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Article
Estimation of Rate of Penetration Considering Mechanical, Hydraulic, and Formation Characteristics for Mishref Formation

Author: Kadhim Hmood Mnati
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2017 Issue: 17 Pages: E20-E38
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

This paper presents a detailed formulation of a rate of penetration (ROP) model, considering many drilling parameters and conditions for obtaining maximum drilling rate as well as minimizing the drilling cost.A regression analysis technique has been usedfor ROP modeling in Mishref formation.The data were extracted from routinely available mud and wirelinelogs. These data includes weight on bit ,rotary speed,horse per square inch,and transit time.For ROP modeling, data of five wells inHalfaya oil field in south Iraq were extracted.Statistical software called SPSS was used for improving the modeling data and to perform linear and nonlinear multiple regression analysis. This improving approach included detection the outliers of modeling parameters, grouping the modeling data, moving average and finally applying the regression analysis.Results of modeling showed that the grouping of modeling data exhibited good convergence with actual data and the overall model of oil field could producegood fitness with the actual data in both cases of linear and nonlinear models.Also,a good estimation of drilling cost could be obtained when using this model.


Article
Enhancing the Lifting Capacity of Drilling Fluids in Vertical Oil Wells

Author: Amel habeeb Assi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2017 Volume: 18 Issue: 3 Pages: 13-29
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Of the many functions that are performed by the drilling fluid, the most important is to transport cuttings from the bit up the annulus to the surface. Various drilling fluid have been widely used in the oil industry to improve lifting capacity. In this study, three mud type have been used which they are, oil base mud, X-anthan polymer and a mixture of CMC and bentonite ,by using Carrying Capacity Index calculation (CCI) , the Xanthan gave good values of CCI than other studied drilling fluid. By using Sifferman chart and field data from well in south of Iraq and API equation to find cutting concentration in the annulus, The results showed that the used of thick mud increase the lifting capacity and decrease volumetric drill cuttings in the annulus but the using thin mud lead to decrease lifting capacity and increase volumetric drill cuttings in the annulus .The results show that the mud viscosity and flow rate have important role in hole cleaning. Also, the effect of annulus velocity and flow pattern on cutting transport ratio is studied by using field data. The effect of cutting size and OD of drill pipe is also studied. Cutting size is one of the parameters that influence the hole cleaning; large size cutting makes the hole cleaning more difficult. The reducing of annular size of hole by increasing the OD of drill pipe lead to increasing the annular velocity.


Article
Improving Drilling Fluid Properties by Using Nano-Additives

Authors: D. Mahmood --- N.S.AL-Zubaidi --- A. A. Alwasiti
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2017 Volume: 35 Issue: 10 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1034-1041
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Nanotechnology is one of the most important techniques in recent days. Using Nano-additives to improve drilling fluids properties in order to meet the modern drilling process requirement is still being debated till date. In this study, three Nano-materials (magnesium oxide MgO, titanium dioxide TiO2 and Graphene) were used to improve the rheological and filtration properties as well as Clay Yield. The weight of Nano-materials were (0.02, 0.05, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8) gm. The results showed that the rheological properties were the same with Graphene and TiO2, while MgO gave the best results of rheological and filtration properties and with a higher values of yield point and gel strength. The higher value of Clay Yield obtained by0.2wt % (0.8 gm) of MgO was (173bbl/ton) while TiO2 and Graphene gave the same values (124,126 bbl/ton) respectively.


Article
Effects and hazards of drilling fluids on well drilling workers and the administrative processes adopted in Iraqi fields

Author: Wisam Hussain
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2017 Issue: 17 Pages: E51-E76
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

Drilling fluids are any fluids which are circulated through a well while drilling in order to remove cuttings from a wellbore. During drilling, large volumes of fluids are circulating through the well and into open, partially enclosed or completely enclosed systems at high temperatures. When these drilling fluids are agitated during a circulating process there is significant potential for chemical exposure to workers and subsequent health effects. This study seeks to identify major areas of exposure to drilling fluids and the health hazards associated with the use of drilling fluids. The study also presents some challenges in setting the standards of exposure to the drilling fluids which have always not been given the same attention or concern as the effects and risk management of drilling fluids. Some exposure indicators are also presented.Questionnaire has been done on seven Iraqi fields (Nahran Omar,Nasiriya ,Zubair,East Baghdad, North Rumaila, Humrain and Jambur ) to determine the administrative and protective processes adopted by our national companies in order to minimize the drilling fluid exposures. The questionnaire has been done also to get know the most important conclusions and use the reliable recommendations that achieve the research objective. According to the data obtained from the questionnaire, there are no clear, standard and unique administrative and protective processes adopted by Iraqi drilling company in different sites. The study recommended the necessity of evaluating their processes related with reducing the risks of drilling fluid exposures and establishing a specialized committee to develop such drilling fluid systems.


Article
Gypsum Mud Rheological Behavior

Author: Wissam.H.AL-Hashimi,
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2017 Issue: 15 Pages: 28-50
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

Gypsum muds are considered as the most important ones used in oil well drilling due to their thermal stability in addition to the durability of their ingredients. The main aim of this work is to study the effect of the gypsum mud compositions on their rheological behavior under the conditions of high-pressure and high temperature. Eleven samples of gypsum mud were tested using Fann viscometer model 50-C. All the tested samples had the same trend of reduction in both plastic viscosity and yield point with increasing temperature. The results showed that with 5 ppb of Q Broxine thermal degradation is obtained at approximately 150 0 F; this is due to the over treatment with thinner which result in more soluble solids and higher rheological properties while the decrement in NaOH concentration from 0.7 ppb to 0.35 ppb results in an increase in both yield point and plastic viscosity; this is due to the loss of OH-1 ions. Six rheological models were adopted: Bingham, power law, modified power law, Robertson stiff, modified Robertson stiff and Casson. Both Robertson stiff model and Casson model showed more acceptable values that fit the experimentaldata accurately.


Article
The impact of closed perforation zones and damaged sections on flow dynamics and pressure behaviors of horizontal wells

Author: Salam Al Rbeawi
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2017 Issue: 14 Pages: 1-28
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

Horizontal wells with multiple completion parts have become a common completion technique in the oil and gas industry. Sand and asphalt production problems, damaged zones and water cresting or gas coning are the main reasons for using this technique to sustain or improve oil and gas recovery. However, using such completion technique introduces negative effects on pressure behavior of horizontal wells.This paper introduces new mathematical models for horizontal well containing several closed completed sections acting in finite and infinite reservoirs. These models can be used to evaluate the impact of the completion techniques on both pressure behaviors and flow regimes either in the vicinity of wellbore or at the outer boundary of reservoirs. They can be used also to investigate the change in productivity index that would result due to the usage of certain type of completion technique. In this research, the completed sections (cemented or isolated parts) and the places where packers are installed are considered as no-flow sections. These sections are expected to increase pressure drop required for flowing reservoir fluid toward wellbore. They are also expected to change flow regimes mainly in the vicinity of wellbore.Several models have been developed and solved in this study for different completion techniques, wellbore conditions and reservoir configuration. It has been found that the great impact of completion techniques is observed on flow regimes that commonly develop in the drainage area close to wellbore. This impact shows similar trends to the skin factor. Several new flow regimes have been observed, one of them has been developed due to the existence of closed completed sections which is intermediate or second radial flow regime. This flow regime can be found for some cases of long wellbore having multi-short perforated sections. The study will introduce the mathematical models for known and newly developed flow regimes for horizontal well including the completion technique.


Article
Plum Tree Gumsas Local Alternativesfor Foreign Drilling Fluid Materials

Authors: Faleh H.M. Almahdawi --- Mohammad N. Hussain --- Haider Salim Jasim
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2017 Issue: 15 Pages: 51-65
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

A few years ago oil well drilling cost increased due to using modern technique such as equipment and materials that are used by specialist companies so studies and researches were required to decrease these costs. In this study we tried to find local alternatives for foreign drilling fluid materials that are aimed to decrease oil well drilling cost although the cost of drilling fluid materials reach to 30 % of totalmaterials cost ofdrilling oil well. In the first part of this study seven local materials and it's tested under API Specification 13A for Drilling Fluids Materials were investigated. Plum Tree Gum was succeeded in this test among several other materials as drilling fluid materials. The second part of this study was a comparison between these local alternative and similar foreign materials for same sample to show physical and rheological properties.The third part of this study was tested this local alternative under different values temperature to show effect the temperature on physical and rheological properties of this local alternative. The results approved that; Plum Tree Gum, local alternative, can use as filtration control materials for water based drilling fluid. Also this local alternative increased viscosity as minimal for water based drilling fluids, So it can be used as part alternative for Bentonite to increase viscosity by increasing Yield point and decreasing solids concentration in drilling fluids so it has positive effect on Rig equipment’s and Pay-zone.Plum Tree Gum is Ore polymers (plant origin)

خلال السنوات القليلة الماضية لقد ازدادت كلف حفر الابار النفطية نتيجة استخدام التقنية الحديثة من المعدات والمواد من قبل الشركات المختصة لذا اصبحت الحاجة ضرورية الى اعداد دراسات وبحوث لتقليل هذه الكلف ومن هذه الدراسات هو ايجاد بدائل محلية لمواد سوائل الحفر الاجنبية المستخدمة حاليا في الحقول النفطية ( علما ان كلفة مواد سوائل الحفر تصل الى % 30 من الكلفة الكلية للمواد المصروفة على حفر البئر النفطي .في الجزء الاول من هذا البحث تم تهيئة سبعة بدائل محلية وفحصها حسب الفحوصات القياسية العالمية API Specification 13A for Drilling Fluids Materials ولقد اثبتت التجارب نجاح هذا البديل المحلي من بين عدة بدائل اخرى . في الجزء الثاني تم مقارنة هذه البدائل الناجحة مع اقرانها من المواد الاجنبية وذلك بإضافتها بتراكيز وزنية مختلفة لنفس النموذج من سائل الحفر لبيان الخواص الفيزيائية والريولوجية لسائل الحفر .في الجزء الثالث من البحث تم اجراء فحوصات عند درجات حرارة مختلفة لبيان تأثيرها على الخواص الريولوجية والفيزيائية للبدائل الناجحة علما ان الفحوصات اعلاه تم تنفيذها في مختبرات مركز البحث والتطوير النفطي. اثبتت النتائج ان البدائل المحلية :1-يمكن استخدامها كمواد مقللة للراشح وتؤدي الى زيادة لزوجة سوائل الحفر المائية القاعدة نسبيا .2-يمكن استخدامها كبديل جزئي للبنتونايت حيث انها تؤدي الى زيادة اللزوجة عن طريق نقطة المطاوعة وبالتالي تقليل نسبة الاجزاء الصلبة في السائل وهو عمل ايجابي للحفاظ على معدات جهاز الحفر والمكامن المنتجةالبدائل المحلية هي مواد اولية وهي عبارة عن بوليمرات من اصل نباتي وهي :صمغ اشجار فاكهة الالو.


Article
Effect of Pre-hole Diameter on Bushing Dimensions for Friction Drilling Process of A6063-T6 Aluminum Alloy
تأثير قطر الثقب الاولي على ابعاد الجلبة في عملية التثقيب بالاحتكاك لسبيكة المنيوم A6063-T6

Author: Sami A. Nama سامي علي نعمه
Journal: Al-Rafidain University College For Sciences مجلة كلية الرافدين الجامعة للعلوم ISSN: 16816870 Year: 2017 Issue: 39 Pages: 373-387
Publisher: Rafidain University College كلية الرافدين الجامعة

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Abstract

Friction drilling is a non-conventional method for hole making in thin sheet metals. It depends on many parameters regarding the tool conical angle, process conditions and material parameters. In this work, the effect of process conditions and pre-drill diameter on temperature, drilling force, bushing height and bushing thickness of A6063-T6 aluminum alloy were studied. It was found that adding a pre-hole to the plate helps in obtaining uniform bushing thickness and reduces the heat and force required to perform the process.

التثقيب بالاحتكاك طريقة غير تقليدية تستخدم لتشغيل الثقوب في الصفائح المعدنية الرقيقة. تعتمد هذه الطريقة على العديد من العوامل المتمثلة بزاوية المخروط للآداة، ظروف العملية ومواصفات المعدن . تم في هذا البحث دراسة تاثير ظروف العمل وقطر الثقب الاولي على درجة الحرارة، قوة التثقيب، ارتفاع وسمك الجلبة الناتجة عند تشغيل صفيحة المنيوم A6063-T6. وجد من نتائج الدراسة ان اضافة ثقب اولي للصفيحة يساهم في الحصول على سمك جلبة متجانس مع تقليل كمية الحرارة الناتجة والقوة اللازمة لانجاز العملية.


Article
Arthroscopic Screw Fixation Versus Arthroscopic Subchondral Bone Drilling In Osteochondritis Dissecans(OCD) of the Knee

Author: Majed Aswad Alsaad, Mahmoud Kh. Yassen
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 92-97
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Osteochndritis Dissecans is relatively rare disorder commonly affect adolescent males, non weight bearing area of the medial femoral condyle is the most common site. OCD is a radiological diagnosis with MRI sensitivity about (97%). Non operative treatment indicated in juvenile form and stable type. Operative intervention indicated in adult form and unstable lesions. OBJECTIVE: To the postoperative clinical knee functional outcome between arthroscopic screw fixation and arthroscopic subchondral bone drilling in OCD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective comparative non randomized study was performed on 10 patient (8 males and 2 females) with adult form of OCD. The patients were divided into 2 groups( A and B), each group consisting of 4 males and 1 female. All patients in group( A) underwent arthroscopic screw fixation, and all patients in group (B) underwent arthroscopic subchondral bone drilling. After 3, 6 and 12 months follow up, the 2 groups were compared preoperative and postoperative according to Lasholm Score changes. RESULTS: In both groups ( A and B), the difference in improvement of the clinical knee outcome postoperatively better than preoperatively according to Lasholm Score( P value less than 0.001) which was statistically significant, and the difference in improvement in group (A) better than in group (B) postoperatively, P value < 0.001 which was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Arthroscopic screw fixation in OCD has statistically better clinical knee functional outcome than arthroscopic subchondral bone drilling, and it is recommended to do arthroscopic screw fixation if possible. .


Article
Outcome of laparoscopic Ovarian drilling in anovulatory infertility associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome
نتائج حفر المبيض بالمنظار في العقم المرتبطة بمتلازمة المبيض المتعدد الكيسات

Author: Enas Jaleel Hussein م.د.أيناس جليل حسين
Journal: Diyala Journal of Medicine مجلة ديالى الطبية ISSN: 97642219 Year: 2017 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 40-47
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of world wild endocrine problem ,affecting women during their reproductive life . 75%of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) complain from infertility due to Anovulatory dysfunction , together with menstrual abnormality and signs &symptoms of hyper andorganism.. One of the second line of treatment is Laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) that used to induce ovulation in women with PCOS .Objective: To assess the effectiveness of LOD surgery in management of PCOS related to an ovulation , menstrual regularity and failure of conception. Patients and Methods: This prospective study included 47female had previously tried multiple drugs for stimulation of ovulation for conception, and undergo surgery by laparoscope ovarian drilling for period between 1st of May 2011 to 15 th of May 2016, At private hospital with follow –up for 1 year .Results: Surgical ovarian drilling by laparoscopy was successfully done without any surgical or anesthetic problems , and follow-up the patient for 1 year . There were significant decrease (P<0.05) in LH, prolactine and Testosterone hormones levels with significant increase in the hormonal level of Progesterone following the LOD procedure compared to before the drilling. (70.2% ) of the patient start again to had ordinary regular menstrual cycle and( 61.70% ) establish to ovulate spontaneously while only (48.93%) has been conceived. Conclusion: Laparoscopic ovarian drilling appear as an efficacious and safe second line treatment for PCOS women with Clomphine acetate failure , anovulatory dysfunction and may achieve immediate correction of the patient s endocrinology with increase ovulation and pregnancy rates.

خلفية الدراسة: متلازمة المبيض المتعدد الكيسات هي واحدة من المشاكل الهرمونيه العالمية، التي تؤثر على النساء خلال سن الإنجاب. عدم التبويض مشكله متواجد ه في 75٪ من المرضى الذين يعانون من متلازمة المبيض المتعدد الكيسات (يكوس)، بالإضافة إلى اضطراب وعدم انتظام الدوره الشهريه وعلامات وأعراض فرط الهرمون الذكري،. واحدة من الأساليب الثانية من العلاج هو حفر المبيض بالمنظار (لود) التي تستخدم للحث على الإباضة في النساء مع متلازمة تكيس المبايض. اهداف الدراسة: هدفت هذه الدراسة لتقييم فعالية الناظور في معا لجة الإباضة وانتظام الدورة الشهرية .المرضى والطرائق : شملت هذه الدراسة المستقبلية ل47مريضه, قد حاولن بالفعل مختلف الأدوية لتحريض الإباضة ولكن باءت بالفشل ، بعدها خضعن لعمليه حفر الناظور للفتره مابين الاول من مايو -2011 إلى 15 مايو -2016. النتائج الرئيسية قياس التبويض العفوي، انتظام الدورة الشهرية بعد الناظور وتأثير مختلف الخصائص قبل العملية على معدلات الحمل.النتائج: تم إجراء حفر المبيض بالمنظار بنجاح دون أي مضاعفات جراحية، وتم منابعه47 مريضه لمه سنه واحده بعد عمليه المنظار . كان هناك انخفاض معنوي في مستويات الهرمونات الهرمونية لهرمون البرولاكتين وهرمون تستوستيرون بعد إجراء االناظور مع زيادة كبيرة في مستوى الهرمون من البروجسترون بعد إجراء الناظور مقارنة مع قبل الحفرالناظور . (70.2٪) مريضه بدأ الحيض بانتظام وكانت هناك تبويض تلقائيا في (61.70)٪ منهم (48.93٪)حملن . الاستنتاجات : حفر المبيض بالمنظار هو علاج امن يعتبر الخط الثاني فعال للنساء المصابات متلازمة تكيس المبايض بعمل على زيادة معدل الإباضة والحمل لدى النساء مع متلازمة تكيس المبايض.

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