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Article
Carbon steel corrosion inhibition in acidic medium by expired drugs
تثبيط تأكل الفولاذ الكربوني في الوسط الحامضي باستخدام الادوية منتهية الصلاحية

Authors: Faliah Hassan Ali --- ThaeraAbdulridhaMussa Al-Shimiesawi --- Kafa Khalaf Hammud --- Samira AhmedAbdul Rahmman
Journal: journal of kerbala university مجلة جامعة كربلاء ISSN: 18130410 Year: 2017 Issue: المؤتمر العلمي الخامس لكلية العلوم Pages: 115-126
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

Corrosion and expired pharmaceutical materials represent a research spot because of their important issues in earth planet and human life. Three different expired drugs were bought from pharmacies in Baghdad city, Iraq and tested to determine their efficiencies in solving carbon steel corrosion in 1M HCl solution. Various exposure times were subjected to test Citicoline (Samozina, syrup, 100 mg in 1mL); Carbocisteine (5%) (Rhinathiol syrup, 750 mg); or Paracetamol (Panalife syrup 120 mg in 5mL) as an inhibitor protect carbon steel specimen from being corroded. Inhibition efficiencies (IE%) of the tested drugs were ranged from low to high values reflecting the effects of drug- active component type, time, concentration, and acidic hydrolysis as a suggested explanation. Temkin isothermal model was applied and Kads were ranged from [(26.43374-183.549), (10.36883 - 311.2802), and (3.499144 - 61.50259)] for Citicoline, Carbocisteine, and Paracetamol respectively. While Δ Gads values (in negative sign) were varied from (18.0494-22.8559, 15.7418-24.1738, and 13.033-20.1562) for Citicoline, Carbocisteine, and Paracetamol respectively. From Δ Gadsvalues, it can be concluded that physisorpion than chemisorption was occurred

يمثل التأكل والمواد الصيدلانية منتهية الصلاحية بقعة البحث مهمة بسبب اهميتهما لكوكب الارض والحياة البشرية. تم شراء ثلاث ادوية منتهية الصلاحية من الصيدليات في مدينة بغداد – العراق وفحصها لتحديد كفاءتها في ايجاد حل لمسألة تأكل الفولاذ الكربوني في محلول حامض الهيدروكلوريك 1M.تم تطبيق اوقات مختلفة لاختبارCiticoline (Samozina, syrup, 100 mg in 1mL); Carbocisteine(5%) (Rhinathiol syrup, 750 mg); او Paracetamol (Panalife syrup 120 mg in 5mL) في حماية عينة الفولاذ الكربوني من التآكل. تراوحت كفاءة التثبيط (IE٪) للادوية تحت الفحص من القيم القليلة الى العالية كانعكاس تأثيرات كل من نوع الدواء- المكون الفعال من الأدوية تحت الإختبار من الأقل إلى القيم العالية التي تعكس آثار نوع المادة الفعالة ضمن الدواء، والوقت، والتركيز، والتحلل الحمضية كتفسير مقترح.


Article
Corrosion Inhibition of Steel (St 44-2) by Pomegranate Shells in Acidic Medium

Author: H.A. Abdullah
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2017 Volume: 35 Issue: 4 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 399-405
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Pomegranate shells were investigated as green inhibitors for steel 44-2 in 0.1M HCl at various temperatures (30, 40, 50, and 60) °C using electrochemical technique. Five concentrations of inhibitor were added 4, 8, 12, and 16 ppm. Corrosion tests were performed by Potentiostat at 5 mV.sec-1 scan rate and the data measured by Tafel extrapolation method such as Tafel slopes, corrosion current density and corrosion potential. Inhibition efficiencies were calculated and indicated that 8 ppm was the best concentration for inhibition especially at 60oC, where was 96.47%. Pomegranate Shells behaves as anodic inhibitor type and obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The equilibrium constant of the adsorption-desorption process and the apparent free energy of adsorption confirm the physicsorption of Pomegranate shells. FTIR spectroscopy was used to test film formed on steel surface compared with FTIR spectrum of Pomegranate Shells. These spectra confirm the formation of Fe2+Pomegranate shells complex.


Article
Nano Ferrites as Corrosion Inhibitors for Carbon Steel in Local Iraqi Bentonite Mud

Authors: N.A. Al-Rubaiey --- F.S. Kadhim --- A.A. Ati
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2017 Volume: 35 Issue: 8 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 849-855
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Corrosion processes are accountable for serious losses in the oil industry. Although organic and inorganic materials and mixed materials inhibitors have been used for a long time to control or reduce corrosion. Using nano-materials as inhibitors has gained an increasing applications role because of their exceptional properties. Nano materials are good corrosion inhibitors because they possess many advantages such as high efficiency of inhibition, low cost, minimum toxicity and effortless production. This work examines the use of nano-materials as inhibitors to prevent corrosion of carbon steel in drilling mud. Anti-corrosion properties of zinc and nickel ferrite nano materials (ZnFe2O4, Zn0.6Ni0.4Fe2O4) have been investigated over carbon steel in local Iraqi bentonite mud as a source of the corrosion. It has been found that under the given conditions, ferrites act as efficient corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel.


Article
Green Corrosion Inhibitor for Protection of Mild Steel

Author: S.A. Ajeel
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2017 Volume: 35 Issue: 9 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 914-921
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

In the present work, corrosion inhibition of Mild steel in 1M H2SO4 solution by Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves extract was studied by weight loss and potentiostatic methods. Increasing acid concentration leads to an increase in the corrosion rate of the electrode. The variable conditions used in this investigation are (100 to 1000 ppm at 25oC. Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves extract for Mild steel. It has been found that the concentrates as a compelling consumption inhibitor for gentle steel in acidic medium. The hindrance process is credited to the development of an adsorbed film of inhibitor on the metal surface, which secures the metal against corrosion. The inhibition efficiency was observed that increase with increasing inhibitor concentration up to maximum 92% for 1000 ppm at 25 oC. The results show that the corrosion rate without inhibitor is 5.6 mpy while with inhibitor be 0.43 mpy, that is mean the corrosion rate was improved more than 90%. The effects of immersion time (2 h) at 25oC on the inhibition of corrosion have also been improved corrosion resistance. The results obtained show that Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves Extract could serve as an excellent friendly green corrosion inhibitor. FTIR results indicate that this herb containing different chemical bonds (C-C, CH2, C-O-C, Cellulose) with steel surface producing barrier layer to protect the surface


Article
Parametric Optimization of Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Lap Welding of Stainless Steel ASTM A240/ 316L with Carbon Steel ASTM A570/Gr30

Author: Thaier A. Tawfiq
Journal: AL-NAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة النهرين للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 25219154 / eISSN 25219162 Year: 2017 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 27-35
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

This work describes seam welding process using dissimilar ferrous metals by pulsed Nd:YAG. The main objective of this work is to achieve the best welding conditions. This imposes careful selection for the welding parameters and inevitably the well design of experiment (DOE). Sheets of ASTM A240/316L stainless steel to ASTM A570/Gr30 carbon steel all of 0.5 mm in thickness were lap welded. Different pulse energies or the related peak power, pulse duration, pulse repetition rate, and welding speeds were used. Moreover, different welding speeds were controlled by the employed manipulator. The laser beam spot diameter and the standoff distance were fixed. Experimental results are supported by the computational 2D and 3D models. In this article response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to design the experiment and obtain the best parameters through a set of mathematical models that define the weld characteristics. The results show that the best joint in term of joint strength is obtained at 31.9 J pulse energy (related to 5.5 kW peak power and 5.8 ms pulse duration), power density of 1.43×106 W/cm2, 1.5 Hz pulse repetition rate, and 0.5 mm/s welding speed.


Article
Corrosion Protection of Carbon Steel by Zn/PPY mCoating as Layers in 3.5% NaCl

Authors: S.I. Salih --- A.H. Ataiwi --- G.A. Mahdi
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2017 Volume: 35 Issue: 8 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 821-830
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Plate from low carbon steel was took from oil pipelines, and coated with two layers, the first layer was done by sherardizing process at 400oC for variable periods (15, 30, 60, 120, 240)min, the second layer was applied by polypyrrole (PPY). The results showed that the thickness of sherardizing layer paint is increased when increasing treatment time (15, 30, 60, 120, 240 min). The corrosion performance was evaluated by using polarization method. In addition, it was examined morphological surface of paint layers by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the presence of polypyrrole layer with sherardized coatings, showned significantly increase in corrosion resistance, and coating of low carbon steel by using polypyrrole the conductive polymer with sherardizing process, drastically reduced from the corrosion current density values, as well as the corrosion rate of low carbon steel. The corrosion rate of the the polymer conductive coatings (PPY) on low carbon steel without sherardizing coating (as received) is 19.5 mpy while incorporation of PPY and sherardizing gives corrosion rate of 0.00371 mpy.


Article
Anodic Inhibitor Doped Polypyrrole Coating to Reduce Corrosion in Petroleum Medium

Authors: R.A. Anaee --- W.M. Salih --- H.A. Abdullah
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2017 Volume: 35 Issue: 9 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 878-886
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

It is known that corrosion inhibitors and coatings are the best choices to use in oil refinery; therefore, we suggested using both inhibitors and coating to get more efficiency for corrosion control. Polypyrrole coating (PPy) without and with doping by anodic inhibitors were investigated to protect the tank from corrosion in light naphtha unit at Al-Dura refinery. Polypyrrole coating was deposited as nanofibers by electropolymerization using cyclic voltammetry method. Doped polypyrrole coating was applied by adding anodic inhibitor represented by chromate, phosphate and molybdate in acidic electrolyte. The coated layers were examined by SEM/EDS, FTIR and AFM. These examinations showed that coating layers were as nanofibers on carbon steel surface with average roughness in nanoscale as follow: 24.2 nm for PO4≡/PPy, 108 nm for PPy, 122 nm for B4O7=/PPy and 139 nm for MoO4=/PPy coating. Corrosion measurements were investigated by Potentiostat in oil medium at 60oC which represent the average temperature of light naphtha unit; the results showed that the highest protection efficiency was 78.34% in the presence of PO4≡/PPy coating and the others were 77.85% for PPy, 72.64% for B4O7=/PPy and 68.83% for MoO4=/PPy coating. The presence of inhibitor within the structure of polypyrrole coating leads to repairing the defects that may be produced by corrosion process and then the protection will take a long time to be destroyed. The protection by inhibitor doped PPy suggesting reduce the ionic conductivity of coating film especially in the presence of phosphate anions, where the porosity percents was 0.00025 for PO4≡/PPy compared with other coatings (0.04794 for PPy, 0.00043 for B4O7=/PPy, and 0.13083 for MoO4=/PPy).


Article
Alumina Nanoparticle/Polypyrrole Coating for Carbon Steel Protection in Simulated Soil Solution

Authors: R. A. Anaee --- H. A. Abdullah --- Gh. Z. Alsandooq
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2017 Volume: 35 Issue: 9 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 943-949
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

External corrosion by soil’s components is a serious problem in many steel structures such as pipelines and tanks, thus many methods are applied to reduce this risk. Nanotechnology almost gives improving for conventional protection methods.Investigation on nano Al2O3 doped polypyrrole coating has been done on carbon steel structures to protect them in two simulated soil environments include (0.01M NaCl + 0.01M NaHCO3) and (0.01M NaCl + 0.01M Na2SO4). Electropolymerization of pyrrole monomer carried out in oxalic acid with suspended nano alumina using cyclic voltammogram method. Characterization of produced film was done by SEM/EDS and the results indicated the uniformly distribution of coating in the presence of nano alumina confirming the presence of Al2O3 NPs by EDS analysis. Also FTIR spectra showed the occurred incorporation between polypyrole and nanoalumina in deposited film on steel surface.The presence of nano alumina behaves as repaired to healing the defects in polymer film by chemical, mechanical and electrochemical factors and then gives long life time for service; this result was concluded through the improving in protection efficiency of Al2O3 NPs/PPy film compared with conventional red paint which is uses to protect carbon steel structures.


Article
Effect of Water Content, Temperature and NaCl on CO2 Corrosion of Carbon Steel (A106B) in Iraqi Crude Oil

Authors: Enaam Y. Abdel-Rahman --- Saad Ahmed Jafar
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2017 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-10
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

An investigation was carried out to determine the corrosion rate of carbon steel (A 106 Grade B) as flow line in crude oil production with CO2 content employing three Iraqi crude oil (Kirkuk crude oil, Halfaya crude oil, and Rumalia crude oil) with identical produced water (brine) [1%NaCl, 2%NaCl, and 3%NaCl]. Experiments were performed in an autoclave test apparatus, crude oil-produced water mixtures, water cuts were (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 100%), and temperature (20, 40, 60°C). For all experiments, CO2 partial pressure was maintained at 4bar and rotational speed 500 rpm. The corrosion rates were determined by the weight loss method. The results revealed that the corrosion rate of carbon steel increased by increasing water cut and temperature, but decreased with increasing salt concentration for all types of crude oil. Rumaila crude oil exhibited the highest corrosion rate and Kirkuk crude oil exhibits the lowest corrosion rate while Halfaya crude oil exhibits a moderate corrosion rate.


Article
Influence of EDM Parameters on the Appearance of Recast Layer

Authors: S.K. Shather --- A.F. Ibrahim --- N. Jammal
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2017 Volume: 35 Issue: 7 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 694-700
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of non-traditional methods employed to produce complicated forms of electrical conductive materials. This process can be applied to materials difficult to machine with traditional methods. Thus, the study and analysis of EDM variables play an important role to improve the yield, and safety of a surface. This research aims at study and analyze influence of pulse current (Ip) (10, 16, 22) Amp, pulse on time (Ton) (50, 100,150) μs and pulse off time (Toff) (25, 50, 75) μs, (keeping other parameters fixed) on a Recast Layer Thickness (RLT) for machining (AISI 1018 mild carbon steel) using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) within “Minitab 17” for designing of experiments. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used. Experiments proved that minimum RLT was 5.2 μm at Ip, Ton and Toff at 10Amp, 50 μs and75 μs, respectively. The results also indicated that RLT increased with the increased (Ip and Ton) and decreased in Toff.

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