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Article
Investigation of Microbial Contamination of Primary Schools in Baghdad City
التحري عن الثلوث المايكروبي للمدارس الابتدائية في مدينة بغداد

Author: Sanaa Rahman Oleiwi سناء رحمان عليوي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2017 Volume: 58 Issue: 2B Pages: 797-802
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

A microbial contamination of several primary schools (official and private) in Baghdad city was conducted. Sampling was performed in each school from desk, door handle, and hand of students. Out of 113swabs (classes desk, door holder, and students hands ) obtained from ten primary schools, growth wasobserved in 91 samples (80.5%) (for official school 84.6% and 71.4 for private school. The results of recent study revealed that the official schools showed higher contamination levels(130 CFU ) than private ones (90 CFU). Resultes revealed that a total of 12 morphologically different bacterial species were isolated from 62 bacterial isolates,among which gram negative bacteria 40 isolates(64.5%) were higher than gram-positive bacteria 22 isolates( 35.4%). According to the microscopic examination , biochemical tests and API system , the results was showed that staphylococcus epidermidis was the most frequently isolated bacterial species with recovery rate 10 (16 .1%). followed by staphylococcus aureus 8 ( 12.9 %) Escherichia spp7 (11.2%) Escherichia coli7 (11.2%), Enterobacter sakazaki 5(8%), Enterobacter cloacae 5 (8%), Bacillus spp 5(8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4(6.45%), Klebsiella spp 4(6.45%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 3(4.8%), Streptocoocus spp 3(4.8%), Proteus mirabilis 1(1.6%).

أجريت دراسة للتلوث المايكروبي لعشرة مدارس إبتدائية ( حكومية و أهلية ) في مدينة بغداد و قد تم أخذ العينات لكل مدرسة من ( مقاعد الطلاب و مقابض الابواب و أيدي الطلاب ) . أخذت اكثر من 113 مسحة ( مقاعد و ايدي الطلاب و مقابض الابواب ) من عشرة مدارس ابتدائية و قد لوحظ النمو في 91 ( 80.5 % ) من العينات المدارس الحكومية كانت (84.6 %) و في المدارس الاهلية (71.4%), أيضا تم فحص العينات المأخوذة لمعرفة مستوى التلوث المايكروبي بوساطة حساب وحدة تكوين المستعمرة لكل سطح. وفقا للنتائج اظهرت المدارس الحكومية تلوث اعلى( 130 وحدة تكوين المستعمرة ) مقارنة بالمدارس الاهلية (90 وحدة تكوين المستعمرة). اظهرت النتائج وجود 12 نوع بكتيري مختلف من مجموع 62 عزلة بكتيرية وكانت نسبة البكتريا السالبة لصبغة كرام64.5 % (40 عزلة )والموجبة لصبغة كرام 35.4% (22 عزلة).اعتمادا على الفحص المجهري والاختبارات البايوكيميائية ونظام الابي ظهرت نتائج التشخيصية التالية : staphylococcus epidermidis 10 (16 .1%). staphylococcus. aureus 8 ( 12.9 %) Escherichia spp 7 (11.2%) Escherichia.coli7 (11.2%), Enterobacter sakazaki 5 (8%),Enterobacter cloacae 5(8%), Bacillus spp 5(8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4(6.45%), Klebsiella spp 4(6.45%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 3(4.8%), Streptocoocus spp 3(4.8%), Proteus mirabilis 1(1.6%).


Article
The Effect Of Treatment Protocol and Implant Dimensions on Primary Stability Utilizing Resonance Frequency Analysis

Author: Thair Abdul Lateef ثائر عبد اللطيف
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 1 Pages: 111-116
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: According to Branemark’s protocol, the waiting period between tooth extraction and implant placement is 6–8 months; this is the late placement technique. Achieving and maintaining implant stability are prerequisites for a dental implant to be successful. Resonance Frequency Analysis (RFA) is a noninvasive diagnostic method that measures implant stability. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of treatment protocol and implant dimensions on primary implant stability utilizing RFA.Materials and methods: This study included 63 Iraqi patients (37 male, 26 female; ranging 22-66 years). According to treatment protocol, the sample was divided into 2 groups; A (delayed) & B (immediate). Dental implants were inserted and the implant stability quotient (ISQ) measures for primary stability documented by Osstell device.Results: For both groups fixtures introduced in the mandible showed a higher stability (74 and 71.85) respectively and was lower in maxilla. The mean primary stability of group A was 70.21 (ranged from 51-83), while for group B was 68.55 (46.5-81).Conclusion: primary stability influencing osseointegration and subsequent long term success. It was higher in association with delayed implant placement, mandible, and increased implant diameters


Article
EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT THERAPEUTIC MODALITIES FOR PRIMARY MONOSYMPTOMATIC PEDIATRIC NOCTURNAL ENURESIS

Authors: Murtadha M Almusafer --- Aymen Adel
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2017 Volume: 23 Issue: 2 Pages: 47-52
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT THERAPEUTIC MODALITIES FOR PRIMARY MONOSYMPTOMATIC PEDIATRIC NOCTURNAL ENURESISMurtadha M Almusafer@ & Aymen Adel*@FICMS, Professor of Urology, University of Basrah, College of Medicine, Department of Surgery. *FICMS, Urology Specialist, Basrah General Hospital, Basrah, IRAQ.AbstractPrimary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) is still a common bothersome complaint that makes the children and their families looking for help. Primary MNE is defined as abnormal urination that occurs involuntarily during sleep. Its incidence varies with age, with 15%-20% at 5 year old and fades with increasing age to reach 1-2% at 15 year old. Owing to its complicated pathophysiology and sharing of different body systems, multiple lines of treatment were attempted. This study aimed is to explore the efficacy of different treatment modalities for PMNE in the study patients. Ninety two patients were enrolled in this prospective randomized trial and divided into 4 groups; group A instructed to use the behavioral measures, group B given intranasal Desmopressin, group C given Oxybutynin and group D given combination of the 3 treatments. Fourteen participants were excluded because they were lost during followup and the remaining 78 patients' data were analyzed. Patients were reassessed at 4th and 12th weeks. Wet nights/week significantly reduced in all treatment groups as compared to baseline. Percentage reduction of wet nights/week for behavioral group was 38.9%, Desmopressin was 83%, Oxybutynin was 78% and for Combination was 87.8% at 12th week. According to the ICCS definitions of success there is no full response in behavioral group with partial response of 42.1%, for Desmopressin group the full response was 57.1% and partial response 28.6%, for Oxybutynin group was 50%, and 33%, for combination group 60%, 30% at 12th week of treatment. In conclusion, although behavioral therapy reduces wet nights but not reaching to a full improvement and its use is preferably combined with other treatment modalities. Desmopressin, Oxybutynin, and Combination treatment significantly decreases wet nights with high full response rate.


Article
Osseointegration of dental implants without primary stability: an experimental study in sheep
Osseointegration من زراعة الأسنان دون الاستقرار الأولي: دراسة تجريبية في الأغنام

Authors: Ahmed A. Haider --- Othman A. Omer --- Hozak Zahir Ali --- Abduljaleel Azad Samad --- et al.
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2017 Volume: 21 Issue: 1 Pages: 1616-1618
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Primary implant stability is considered necessary forachieving and maintaining osseointegration. This experimental study aimed to evaluate theoutcome of implants without primary stability, clinically and radiographically.Methods: Two adult sheep (3-4 years of age), 70 kg in weight, were included in the study.After sedation and local anesthesia, the lateral side of the basal bone of mandible isexposed by a single long incision. The implant bed performed in the inferior border of thebasal bone of mandible drilling to 5 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length. Five implantswere inserted into the basal bone of mandible for each side (right and left), but the sizes ofinserted implant was 3.8 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length, after 4 months the 2 sheepwere sacrificed and the universal torque ratchet was used to measure the stability of theimplant by a counter torque 30 N/cm test. Cone Beam Tomography (CBCT) was used toevaluate the implants radiographically.Results: Nineteen (from 20) implants successfully tolerated a 30 N/cm countertorque testcomprising (95%). Only one implant failed to osseointegrate (5%). During the healingperiod, no any adverse clinical signs reported.Conclusion: Dental implants may have a chance to osseointegrate even in the lack ofprimary stability.


Article
Nutritional Status and Food Behavior among Primary School Students in Duhok City
الحالة التغذوية و السلوك الغذائي لطلاب المدارس الأساسية في مدينة دهوك

Authors: Rebar Yahiya Abdullah --- Alaa Noori Sarkees --- Najim Abdullah Yasin
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2017 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 47-55
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background: The assessment of nutritional status as a part of school health component, can serve as a screening tool to identify children who need nutritional intervention and to prevent further deterioration in their nutritional status with reducing the risk of poor school performance. Objective: Evaluate the primary school students' nutritional status in Duhok City and find out the relationship between students' nutritional status with their food behavior.Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted throughout the period 25th November 2014 to 25th November2015. Cluster stratified simple random sampling of (700) primary school students who aged 6-12 years were selected from 41 primary schools in Duhok city. Food behavior and socio- demographic data were obtained by direct interview. In addition, height and weight measured in order to calculate body mass index of primary school age children. A questionnaire was modified as a tool of data collection and utilized the height and weight scales for measuring student`s height and weight for the purpose of the present study. Data were analyzed through the use of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis approaches.Results: the present study showed highest percent (57.1%) of primary school student's nutritional status was healthy weight and more than two third of them were at somewhat healthy food behavior (71.3%). In addition to highly significant relationship between such nutritional status of primary school students and their food behavior with P. value (0.001).Conclusion: The present study revealed that the primary school students' nutritional status is influenced by their food behavior.Recommendations: The researchers recommended that schools of Duhok City, health care system and parent should involve in establishing nutritional educational program steps, guidelines, inclusion of health related nutritional topics in school curriculum with yearly screening children including: checking height, weight and BMI according to age.

خلفية البحث: تقييم الحالة التغذوية كجزء من مكونات الصحة المدرسية يمكن أن تكون بمثابة أداة لفحص وتحديد الأطفال الذين يحتاجون إلى التدخل الغذائي ومنعا لمزيد من التدهور في وضعهم الغذائي مع تقليص احتمالات الضعف في أداءهم المدرسي.هدف الدراسة: تقييم الوضع التغذوي لتلاميذ المدارس الابتدائية في مدينة دهوك ومعرفة العلاقة بين الحالة التغذوية للتلاميذ مع سلوكهم الغذائي. المنهجية: دراسة مقطعية تم اجراؤها خلال الفترة ما بين 25 نوفمبر 2014 و25 نوفمبر 2015 من اجل معرفة الحالة التغذوية و السلوك الغذائي بين طلاب المدارس الابتدائية في مدينة دهوك. تم اختبار 700 طالب تراوحت اعمارهم بين 6-12 سنة من خلال اعتماد الخطوات (العنقودية والطبقية والعشوائية البسيطة) من 41 مدرسة ابتدائية في مدينة دهوك. البيانات المتعلقة بالسلوك الغذائي والبيانات الديموغرافية تم جمعهن من خلال المقابلة المباشرة مع أولياء أمور الطلبة. بالإضافة الى ذلك تم قياس طول و وزن الطالب لغرض حساب كتلة الجسم. الاستبانة تم تطويرها كأداة لجمع البيانات مع استخدام مقاييس الطول و الوزن لغرض قياس طول و وزن الطالب ضمن متطلبات هذه الدراسة. تم تحليل البيانات من خلال استخدام التحليل الاحصائي الوصفي والاستدلالي.النتائج :أظهرت هذه الدراسة ان أعلى نسبة (57.1٪) من الحالة التغذوية للطلاب في المدارس الابتدائية كان وزنهم صحي، وأكثر من ثلثيهم كانوا ضمن السلوك الغذائي الصحي إلى حد ما (71.3٪). بالإضافة إلى وجودعلاقة ذات دلالة معنوية عالية بين الوضع التغذوي لطلبة المدارس الابتدائية وسلوكهم الغذائي مع قيمة .P. (0.001) الاستنتاج: اظهرت هذه الدراسة تأثر الحالة التغذوية لطلاب المدارس الابتدائية بسلوكهم الغذائي.التوصيات: توصي الدراسة بأن تقوم مدارس مدينة دهوك ونظام الرعاية الصحية بوضع خطوات برنامج تعليمي تغذوي ومبادئ توجيهية وإدراج موضوعات ذات صلة بالصحة الغذائية في المناهج المدرسية كما ويجب شمول أولياء الأمور بذلك الشأن مع فحص الأطفال سنويا بما في ذلك فحص الطول والوزن ومؤشر كتلة الجسم وفقا للعمر.


Article
The Role Of Emergency PCI In The Management Of Acute STEMI The Local Experience In Al-Nassiriya Heart Center

Authors: Ali Khalid Almaliki --- Ali Jabbar Alibrahemi --- Tahsin Ali Al-kinani
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-7
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Primary PCI is an emergent percutaneous catheter intervention in the setting of STEMI,without previous fibrinolytic treatment .It is the prefered strategy in patients with STEMI.Aim: To evaluate the immediate and intermediate procedural and clinical outcome in a local experience.Methods: This is a descriptive cross sectional study carried out in a tertiary cardiac center for 301 patirnts with acute myocardial infarction. Fifty patients(16.6%) were followed up prospectively for one month up to one year in the outpatient clinic.Results: primary PCI was done in 294 patients (97.6%) and rescue PCI was done in 7 patients (2.4%). Ischemic time is ranging from one hour to twenty four hours (mean 5.02±3.27) . Procedural success rate was 100%. Mortality rate was 5.3% mostly because of cardiogenic shock. Conclusion: Primary PCI should be the standered of care for patients with STEMI.

Keywords

Primary PCI --- immediate --- long term --- outcome


Article
Determination of Implant Primary Stability: A Comparison of the Surgeon’s Tactile Sense and Objective Measurements

Authors: Bakir Ghanim Murrad بكر غانم مراد --- Jamal Abid Mohammed جمال عبد محمد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 4 Pages: 65-71
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Evaluation and measurement of primary stability could be achieved by several methods, including the resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and implant insertion torque (IT) values. The need for a sufficient primary stability, guaranteed by an adequate insertion torque and implant stability quotient values, increased its importance mainly in one stage implants or in immediate loading protocols. The aims of this study was to find if there is a correlation between the peak insertion torque (PIT) and ISQ values of implants inserted in the jaws of different bone quality which regarded as two important clinical determinant factors for prediction of implant primary stability, and to evaluate and compare whether an experienced clinician could precisely predict the primary stability of an implant on insertion with different surgical procedures using his own tactile perception.Materials and methods: A total of (60) Iraqi adult patients, (28) males and (32) females, age ranged (22-66) years old were enrolled in this clinical prospective study. The maximum torque value recorded on implant insertion using calibrated manual torque ratchet adopting three categories: low (10 to 30 N/cm), medium (30 to 50 N/cm), and high insertion torque (50 to 70 N/cm). The oral surgeon was asked to indicate the perceived ISQs values according to his perception then Implant stability quotient were measured by Osstell ™. Bone density (type) was determined according to subjective bone resistance encountered while drilling as proposed by Lekohlm and Zarb.Results: A total of 160 implants were inserted. The mean peak IT value was 49 ± 2.61N/cm. The mean ISQ value was 71.7 ± 8.86. Statistical analysis show a significant correlation between ISQ values and PIT values (P<0.001) , between IT values and bone types and between perceived primary stability and actual primary stability (P<0.001) .Conclusions:The corresponding significant correlations between insertion torque, and ISQ values may help clinicians to predict primary stability on implant insertion, that may be associated with implant survival and success rates. A moderate reliability (correlation) between perceived ISQ values and those measured using RF analyzer(Ossttel device).


Article
Molecular genetic analysis role in diagnosis of primary amenorrhea patients

Author: Safaa M. Al-Taei
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 235-239
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Twenty one cases of primary amenorrhea, with poor secondary sexual characters, were studied clinically and genetically to assign SRY gene defect incidence. Different primary amenorrhea categories were diagnosed but only one case shows abnormally positive SRY gene in a 46 XX intersex patient. This case shows defected maleness internal genitalia and variable degree of external genitalia development. However this single case represent an incidence rate of (0.047(4.7%)). Molecular analysis shows accurate and applicable investigation, and recommended to enrolled as a routine investigation in diagnosis of all cases of intersexual risk.


Article
Clinical and pathological characteristics of primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in adult
الخصائص السريرية والمرضية للتصلب الكبيبي القطاعي الأساسي في البالغين

Authors: Salam Fareed Wadee --- Safa Ezzidin Al-Mukhtar
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2017 Volume: 21 Issue: 1 Pages: 1645-1652
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis shares overlapping patterns of injury with segmental consolidation and obliteration of glomerular architecture by the accumulation of collagenous extracellular matrix or by increased cellularity or both. This study aimed to investigate the patterns of primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in adults in Erbil. The specific objectives of this study included determining the frequency of histological variant of Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, defining the clinical characteristics of the primary type in general and recognizing the clinical and pathological characteristics for each variant separately.Methods: A cross-sectional, clinico-pathologic study was conducted for 50 patients attending the Nephrology Department in Erbil Teaching Hospital between March and December 2013. This study included patients of >16 years old with biopsy-proven idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Results: A total of 50 patients were enrolled into this study. The median age of patients was 33 years, ranged from 18 to 54, 31 (62%) males and 19 (38%) females. The frequency of histopathological variants was 80% not otherwise specific focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, 14% glomerular tip lesion, and 6% cellular type. Nephrotic syndrome and hypertension were the main presenting features (92% and 68%, respectively). The mean percentage of sclerosed glomeruli was 40% and the mean interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy was 24%.Conclusion: A not otherwise specific variant is a common morphological lesion in many glomerular and non-glomerular diseases, and it is just like a junk drawer of multiple glomerular alterations with this common pattern of the lesion.


Article
Evaluation of Clients’ Satisfaction towards Primary Health Care Centers Services at Baghdad City
تقويم رضا المراجعين تجاه خدمات مراكز الرعاية الصحية الاولية في مدينة بغداد

Authors: Tariq YassenTaha طارق ياسين طه --- WissamJabbarQassim وسام جبار قاسم
Journal: nursing national Iraqi specility المجلة العراقية الوطنية للعلوم التمريضية ISSN: 18122388 Year: 2017 Volume: 30 Issue: 2 Pages: 54-62
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Objective:To evaluate the client's satisfaction about the services provided in primary health care centers in the city of Baghdad and its impact on the improvement of services.Methodology: A simple random sample consisting of (200) clients to primary health care centers in the city of Baghdad, (15-20) clients for each center using a questionnaire to evaluate the client's satisfaction for the service and the use of the direct method of interview, which lasts for (6-10) minutes.Results:Results of the study show that the number of men visits to primary health care centers, fewer women This indicates that the most important responsibilities of family members and private health care is the responsibility of women than men, especially in the eastern communities, and have shown that pregnant women aged between 30-39 years are more visit to primary health care centers due to pregnancy and its complications and most satisfaction towards primary health care services. The study reported that the visit rate was higher for the unemployed, because of the free health services, and were more satisfied with the services provided, and the study showed that the Ministry of Health paid great attention by taking care of the buildings and halls in primary health care centers in the city of Baghdad. The efficiency of the prescribed form to evaluate the satisfaction of visitors to primary health care centers and found that the form questioner meet 75% of the study.Recommendation:The study recommends an increase community awareness of the importance of primary health care services and that the services provided are not only for women but for men and women alike. Community education towards primary health care, health services and private school administrations to guide students and their parents to visit care centers to take advantage of the services provided and the Ministry of Health should be based to improving the quality of services provided to women, particularly maternal and child care.

الهدف:تقويم رضا المراجعين نحو الخدمات المقدمة في مراكز الرعاية الصحية الاولية في مدينة بغداد وأثرها على تحسين الخدمات.المنهجية: عينة عشوائية بسيطة مكونة من (200) مراجع الى مراكز الرعاية الصحيةالاولية في مدينة بغداد بواقع 15-20 مراجع لكل مركز باستخدام استبيان لتقويم الرضا للمراجعين عن الخدمة واستخدام طريقة المقابلة المباشرة والتي استغرقت من (6-10) دقيقة .النَتائِج: اظهرت نتائج الدراسة ان عدد زيارات الرجال إلى مراكز الرعاية الصحية الأولية أقل من النساء، هذا يشير إلى أن من أهم مسؤوليات أفراد الأسرة وخاصة الرعاية الصحية هي مسؤولية النساء أكثر من الرجال، وخاصة في المجتمعات الشرقية، و أظهرت أن النساء الحوامل الذين تتراوح أعمارهم بين 30-39 هن أكثر زيارة لمراكز الرعاية الصحية الأولية بسبب مضاعفات الحمل وأكثرهم رضا تجاه خدمات الرعاية الصحية الأولية. سجلت الدراسة بأن أعلى نسبة زيارة كانت للاشخاص العاطلين عن العمل ، بسبب الخدمات الصحية المجانية، وكان أكثر رضا عن الخدمات المقدمة، وأظهرت الدراسة أن وزارة الصحة أولت اهتماما كبيرا من جانب الاعتناء بالمباني والقاعات في مراكز الرعاية الصحية الأولية في مدينة بغداد. لكفاءة النموذج المعد لتقويم رضا الزوار إلى مراكز الرعاية الصحية الأولية وجدت ان الاستمارة الاستبيانية تفي بنسبة 75٪ من الدراسة.التوصيات:اوصت الدراسة بزيادة وعي المجتمع بأهمية خدمات الرعاية الصحية الأولية وأن الخدمات المقدمة ليست للنساء فقط ولكن للرجال والنساء على حد سواء. تثقيف المجتمع نحو الرعاية الصحية الأولية والخدمات الصحية وخاصة ادارات المدارس لتوجيه الطلاب وأولياء أمورهم الى زيارة مراكز الرعاية للاستفادة من الخدمات المقدمة وان وزارة الصحة يجب ان تقوم بتحسين نوعية الخدمات المقدمة للمرأة، وخاصة رعاية الأمومة والطفولة.

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