدمت الفاعلية لحساب الجرعة المكافئة السنوية. وقد قورنت الجرع المكافئة السنوية المحسوبة مع الحد المسموح للجرعة المكافئة السنوية لكل جزء من القناة الهضمية واتضح انها ليست جرع خطرة.


Article

Authors: Abrar A Abdul-Salam --- Jasim M Salman --- Salam N Asfar
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2017 Volume: 23 Issue: 1 Pages: 3-7
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Abrar A Abdul-Salam*, Jasim M Salman@ & Salam N Asfar# *MB, ChB, FICMS Anesthesiology, Al-Sadir Teaching Hospital, Basrah. @MB, ChB, DA, FICMS, Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology, Basrah College of Medicine. #MB, ChB, MSc, Professor of Anesthesiology, University of Basrah, College of Medicine, Basrah, IRAQ. Abstract From the time when succinylcholine(scoline) introduced to clinical anesthesia, intravenous route of administration of the drug has been broadly practiced. Severe bradycardia and arrhythmias may from time to time produced by single or frequent doses. The mechanism of bradycardia caused by succinylcholine administration has not been completely explained, it has been found that succinylcholine produce a unpredictable effects on the sinoatrial node. In our hospital , a second dose of succinylcholine is usually used for short surgical procedures that required good relaxation like anorectal surgery and orthopedic manipulation under anesthesia. This study aimed to discuss the conditions under which bradycardia appear during general anesthesia with oxygen, propofol, scoline, halothane, along with the use of second dose of scoline and assess the need for atropine to prevent this effect. Fifty patients aged between 20-50 years of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I were included in this study, anesthesia was induced with propofol, scoline, along with oxygen halothane mixture, then 2nd dose of scoline was given 10 minutes later. Frequent pulse rate were recorded. There was considerable decrease in pulse rate of the patients after the 2nd dose of succinylcholine, 36% of the patients developed bradycardia (pulse rate below 60), and the mean reduction in pulse rate was (23±13 beats/min). However there is no need for the use of atropine since all of the patients return to normal rates (60-100 beats/min) within 1 minute spontaneously. Conclusion: It has been found that the use of scoline in one dose produce decrease in pulse rate but not reach to the bradycardia level, while the uses of another dose will result in significant reduction in pulse rate that can reach to the level of bradycardia. All patients return to normal level of pulse rate within 1 minute, therefore, there is no need to use atropine neither preoperatively nor after developing of bradycardia since it's a self limiting phenomenon.


Article
Identification histopathological characterizations of mercuric chloride toxicity in albino male mice

Author: Enwar Abdalkarim Abdalhussin
Journal: Journal of Education for Pure Science مجلة التربية للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 20736592 Year: 2017 Volume: 7 Issue: 3 Pages: 216-224
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

AbstractMercury compounds have been known as one of most heavy metals which cause adverse effect forboth human and animal. Nevertheless, several studies have been documented poison effect ofmercury in different aspects, but so far there are few reports related histopathlogical changes are notenough clear according dose-dependent. Therefore, our study focused on histopathlogicalexamination of kidney and lung tissues which were treated with two different dose of mercuricchloride to elucidate level of toxicity. Thirty male mice have been equally divided in to three groups.First group was treated with distilled water as control and other two groups were given two differentdoses of mercuric chloride; 1mgk.g and 4 mgk.g respectively. All animals have been administratedby intra-peritoneal injection for 60 consecutive days. At the end of experimental; all mice weresacrificed and eviscerated the target organs (kidney and lung) to prepare for histological processingsteps. Histopathlogical results have revealed that severity of low dose mercuric chlorideadministration was minor effect than high dose given in both kidney and lung. That was showingmoderate renal structures damages and pulmonary parenchyma destruction. Consequently, theseresults indicated that toxic activity of mercuric chloride was according to dose-dependent.Subsequently, the moderate damages have been occurred in renal and lung tissues due to long termexposure.


Article
Effect of Cefotaxime Administration on the kidney, liver and Lung of Swiss white Mice (mus musculus)
تأثيــر تناول عقار السيفوتوكسيـم على أنسجـة الكليـة، الكبـد، والرئة في الفئران البيض السويسرية

Author: Asraa Abed Jazaa إسراء عبد ذياب
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Pure Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 18131662 Year: 2017 Volume: 22 Issue: 6 Pages: 1-7
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

The present study was designed to monitor the impact a drug such as cefotaxime has on the histological architecture of the kidney, liver and Lung on Swiss white mice.The experiment was designed by using 30 Swiss white mice from both sexes.-Mice were classified randomly into three groups:Group A: Control Group, injected intramuscularly with 0.5ml distilled water daily for 6 days.Group B: Therapeutical Dose, Injected intramuscularly with 0.1 ml cefotaxime daily for 6 days.Group C: Extra Therapeutical Dose, Injected with 0.2 ml cefotaxime daily for 6 days.At the end of the experimental period, the kidney, liver and lung of the mice were taken and processed for histological study.The behavioral results showed a lower appetite and decrease in weight in the mice present in Group C.Histologically,the kidney and liver showed numerous abnormalities at the end of the treatment period compared to that of the control group.Pyknosis, Karyohyxis and Karyolysis were found in the liver cell nuclei. While infiltration of the lymphocytes was present. Necrosis of the hepatocytes were observed clearly throughout the tissue present in the lung.Renal convoluted tubules show atrophy and necrosis of cell with hypertrophy of glomeruli.Degeneration and shrinkage of the renal tubule cells with the appearance of pyknosis of nuclei was also found.Due to these destructive results on the liver and kidney cells it was concluded that cefotaxime caused many cell abnormalities and dysfunction in general.

صمم هذا البحث لدراسة تأثير دواء السيفوتوكسيم على أنسجة أعضاء الفئران البيضاء السويسرية كالكلية، الكبـد والرئة.صممت التجربة باستخدام 30 فأر أبيض اللون من كِلا الجنسين حيث تم تصنيفهم عشوائياً إلى ثلاثة مجاميع رئيسية:-المجموعة A: (مجموعة السيطرة) حقنت في داخل العضلة بجرعة 0.5 مل من الماء مرة واحدة يومياً وعلى مدة 6 أيام.-المجموعة B: (الجرعة العلاجية)حقنت في داخل العضلة بجرعة 0.1 مل من السيفوتوكسيم يومياً وعلى مدار 6 أيام.-المجموعة C: (الجرعة العلاجية الزائدة) حقنت في داخل العضلة بـ 0,2 مل من السيفوتوكسيم وعلى مدار 6 أيام.في نهاية الفترة المخصصة للتجربة تم تشريح الفئران لاستخلاص الأعضاء ودراستها بعد إجراء التقنية النسيجية عليها.كان هناك تغيرات سلوكية أظهرت فقدان الشهية ونقص في الوزن للفئران الموجودة في المجموعة العلاجية الزائدة.نسيجياً أظهرت الكلية والكبد والرئة عدة تغيرات غير طبيعية مقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة وعلى ضوء هذه النتاج لوحظ التأثير الكبير لهذا العقار على الخلايا المختلفة وما أدى إليه من اختلالات غير طبيعية في الأعضاء بشكل عام.


Article
Assessment of natural radioactivity levels and annual equivalent doses in somemilk powdered samples for adults used in Baghdad
تقييم مستويات النشاط الإشعاعي الطبيعي و الجرعات المكافئة السنوية في بعض عينات الحليب المجفف للكبارالمستخدمة في بغداد

Author: BasimKhalafRejah باسم خلف رجه
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء ISSN: 20704003 Year: 2017 Volume: 15 Issue: 32 Pages: 145-149
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In this paper the specific activity of 238U, 232Th and 40K radionuclides were determined by sodium iodide enhanced by thallium NaI(Tl) detector and assessment the annual effective dose in samples of powder milk from different companies such as Almunaish, Seven Caw, Molty and Altunsa for adult available in Baghdad markets. The specific activity of 40K has the greater value in all the samples which is in the range of allowed levels globally that suggested by UNSCEAR. The mean value of annual effective doses were0.121, 0.314775 and 0.305mSv/y for 238U, 232Th and 40K respectively.

في هذا البحث تم تحديد الفعالية النوعية لنويدات اليورانيوم - 238، الثوريوم – 232 والبوتاسيوم – 40 بأستخدام كاشف ايوديد الصوديوم المطعم بالثاليوم (NaI(Tl وتخمين الجرعة المكافئة السنوية في نماذج من مسحوق الحليب المنعش وسبع بقرات ومولتي والتونسا للبالغين والمتوافرة في اسواق بغداد. معدل الفعالية الاشعاعية الناتج من البوتاسيوم – 40 هو الأعلى في جميع العينات التي تم دراستها. متوسط الجرعة الفعالة السنوية المحسوب هي 0.121,0.314775 و 0.305 ملي سيفرت / سنة لـ اليورانيوم - 238، الثوريوم – 232 و البوتاسيوم – 40 على التوالي.


Article
Radon Exhalation Rate and Mean Annual Effective Dose from Radium concentration from Gharraf Canal and Its Some Branches in Thi Qar Governorate (Iraq)
معدل انبعاث الرادون والجرعة السنوية الفعالة الناتجة من تركيز الراديوم في قناة الغراف وبعض فروعها في محافظة ذي قار (العراق)

Author: Hayder Abdulwahid Hammood
Journal: Univesity of Thi-Qar Journal مجلة جامعة ذي قار العلمية ISSN: 66291818 Year: 2017 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 81-95
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

The radon exhalation rate in term of area was variable (10.4-52.1 mBq.m-2.h-1) with the average value (30.1 mBq.m-2.h-1) while the radon exhalation rate in term of mass was variable (1.09-5.45 mBq.kg-1.h-1) with the average value (3.15 mBq.kg-1.h-1) and radium concentration is varied (0.144-0.722 Bq.kg-1) with the average value (0.417 Bq.kg-1). The annual effective dose of radium for three population groups was carried out, and lifetime risk assessment was about 10-4 when used this water as a drinking water. The results compared with safe recommended limit to radium concentration and the annual effective dose of radium in drinking water according to WHO and with other countries

ان معدل انبعاث الرادون لوحدة المساحة يتراوح بين (10.4-52.1 mBq.m-2.h-1) وبمعدل (30.1 mBq.m-2.h-1) بينما كان معدل انبعاث الرادون لوحدة الكتلة يتراوح بين (1.09-5.45 mBq.kg-1.h-1) وبمعدل (3.15 mBq.kg-1.h-1) وان تركيز الراديوم يتراوح بين (0.144-0.722 Bq.kg-1) وبمعدل (0.417 Bq.kg-1). وقد تم حساب الجرعة السنوية الفعالة للراديوم لثلاث مجموعات عمرية من السكان, وان تقدير المخاطر لمدى العمر كان بحدود 10-4 عندما تستخدم هذه المياه للشرب. تم مقارنة النتائج مع الحدود الامان الموصى بها لتركيز الراديوم وحدود الجرعة السنوية الفعالة في مياه الشرب طبقا لمنظمة الصحة العالمية و مع الدول الاخرى.


Article
Radium Isotopes Levels in Drinking-Water Samples

Authors: S.A. Amin --- A.A. Jassim
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2017 Volume: 35 Issue: 1 Part (B) Scientific Pages: 46-49
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Water is one of the most necessary substances on earth. In order to survive, all plants, animals and humans must drink water, and there is no life on earth if there is no water. Hence, water should be uncontaminated with any type of carcinogenic materials such as heavy metals, radioactivity or other pollutants and must be clear. In this work, drinking-water samples were examined and analyzed for radionuclide levels using NaI gamma spectrometer, as well as, estimated annual effective dose (AED) has been calculated. The values of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K levels range from (0.12-0.35)Bq.L-1, (0.09-0.16)Bq.L-1 and (31.66-49.25)Bq.L-1, with mean values 0.29, 0.12 and 43.39 Bq.L-1, respectively. The total estimated annual effective dose gained from the combined ingestion of radium isotopes is found to start from 0.07 mSv.y-1 to 0.14 mSv.y-1 with an average value of 0.12 mSv.y-1. Therefore, the total (AED) for all samples is below the world standard value of 1mSv.y-1. Hence, drinking water is considered safe from the radiological point view and does not cause any significant health hazard for Baghdadi inhabitants.


Article
Measurement of indoor radon levels and assessment of radiological hazards at Al-Tuwaitha nuclear site and the surrounding areas
قياس مستويات غاز الرادون في الداخل وتقدير المخاطر الاشعاعية في موقع التويثه والمناطق المحيطة

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In the present study the radon concentration was measured in indoor places by the RAD7 (radon detector) was in some locations at Al-Tuwaitha nuclear site and some surrounding areas for the duration from 13/10/2016 to 2/1/2017 and the measurement of the indoor radon concentration ranged from (4.96±4.4 to 102±25) Bq/m3. The high value of radon has been found at decommissioning directorate /emergency room, which is lower than the action value recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) which is (148 Bq/m3) while the lowest value has been founded in central laboratories directorate models room. These values were used to calculate the annual effective dose and the health risks for cells bronchial which caused by the inhalation of radon. The values of the annual effective doses were calculated and ranged from (0.1249 to 2.5704) mSv/y these results are lower than the value of (10 mSv/y) recommended by the International Commission Radiological on Protection (ICRP). The results from this study shows that the region has background radioactivity levels within the natural limits.

في الدراسه الحالية تم قياس تركيز الرادون في الاماكن المغلقه باستخدام جهاز ال Rad7 في بعض الاماكن داخل موقع التويثه النووي وبعض المناطق المحيطه للمدة من 13/10/2016 الى2017/1/2 و تراوحت مستويات غاز الرادون االمقاسه في الاماكن المغلقه بين (4.96 و (102 Bq/m3. القيمة الاعلى لتركيز الرادون تم الحصول عليها في مديريه التصفية /غرفه الطوارئ و هي اقل من المستويات المسموحه الموصى بها من قبل وكاله الحمايه البيئيه الامريكية التي هي (148 Bq/m3) والقيمه الاقل تم الحصول عليها في مديريه المختبرات المركزيه /غرفه النماذج .هذه التراكيز استخدمت لحساب الجرع الاشعاعيه السنوية والمخاطر الصحيه لخلايا الشعب الهوائية الناجمة من استنشاق الرادون. قيم الجرع الفعاله السنويه لتراكيز الرادون تراوحت بين mSv/y (0.124992 و 2.5704) التي هي اقل من القيمه المحدودة من قبل اللجنة الدولية للوقاية الإشعاعية التي هي ( mSv/y10). النتائج التي تم الحصول عليها تبين لنا ان المنطقه لديها خلفيه اشعاعيه ضمن الحدود الطبيعية.


Article
Cancer Incidence Risks to Patients due to Barium Meal and Barium Enema by Using Fluoroscopy
خطورة الا صابه بالسرطان باستعمال جهاز الفلوروسكوب بعد اجراء فحص التنظير الاشعاعي للمعده وفحص الحقنه الشرجيه للباريوم

Authors: Ilham Khalid Ibrahim الهام خالد --- Edrees Muhammad Tahir Nury ادريس محمد --- Wan Muhammad Sardin وان محمد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2017 Volume: 30 Issue: 3 Pages: 141-147
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract: Background: The most common radiological tests of the GI tract are barium meal and barium enema, which are performed using conventional fluoroscopy and digital fluoroscopy, all of which result in high radiation doses to patients. And it is carries some risks like the other X-ray procedures. The object of this research is to estimation of effective dose and a Cancer incidence risk associated with barium meal and barium enema in some hospitals in Erbil City-Kurdistan region/Iraq. Material & Material & Methods: The dosimetric survey was carried out on 120 patients. The procedures were performed by two equipments, the first was a Siemens unit which is a conventional fluoroscopy, and the second was Shimadzo which was a digital unit Beside BMI, patient exposures factors (mAs, kVp, exposure time, and air kerma) were measured. Organ doses, effective dose with per cent (%) of Risk of exposure-induced death (REID) were estimated by using PCXMC 2.0 software. Results: The mean±S.D for DAP values found in the present study are 25.20±2.41 Gy.cm2 and 12.80±0.68 Gy.cm2 for BaMC and BaMD, respectively, with significant differences p= 0.001 And, 32.13±0.25 Gy.cm2 and 25.0±2.68 Gy.cm2 for BaEC and BaED, respectively with significant differences p= 0.0001. the value of effective dose for BaMC and BaMD are (5.73±1.93,5.49±1.89)mSv and (2.72±1.22, 2.62±1.16)mSv, respectively. But for BaEC and BaED are (6.04±1.60, 7.07±1.86)mSv and (4.17±1.41, 4.90±1.63)mSv, respectively . The first and second values in the brackets correspond to the ICRP103 and ICRP60. The type of cancer received the high value of REID% for BaMC and BaMD is the Colon cancer (0.0128%, 0.069%) respectively, for male patients, but for female patients are Lung cancer (0.264%, 0.123%) respectively. Also, the high value of REID% for BaEC and BaED are the Colon cancer (0.283%, 0.174%) respectively, for male patients, but for female patients are the bladder cancer (0.275%, 0.183%) respectivelyConclusion: From this study concluded that digital systems give a lower dose-areaproduct than non-digital systems for both examinations BaM and BaE. Also, the DAP for BaE is higher than that recorded for BaM. The three organs that received higher dose in both examination and both system are the same (Stomach , Liver and Colon ) Also, concluded that The REID% values for female patients were slightly higher than the corresponding values for males for both examination groups, and the REID% are higher from conventional procedure than that record for digital system.

استخدام جهاز الفلوروسكوب بنوعيه الرفمي والتقليدي لقياس نسبة خطورة الاشعاع الذي يتعرض له المرضى الذين يعانون من امراض الجهاز الهضمي بجزئيه العلوي والسفلي. الفحص الاول هو التنظير الاشعاعي للمعده باستخدام الاشعه السينيه والتي تمكن الطبيب من تصوير القناة الهضميه العلويه المعده, المرئ, الامعاء الدقيقه بشكل واضح. اما الجزء الاسفل من الجهاز الهضمي (الامغاء الغليظه) فيتم فحصها بواسطة الحقنه الشرجيه للباريوم لتشخيص امراض القولون التي تؤدي الى انسداد الامعاء وتقرحاتها من خلال التصويرالشعاعي للفلوروسكوب والتي تكون على حساب جرعات زائده من الاشعاع وتحديد فيما كانت في حدود مقياس السلامه الحاليه وتقدير نسبة جرع الاشعاع لاعضاء الجهاز الهضمي لكلا الجنسين الذكور والاناث وتقدير نسبة الاشعاع في كل عضو والجرع المؤثره من الاشعاع والتي قد تسبب السرطان في المستقبل وذلك بواسطة برنامج خاص(PCXMC/Stuk) يحدد نسبة الاشعاع في كل عضو وحساب الجرع المؤثره من الاشعاع باد خال العمر ونوع الجنس ومدة التعرض للاشعاع حسب نوع الفحص لكل مريض.


Article
Assessment of entrance skin doses and radiation protection for pediatric X-ray examination
تقييم جرعات الجلد المدخل والحماية من الإشعاع لفحص الأشعة السينية للأطفال

Authors: Runak Tahir Ali --- Rozhan Ahmad Hamad Saeed
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2017 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 1878-1883
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Entrance skin dose is the value of the radiation absorbed dose by the skin where the X-ray beam enters the patients. Assessment of entrance skin doses, specifically for pediatric radiology, is very crucial as the children are dividing cells rapidly and are more sensitive to radiation than adults. Their cells can be easily damaged by excessive radiation dose. This study is considered as an attempt to evaluate the effects of diagnostic X-ray on pediatric patients throughout measuring the entrance skin doses and hematological parameters for pediatric patients. Ways of protecting themselves from X-ray hazards is also included.Methods: A case-control study was used to collecting the data for 70 pediatric patients from October 2015 to August 2016 at Radiology Departments of five governmental hospitals throughout Hawler city the capital of Kurdistan Region- Iraq. Pediatric patients aged between (1 day - 6 years) they were divided into case and control group by which 40 of them had got diagnostic X-ray examination as (case group) and 30 of them had not had past history of taking X-rays as (control group). Entrance skin dose was measured indirectly via parameters such as a focus on skin distance, tube voltage (KV) and tube current (mAs) in an arithmetical equation.Results: High level of entrance skin doses were received by pediatric patients in this study. Also, it was found that diagnostic X-ray has effects on pediatrics white blood cells and platelets with the significant difference between case and control group and p-values (< 0.001 and 0.006) respectively.Conclusion: Entrance skin doses levels received by pediatric patients in this study was higher than other studies level and then pediatric patients will be at risk if they are exposed to unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation. It is important to focus on improving pediatric radiography for reducing the hazards of X-ray radiation on pediatric patients.

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