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Article
Antibacterial Effect of Aqueous and Alcoholic Ginger Extracts on Periodontal Pathogen Aggregatibacter Actinomycetem Comitans [An in Vitro Study] (Part 1)

Authors: Sana'a M. Awad سناء عواد --- Maha Abdul-Aziz. Ahmed مها عبد العزيز احمد
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2017 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-10
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Among natural food sources with antimicrobial activities, gingerrhizome has been used as widely grown food spices and medicinalcrops for centuries. Furthermore, it possess antifungal andantioxidant properties due to the phenols – related constituents(gingerols) that constrain the growth of many Gram positive andGram negative bacteria including some periodontal bacteria. TheActinomycetem comitans is a portion of the normal microbiota innumerous healthy individuals but is also a major etiological agentin some aggressive and chronic types of periodontitis.The present study was conducted to test the effect of aqueous andalcoholic ginger extracts on the growth of Aggregatibacteractinomycetem comitans in comparision to 0.2% chlorohexidinegluconate mouth wash and distilled water in vitro, determinationof ginger extracts minimum inhibitory concentration andminimum bactericidal concentration and detection of activeingredients of ginger extracts by using the high-performance liquidchromatography as well as chemical elements.


Article
Periodontal Health Status and Assessment of Osteocalcin levels in Saliva of Diabetic Patients and Systemically Healthy Persons (Comparative study)

Authors: Zina Ali Daily --- Ayser Najah Mohammed
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 1 Pages: 89-95
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Diabetes and periodontitis are complicated prolonged disorders through a recognized two-way association. There is elongated-conventional mark that hyperglycaemia in diabetes is affected on immune-inflammatory response and disturb the action of osteoclast and in balance bone turnover, which might rise the person vulnerability to the progress of prolonged periodontitis. Osteocalcin is one of the greatest plentiful matrix proteins originate in bones and produced absolutely there. Small osteocalcin crumbles are noticed in regions of bone remodeling and are in fact degradation products of the bone matrix, that is released outside cells into the Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) and saliva after destruction of periodontal tissue during periodontitisMaterials and Methods: Eighty patients with Type2Diabetes Maleates (T2DM), males and females, were recruited for the study, with an age range of (30-50) years were divided into four groups, (20 subjects each): poorly controlled Type 2Diabetes Mellitus with chronic periodontitis group (CP+pT2DM ) and well controlled Type 2Diabetes Mellitus with chronic periodontitis group(CP+wT2M) , group of patients with only chronic periodontitis (CP )and control group with healthy periodontium and systemically healthy. From all subjects five ml of unstimulated whole salivary samples were collected, then, the samples were centrifuged and the supernatants were collected and kept frozen until the biochemical analysis to measure OC concentrations then clinical periodontal parameters (plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss) were recorded for all subjects at four sites per tooth except for the third molars.Results: The results of this study revealed highly significant differences among all study and control groups for all the clinical periodontal parameters (plaque index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss) ,and OC concentrations. Additionally patients had chronic periodontitis with poorly controlled Type 2Diabetes Mellitus(CP+pT2DM )demonstrated the highest median values of all clinical periodontal parameters and highest increase in levels of salivary OC followed by CP+wT2M group then CP and Control groups. The current study demonstrates the correlation between OC concentrations with each one of the clinical parameters.It revealed highly significant strong positive correlations with PLI, GI and BOP score 1, while highly significant strong negative correlations with PPD. Also, non-significant weak positive correlation existed with CAL in CP+pT2DM group. Also, high significant strong positive correlation with PLI, GI, BOP and CAL; while, non-significant weak positive correlation with PPD in CP+wT2M group . High-significant strong positive correlation with BOP and CAL, as well as, high significant moderate positive correlation with PPD and significant weak positive correlation with PLI, while non-significant weak positive correlation with GI existed in CP group .Finally, high significant moderate positive correlation with PLI and GI existed in the Control group.Conclusion: Patients with poor glycemic control had more severe periodontal tissue break down with increase in levels of OC than well controlled type 2 diabetic patients and non-diabetic patients all of them with chronic periodontitis. So, this biochemical marker may be useful of periodontal tissue destruction and allowed practitioners for early diagnosis, prognosis and efficient management of periodontal diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus


Article
Radiographic study on relation of the periapical status and frequency of endodontic treatment of teeth with and without apical periodontitis in an Iraqi population .

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Abstract

Aim: The point of the study was to assess the prevalence of apical periodontitis andfrequency of endodontic treatment in an Iraqi population.Materials and methods: Panoramic radiographs of 300 Iraqi subjects 18-60 yearsold. The periapical status of all teeth (with the exception of third molars) wasexamined using periapical index scoring system (PAI). Information wereinvestigated statistically using the Chi-squared test at the significance level ofp<0.05.Results: Out of 5822 examined teeth belonging to 300 patients 156 had one or moreteeth with apical periodontitis (PAI 3-5) and 253 individuals had one or moreendodontically treated teeth.Conclusions: The discoveries of the exhibit examination come into concurred uponwith different investigations which accentuate that a worldwide improvement inthe quality of root canal treatment in general dental practice is required to promoteperiradicular health.


Article
Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Level on the Severity of Chronic Periodontitis.

Author: Sura Dakhil Jassim
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2017 Volume: 14 Issue: 4 Pages: 657 -662
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Chronic periodontitis is a multifactorial disease causing destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth. The most important causing factor of chronic periodontitis is dental plaque however different systemic, environmental and behavioral factors may associate with this disease. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of different variables on the severity of chronic periodontitis and their effects on clinical periodontal parameters.A questioner including: age, gender and educational level was taken from (550) patients with chronic periodontitis and they were systemically healthy, also clinical periodontal parameters were obtained from each patient. The patients categorized into different groups according to the age, gender and educational level and the percentages of mild, moderate and severe periodontitis were calculated for each group. Also, clinical periodontal measurements were compared among groups.Statistical analysis revealed that the highest percentages of severe chronic periodontitis cases were found in male, with primary education and (50-59) age groups. Also, statistically significant differences among all groups of different variables were shown in all clinical periodontal measurement. All of the variable including: age, gender and education may affect the severity of chronic periodontitis.


Article
Serum Level of TNF-α and IL-17 in Patient Have Chronic Periodontitis Associated Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Munir Nasr Hamed, منير نصر حامد --- Basima Gh. Ali
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 1 Pages: 104-110
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: chronic periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis are widely prevalent diseases and are characterized by tissue destruction due to chronic inflammation. Recently, there is growing evidence that the two diseases share many pathological features the aims of the study To determine the periodontal health status in patient have chronic periodontitis with rheumatoid arthritis and compare it with those having chronic periodontitis without Rheumatoid arthritis and determine the serum levels of interleukin -17(IL-17), tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α ) in both groups and compare with the control group (subject samples neither have periodontitis nor arthritis ) and correlate these immunological markers with the periodontal parameters Plaque index , gingival index , bleeding on probing, probing depth, clinical attachment level and number of missing teeth.Materials and methods: Eighty (80) males and females subjects with age range (30-45) years were recruited in this study they were divided into three main groups The chronic periodontitis with rheumatoid arthritis group consist of thirty (30) subjects and second group consist of thirty (30) subjects have chronic periodontitis and third group consist of twenty (20) subject case control group. All subjects had normal weight and height range according to BMI (body mass index) that it value is (18.5-25), Clinical periodontal parameters used in this study were Plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level index, probing pocket depth and number of missing teeth was measured in all groups at four surfaces of all presented teeth Blood samples were collected from all individuals and examined to determined serum level of interleukin -17 and tumor necrosis factor-a by mean of enzyme-linked immune–sorbent assay.Results: The present study showed patients with chronic periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis had higher prevalence of sites presenting dental plaque, a higher rate of gingival inflammation and bleeding on probing greater probing depth, greater attachment loss and high number of missing teeth compared to those had chronic periodontitis only and control subjects . Also highly significant differences between studied group regarding serum level of IL-17 and TNF-α atp < 0.001, as well as, it revealed that mean serum levels of IL-17 were statistically higher in chronic periodontitis with rheumatoid arthritis group (607.9 ± 79.9) than Chronic Periodontitis group (421.4 ± 5.9) and Control groups (15.9 ± 2.7) similarly serum level of TNF-α (402.2 ± 41.2 319.4 ± 526 85.3 ± 4.9) respectively at p < 0.001. Regarding correlation, the current study observed strong positive correlation between serum levels of IL-17 andTNF-α with PL.I, GI, BOP, PPD CAL and the number of missing teeth in the PRA at p<0.001. Also this study reveal significant correlation between the two immunological markers (TNF-α and IL-17) in chronic periodontitis with rheumatoid arthritis group and in Chronic Periodontitis group.Conclusion: It was concluded that there was higher potentiality to chronic periodontitis involvement among rheumatoid arthritis patients, that correlated positively with increase the level of serum levels of IL-17 and TNF-α accordingly with high score of clinical parameters that had recorded. That mean TNF –a and IL-17 may play an important role in increase the severity of periodontitis as well as rheumatoid arthritis


Article
Measurement of serum Superoxide dismutase levels in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome and chronic periodontitis

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Abstract

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most important reproductive and endocrine disorders in women at reproductive age. It's associated with metabolic disorder, obesity, insulin resistance and oxidative stress chronic periodontitis and PCOS both of them associated with low chronic grade of inflammation. The prevalence of periodontal disease seems to be higher in women with PCOS. Superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD) is an important circulating marker and protecting enzyme helping the body tissues to get rid of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage the tissue. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to measure and compare the levels of (SOD) among group of chronic periodontitis patients with PCOS, group of chronic periodontitis without PCOS and a third group who were systemically and periodontally healthy. Material and Method: This study consist of (60) women at reproductive age ranged between (25-40) years old. They divided into three groups Group I consist of 20 women systemically healthy and with healthy periodontium, group II consist of 20 women with chronic periodontitis and systemically healthy and Group III consist of 20 women with chronic periodontitis and (PCOS). We evaluated the periodontal health of the groups through measuring these important indices: Plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss. SOD antioxidant marker was measured colormeterically for the three groups. Results: this study showed higher means of periodontal parameters (plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss (1.275±0.246, 1.295±0.239, 0.24±0.16, 6.47±0.345, 4.125±0.328 respectively). Highly significant differences were found using t-test in inter group comparison. (P≤0.001) regarding pocket depth and clinical attachment loss .Higher mean of (SOD) level was found for G3 (137.72±29.769) U/mL . F-test was used for intragroup comparison and highly significant difference was found (P≤0.001). Positive but weak correlation where found among (SOD) level, bleeding on probing in Group I and Group II , also among (SOD) level, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss. Conclusion: (PCOS) associated with oxidative stress and more prone to periodontal diseases with high level of antioxidant agent like (SOD) level to compensate the high level of (ROS)


Article
Astudy Relationship between IL11β (.+.3954) Geneu Polymorphism with Moderateqand SeveriChronicaPeriodontitis AmongrSample.. of IraqiansqPopulation In BabylonqProvince.

Authors: Zainab M.Hameed --- Mahdi Yakoob Kzar --- Baha H Alamidi --- Aliaa Saad Karkosh --- et al.
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2017 Volume: 25 Issue: 2 Pages: 707-717
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Intoduction: Theqcytokine, is aprimary activator of earlyqchemotacticqcytokines, as well as of expressionqof adhesionq molecules that ,facilitateqmigration of leukocytes intoqtissues.,,IL-1q is also. one of the most, activeqstimulators ,ofqosteoclastqcells ,,,and lead to boneqresorption...Theqaim ofqthis study was toqdetermined.. the .prevalenceqof the ILq1 β (q+3954.)t geneqpolymorphism in a sample of iIraqi8 patientsqwith qchronicqperiodontitisy in4 Babylon .,Province and to evaluater they association of thisopolymorphism witht the severityqof disease,,. Methodsw: Seventy four systemicallyqhealthyqpatients attending theqDepartment of Periodontics of Facultyqof Dentistry, Babylon University, BabylonqProvince, Iraq.r Patients wereqclassified into twoqgroups: subjects withqchronicqperiodontitis groupq(CP) (n=40) andq healthyqcontrolqgroup (C)..(n=34). Thisqstudy desiged a cross8sectionalqstudy.5GenomicqqDNA was obtained from venousqblood(5 ml)5 and amplifiedy usings the Polymerasey Chainu Reactionq (PCR) with specific primers flankingqthe locus *+3954 of*ILq1β. PCRq.products wereqsubmitted to restriction endonuclease digestionaand analyzed by polyacrylamideqgel electrophoresis, to distinguish allelesqTqandqCqof the ILq1 β gene, allowing for the determinationqof the genotypesqand detection qof the polymorphism. Results: The homozygousqgenotype CC of the ILz-1β( +3954) was dominatedzin controlq(C )group than in Chroniczperiodontitis (CP) group. The heterozygousqgenotype CTysignificantly higher in Chronicuperiodontitis groupzthan zyin controlzgroup,(P =0.038; OR 4.125 ). The Prevalencezof thezTT genotypezywas dominated in chronic periodontitis (CP)groupz than in controlz(C )group,and statisticallyyinsignificant valueowas obtainedpwhenpcompared betweenuthese twoogroups(P =0.27). Weuobserved that,individualsqwith severechronicq periodontitisqgroup displayedqhigh frequencyqof Tsoallele(47.6 %) as compareduto individualsqwith moderateqchronic periodontitisqgroup, at the same time no significant difference was observed between them.The chroniciqperiodontitis groupqdisplayed a higherqpercentage of the Tqtallele (45%) when compared,with,controlrogroup(29.4%6),and statisticalpinsignificant in alleleqdistribution wasoobserved between these twopgroups.Conclusion:- Our dataqsuggested thatqthe polymorphismqin the locusq+3954 ofwIL1 β geneqcould be related toqchronic periodontitisqin Iraqiqpopulation.

يعتبر الانترلوكين 1 بيتا من اهم السايتوكينات التي تلعب دور فاعل في تحفيز الالتهابات المزمنه في الجسم ,ويعتبر عامل اولي في تفعيل جذب كرات الدم المتعددة النواة الى النسيج بالاضافه الى تحفيز عمل الخلايه المذيبه للعظم. الهدف من هذه الدراسه هو لمعرفة مدى ارتباط او علاقة التعدد الشكلي للانترلوكينون1 بيتا (3945) لمرضى التهاب اللثه بين عينه من العراقيين في محافظة بابل من المصابين بامراض اللثه المزمن العام.و مقارنته النتيجه مع مجموعه اخرى غير مصابين بالتهاب اللثه المزمن.مع بيان مدى ثاثير هذا المورث مع شدة التهاب اللثه المزمن.اظهرت النتائج بان المورث او الجين الانترلوكين 1 بيتا المتعدد الاشكال (3945) يشكل خطر كبير على التهاب اللثه المزمن الشديد جدا.اي انه يلعب دور في شدة التهاب امراض اللثه المزمن.


Article
The Association of HLA-A Gene Polymorphisms with Chronic Periodontitis in Iraqi patients
الارتباط بين تعدد الأشكال الجينيHLA-A مع مرض النساغ المزمن في المرضى العراقيين

Authors: Enas Razzoqi Naaom م.د.ايناس رزوقي نعوم --- Seta A. Sarkis د.سيتا سركيس --- Batool Hassan Al-Ghurabi د.بتول حسن الغرابي
Journal: Diyala Journal of Medicine مجلة ديالى الطبية ISSN: 97642219 Year: 2017 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 45-53
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: There is growing evidence that genetic aspects play a role in the onset and severity of periodontitis. However, numerous studies have pointed to the contribution of the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) alleles as a potential genetic factor in aetiopathogenesis of periodontitis.Objective: To investigate the association of human leukocyte antigens class I genotype (HLA-A) and the susceptibility and severity of chronic periodontitis in Iraqi patients. Patients and Methods: The study groups included 50 patients with chronic periodontitis and 20 healthy controls with clinically healthy periodontium. Periodontal parameters used in this study were plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP). Five ml of venous blood were collected from each participant. DNA was extracted from blood samples, and HLA-A genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSO).Results: The present data revealed that the frequencies of HLA-A*33 was significantly higher in patients than in healthy controls (P= 0.0268).Conclusion: This study suggests that HLA-A*33allele may contribute to the increased susceptibility to chronic periodontitis.

خلفية الدراسة: هناك أدلة متزايدة على أن الجوانب الوراثية تلعب دورا في ظهور وشدة التهاب اللثة. ومع ذلك، فقد أشارت العديد من الدراسات إلى مساهمة أليلات مستضدات الخلايا البشرية (HLA) كعامل وراثي محتمل فيأسباب أمراض اللثة. اهداف الدراسة : أنجزت هذه الدراسة لبحث الارتباط بين مستضدات الخلايا البشرية الصنف الاول Aوالتعرض للاصابة لمرض النساغ المزمن في المرضى العراقيين وعما إذا كان هناك ارتباط موجود بين شدة التهاب اللثة وتعدد الأشكال الجيني.المرضى والطرائق : شملت مجموعات الدراسة 50 مريض لديهم التهاب اللثة المزمن و 20 الاصحاء معلثة صحية سريريا. اما فيما يخص مؤشراتماحولالاسنان التي تم قياسها في هذه الدراسة هي (مؤشرالصفيحةا لجرثومية, مؤشرالتهاب اللثة , عمق جيوب اللثة, مستوى الانسجة الرابطة سريريا و مؤشرالنزف عند التسبير). تم جمع خمسة مل من الدم الوريدي من جميع المرضى والضوابط. تم استخراج الحمض النووي (DNA) من عينات الدم، وبعد ذلك تم إجراء HLA-A التنميط الجيني عن طريق تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل (PCR-SSO).النتائج: اظهرت الدراسة الحالية ان تكرارالاليل (HLA-A*33)كان معنويا نسبة عاليا في المرضى مقارنة بالأصحاء (P= 0.0268).الاستنتاجات: تقترح هذه الدراسة أن HLA-A*33 أليل يمكن أن تسهم في زيادة القابلية لمرض النساغ المزمن.


Article
Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Gene Polymorphisms in Iraqi patients with Chronic Periodontitis
تعدد الأشكال في جين عامل نخر الورم ألفا ((TNF-α في المرضى العراقيين المصابين بمرض النساغ المزمن

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Abstract

Background: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of bacterial etiology that results in the destruction of tooth supporting tissues, tooth mobility, and tooth loss. The inflammatory response of the periodontal tissues to infection is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. The polymorphism of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) has been reported to influence the expression of TNF-α, thereby playing a role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis.Objective: To study the genotyping of tumor necrosis factor-α at position (-308) and to find out whether any associations exist between the severity of periodontitis and the gene polymorphisms.Patients and Methods: The study groups included 50 patients with chronic periodontitis and 20 healthy controls with clinically healthy periodontium with an age range of 25-50. Everyone were analyzed for polymorphism of TNF-α gene at position (-308). Periodontal parameters used in this study were plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP). Five ml of venous blood was collected from all patients and controls. DNA was extracted from blood samples, and then the results of electrophoresis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products for this cytokine were subjected for sequencing and to locate the positions of possible mutations.Results: The results of sequencing for the tumor necrosis factor-α gene showed higher frequency of mutations in patient samples as compared to healthy control samples. A highly significant difference was found in the frequency of mutations among the six samples (4 patients and 2 controls) p=0.0002.Conclusion: The results of this study indicates that the (-308) polymorphism in TNF-α gene is associated with the susceptibility to chronic periodontitis.

خلفية الدراسة: مرض النساغ المزمن هو مرض التهابي من المسببات البكتيرية التي تؤدي إلى تدمير الأنسجة الداعمة للأسنان ، حركة الأسنان، وفقدان الأسنان. الاستجابة الالتهابية لأنسجة الاسنان الداعمة للاصابة تتأثر بالعوامل البيئية والوراثية.أن تعدد الأشكال لعامل نخر الورم ألفا (TNF-α) له تأثير على التعبير عن TNF-α، وبالتالي تلعب دورا في التسبب في التهاب اللثة.اهداف الدراسة : قد أجريت هذه الدراسة لدراسة التنميط الجيني لعامل نخر الورم α في موضع (-308) ولمعرفة ما إذا كان هناك أي أرتباط موجودة بين شدة التهاب اللثة وتعدد الأشكال الجيني.المرضى والطرائق : شملت مجموعات الدراسة 50 مريض لديهم التهاب اللثة المزمن و 20 الاصحاء مع لثة صحية سريريا وكانت أعمارهم تتراوح ما بين25- 50 سنة. اما فيما يخص مؤشرات ما حول الاسنان التي تم قياسها في هذه الدراسة هي (مؤشر الصفيحة الجرثومية , مؤشر التهاب اللثة , عمق جيوب اللثة , مستوى الانسجة الرابطة سريريا و مؤشر النزف عند التسبير). تم جمع خمسة مل من الدم الوريدي من جميع المرضى والضوابط. تم استخراج الحمض النووي (DNA) من عينات الدم ثم بعد ذلك أُجري الترحيل الكهربائي من منتجات تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل (PCR) ، وأُرسلت النتائج لمعرفة التتابعات وتحديد اماكن الطفرات المحتملة.النتائج: أظهرت نتائج الكشف عن تسلسلات القواعد النتروجينية لجين عامل نخر الورم ألفا ((TNF-α تردد أعلى من الطفرات في عينات المرضى مقارنة عينات من الأصحاء. تم العثور على اختلاف كبير جدا في تردد الطفرات بين العينات الست (4 مرضى و2 الضوابط) p=0.0002.الاستنتاجات: نتائج هذه الدراسة تشير إلى أن تعدد الأشكال في الجين TNF-α في موضع (-308) يمكن أن تسهم في زيادة القابلية لمرض النساغ المزمن.

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