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Assess the Impact of Technological Chang in the Agricultural Sector in Iraq for the Duration of the (1990-2013) Using Transcendental Logarithmic Production Function
تقدير اثر التغير التقاني في القطاع الزراعي العراقي للمدة (2013-1990) باستخدام دالة الانتاج اللوغاريتمية المتسامية

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Abstract

The Study aims to measure the impact of technical Change in agriculture of Ira using time-series data for the period ( 1990-2013) , logarithmic production function work was transcendental (superior ), had used the value of output in the agricultural sector, Capital, Labor, and raw materials . The study also indicated that the flexibility of production were positive when mediums of labor and capital components amounted (0.9926) and (1.00036) respectively, the finding suggest the sector affected by technical change, she also results to vibrate the productivity of the work item was lost when the average (13332946.5) million dinars and the value of capital when average (3134.9021) million dinars during the period of study , there is no partiality of technical change to production bolstered to technological working in Iraq agriculture sector , also note that average gross fixed capital formation for agriculture sector with a total value over study (3763.81) million dinars and from the treasury turnover sector agricultural the total during the same period (74237.6526) million dinars which equalize (9.7%) of reserve capital for Iraqi economic sectors , the results were extracted using quantitative tools in economical multiple linear regression method of ordinary least squares (OLS) , in these study use the translog index on calculation the technological change, well as to analyze the results using the standard engineering program (Gretl 1.9.9) the results of all of the work and function of capital and technological change (restricted) BL,BK, BVT, Bt respectively (2.71437), (1.02265) , (1.83144) , (83.2471) Respectively This shows the moral function . The study recommends that introduction of technical progress talk with industrialized nations , and activate the technology role through ( Categories improver, Manures , medication, Vaccinia ) courses and internal newsletters about the way you use this change , raising the role of ministry of agriculture and water resources that contribute effectively to raise and improve the national product , and diverted agricultural sector if progress technology the least developed sectors, and the need for increased and intensified research aimed at analyzing the structure of production and deepened to improve production to improve production efficiency .

تهدف الدراسة الى قياس أثر التغير التقني في قطاع الزراعة العراقية باستخدام بيانات السلسلة الزمنية خلال المدة (2013-1990) , وتم العمل بدالة الانتاج اللوغاريتمية المتسامية , واستخدمت قيمة الانتاج في القطاع الزراعي كعامل التابع , ورأس المال المقدر , العمل, والمواد الاولية , عوامل مستقلة . وبينت الدراسة أن مرونة الانتاج كانت موجبة عند متوسطاتها لعنصري العمل ورأس المال فقد بلغت (0.9926) و(1.000036) على التوالي , وتشير النتائج الى تأثر القطاع بالتغير التقني , واشارت ايضاً النتائج إلى تذبذب إنتاجية عنصر العمل فقد كانت عند المتوسط (1332946.5) مليون ديناراً وكذلك بلغت قيمة رأس المال الثابت عند المتوسط (3134.9021) مليون ديناراً خلال مدة الدراسة , ولا يوجد تحيز للتغير التقني لعناصر الإنتاج بسبب عدم وجود دعم على العامل التكنولوجي في قطاع الزراعة العراقية , ونلاحظ كذلك إن متوسط تكوين رأس المال الثابت للقطاع الزراعي قد بلغ مجموع قيمته خلال مدة الدراسة (3763.81) مليون ديناراً , أما بالنسبة لخزين رأس المال للقطاع الزراعي فقد بلغ مجموع قيمته خلال المدة ذاتها (74237.6526) مليون ديناراً أي ما نسبته (%9.7) من خزين رأس المال للقطاعات الإقتصادية العراقية , وتم استخراج النتائج باستخدام الادوات الكمية الاقتصادية المتمثلة في أسلوب الانحدار الخطي المتعدد بالاعتماد على طريقة المربعات الصغرى الاعتيادية (OLS) , وفي هذه الدراسة تم استخدام الرقم القياسي المتسامي (Translog Index) في حساب التغير التكنولوجي , وكذلك الحال بالنسبة الى تحليل النتائج فقد استخدم البرنامج الهندسي القياسي (Gretl 1.9.9) , وكانت نتائج دالة الانتاج الكلية (المقيدة) لـــBL,BK,BVT,Bt هي(83.2471), (1.83144) , (1.02265) , (2.71437 ) على التوالي وهذا يدل على معنوية الدالة . وتوصي الدراسة بإدخال أسلوب التقدم التقني الحديث بما يواكب برامج الدول الصناعية , وتفعيل الدور التكنولوجي من خلال ( الاصناف المحسنة والاسمدة والادوية والامصال ) , وكذلك أسلوب استخدام هذا التغيير, ورفع دور وزارتي الزراعة والموارد المائية التي تساهم مساهمة فعالة في رفع وتحسين الناتج القومي , وتحويل موارد القطاع الزراعي في حال التقدم التكنولوجي إلى القطاعات الاخرى الاقل نمواً , والحاجة الى زيادة وتكثيف البحوث التي تهدف الى تحليل هيكلية الانتاج والتعمق فيها لتحسين الكفاءة الانتاجية .


Article
STUDY THE EFFECT OF FUEL OIL LIQUID ON ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF GYPSEOUS SOIL
دراسة تأثير زيت الوقود السائل على الخصائص الهندسية للتربة الجبسية

Author: Israa Saleh Hussein اسراء صالح حسين
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2017 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 60-74
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

One of the effected problems that the civil engineer faces it in construction of buildings is the presence of gypseous soils. Gypseous soil is highly dissolved when its water content increases. There are many treatments for such soils like soil replacement, earth reinforcement, compaction, addition of asphalt, lime, fuel oil and other. In this study, the improvement properties of gypseous soils were investigated using fuel oil which is one of a little cost materials and because of the ability of this material to prevent the water action and to distribute in voids of soil. Gypseous soils used in this study, which contain (49.4%) gypsum content, were brought from Tikrit city, Salah-Aldeen governorate. The addition of fuel oil to gypseous soil, was with different percentages (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%) to get more observation about the study. The results showed that the maximum dry density decreases while the optimum moisture content increases with increasing fuel oil content. Moreover, this study showed that as the fuel oil content increased to an optimum value (8%), the maximum unconfined compressive strength, the cohesion (c) and the angle of internal friction (φ) increased to about (34%), (52%), (15%) respectively, then decreased. When the treated and untreated samples soaked in water, the maximum unconfined compressive strength, the cohesion (c) and the angle of internal friction (φ) decreased to about (37%), (21%), (12%) respectively, at an optimum fuel oil content (8%). The initial void ratio (e_0) and collapse potential (C.p.) decreased to about (32%), (90%) respectively, as the fuel oil content increased to an optimum value (8%). The compression index decreased as the fuel oil content increased to an optimum value (8%) then increased.The main results indicated that using fuel oil (8% fuel oil content) provides better solution for problems of gypseous soil. Using this material improving the engineering properties of the gypseous soils and reducing the collapsibility, especially when these soils faced the wet condition.

من المشاكل الهندسية التي تواجه المهندس المدني في أعمال إنشاء المباني هو وجود التربة الجبسية. والجبس من الأملاح السريعة الذوبان في الماء بزيادة المحتوى الرطوبي للتربة. هنالك العديد من المعالجات لهذه الترب منها استبدال التربة والتسليح والحدل و إضافة الاسفلت وألنوره وزيت الوقود وغيرها من الطرق الأخرى. في هذه الدراسة سيتم دراسة إمكانية تحسين خصائص التربة الجبسية وذلك باستخدام تقنية إضافة زيت الوقود والمتوفر محليا وبكلفة منخفضة نسبيا إضافة إلى قدرته على تقليل تأثير الماء في التربة بنسب مختلفة (2, 4, 6, 8 و10%) للحصول على بيانات كافية. أظهرت النتائج إن النسبة المثلى للمحتوى المائي تتزايد والكثافة العظمى تتناقص بزيادة نسبة زيت الوقود السائل. وكذلك مقاومة الانضغاط غير المحصور للتربة وتماسك التربة وزاوية الاحتكاك الداخلي تزداد قيمتها بحوالي (34%), (52%) و (15%) بالتتابع بزيادة نسبة زيت الوقود السائل عند النسبة المثلى للمعالجة وهي (8%) ثم تتناقص. وعندما تم غمر النماذج المعالجة والغير معالجة بالماء لوحظ تناقص قيم الانضغاط الغير محصور وتماسك التربة للتربة وزاوية الاحتكاك الداخلي بحوالي (37%), (21%) و (12%) بالتتابع. كما إن نسبة الفراغات الأولية للتربة ومعامل الانهيارية تتناقص قيمتها بحوالي (32%) و (90%) بالتتابع بزيادة محتوى زيت الوقود عند النسبة المثلى للمعالجة وهي (8%) ثم تزداد بزيادة محتوى زيت الوقود. أما معامل الانضغاطية فانه يتناقص بزيادة محتوى زيت الوقود السائل عند النسبة المثلى للمعالجة (8%) ثم يزداد بزيادته. وأظهرت النتائج أن زيت الوقود هو مادة جيدة لتعديل الخصائص الأساسية للتربة الجبسية وان استخدام هذه المادة يساعد في تحسين الخصائص الهندسية للتربة الجبسية وتقليل انهياريتها وخصوصا بوجود الماء.


Article
Rainfall Data Analysis and Study of Meteorological Draught in Iraq for the Period 1970-2010

Authors: Ansam I. Jasim --- Taymoor A. Awchi
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2017 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 110-121
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

This work aimed to analyze and evaluate the metrological draught in Iraq. Monthly rainfall data were collected from 22 meteorological stations scattered all over Iraq for the period 1970-2010. Various statistical tests have been performed to examine the data accuracy, e.g. Consistency test, Trend analysis, as well as homogeneity test. The Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) and Theory of Runs are used to analyze the metrological draught and evaluating the draught characteristics. SPI values have been estimated for 12-month time scale, from January to December. To analyze the drought characteristics, the accumulative deficit, drought duration and intensity for each station have been estimated. The results showed that the rainfall data series considered in the study are all consistent with negative trends except Hilla station, random except Haditha and Samawah stations and homogeneous. It was shown that the study area has been suffered from sequent drought events through nearly half of the years considered in the study, and the worst were in 1997-2001 and 2007-2010 in which extreme droughts were dominated several parts of study area.


Article
Analyses of Base Isolated Buildings; Nonlinear Modal Time History Versus Codes' Methods

Authors: Haider S. Al-Jubair --- Fareed H. Majeed
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2017 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 55-62
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Multi-story hypothetical reinforced concrete buildings of variable geometric configurations (symmetrical, vertically irregular, horizontally irregular, with and without shear walls); with isolated bases via high damping rubber bearing and friction pendulum systems, are analyzed by using finite element method under seismic load function (North-South component of the ground motion recorded at a site in El Centro, California in 1940) via SAP2000-V16 software. Four methods of analysis are adopted. The accuracy of nonlinear modal time history is compared to that of methods recommended by international codes, namely; nonlinear direct integration, equivalent lateral force, and response spectrum methods. The bilinear hysteretic model of base isolation system and the Rayleigh damping framework for superstructure are adopted. The results support the powerfulness of the nonlinear modal time history analysis, due to the negligible deviations from those predicted by the robust nonlinear direct integration method. The response spectrum method proved to be more reliable than the equivalent lateral force method which over predicts the displacement and rotation profiles for the isolated buildings.


Article
Design and Implementation of an over Current Protection Laboratory for Electrical Power Transmission Systems Based on PLC Techniques

Authors: Ahmed A. Allu --- Hassaan Th. H. Thabet
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2017 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 62-69
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

This paper describes a modern approach for the protection of transmission lines to ensure their safety against the faults occurred in power systems. Our approach uses a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to realize a transmission line as an over current protection relay. A conditioning circuit was designed, implemented and tested to collect data obtained from Hall Effect sensors which convert them to suitable analog values compatible with PLC's inputs. Results obtained by our PLC control system are very similar to those obtained by the conventional relays but more efficient. An Automatic Reclosing System (ARS) for remote faults is also included in this approach. Our PLC control system and its algorithm are illustrated in this paper also. This approach is designed to be used in electrical networks laboratories as an educational unit in electrical departments of engineering collages and technical institutes; it can be used also in real power systems through suitable interfacing facilities.


Article
Mechanical and Physical Properties of Hybrid Cu-Graphite Composites Prepared via Powder Metallurgy Technique

Authors: Fouad R. Muhialdeen --- Jawadat A. Eaqoob --- Farouk M. Mahdi
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2017 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 11-24
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Copper -graphite composites are widely used in a great number of engineering applications such as brushes, switches, sliding bearings, self-lubricating bearings, etc. due to their good thermal and electrical conductivity and excellent tribological properties as compared with other structural materials. There are ongoing attempts in manufacturing copper composites with better properties to enhance their efficiency and increase their effective life.Present research aims to prepare hybrid 95wt.% copper –5wt.% graphite composites reinforced with yttria and tin particles by powder metallurgy technique and to study their effects on mechanical and physical properties of the prepared composites. Powder mixture was mixed by ball mill mixer at 100rpm for 120min with (5/1) balls to powder ratio. The powder mixture was cold pressed at 700MPa for 30sec, followed by sintering at 900 ˚C for one hour. In the first stage, Yttria(Y2O3) was added with (2, 4, 6, 8, 10) wt% to pure copper (Cu) and to (95%Cu-5%Gr) matrices. Typical composite of this stage was ((95%Cu-5%Gr)-4%Y2O3. In the second stage, tin (Sn) was added with (2, 4, 6, 8, 10) wt% to pure copper and((95%Cu-5%Gr)-4%Y2O3 matrices. Typical composite of this stage was ((95%Cu-5%Gr)-4%Y2O3)-6%Sn. The results showed that hardness and true porosity of the composites increases with increasing yttria content. On the other hand both thermal and electrical conductivity of the composites decreases with increasing yttria content. It was also found that (95 wt.% Cu- 5 wt.% Gr) – Y2O3 composites have always lower wear rate than plain Cu-Y2O3 composites.


Article
Investigation of the Tribological Behavior of Eutectic Al-Si Casting Alloy

Author: Riyadh Azzawi Badr
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2017 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 42-46
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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The effect of roughness of Al-Si alloy on the wear is investigated. Roughness average (Ra) was verified via different polishing, also was using a pin–on-disc of different loads (5, 10, 15) N, different speeds (100, 200, 300) rpm and relative humidity 74%. Different values of Ra are obtained with (3, 5 and 7) µm. Worn surface were characterized using SEM / EDX. The results show that the wear rate of Al-Si eutectic alloys increases with the roughness increase. It was noticed that the specific and wear decreases as roughness decreases. Severe wear was observed at all loads.


Article
Pressure - Settlement Characteristics of Shallow Foundations using Finite Element Method

Authors: Hend Jamal Maulood --- Adnan Jayed Zedan
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2017 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 25-37
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

The present study attempts to represent the behavior of shallow foundations under the effect of eccentric inclined loading in terms of the main criteria of design which are the ultimate bearing capacity, permissible settlement, horizontal displacement and tilt. Due to the square shape of the analysed foundations, three dimensional finite element analysis are used. Elastic-perfectly plastic behavior of soil and rigid of foundations was adopted using Mohr-Coulomb criterion, 15-Node wedge elements were used to model and represent the soil and 5-Node linear elements with three degree of freedom to model and represent the foundations in used program PLAXIS 3D TUNNEL version 1.2. The results of analysis were presented in the form of pressure-settlement, pressure-horizontal displacement and pressure-tilt characteristics. Then the ultimate bearing capacity of the foundations were gotten and compared with (Meyerhof, 1956) and (Saran & Agrawal, 1991), a good agreement was found between them. Using the data obtained from the analysis, non-dimensional correlations have been developed for predicting the values of settlement, horizontal displacement and tilt of eccentrically-obliquely loaded foundations. These relationships can be used by the engineers.


Article
Determination of Flow through Homogeneous Earth Dams with Triangular Toe Filter

Author: Jawdat K. Abbas
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2017 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 81-88
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Finite element method with a computer program SEEP/W were utilized to determine the "quantity" of flow through homogeneous earth dams with triangular toe filter. The effect of angle of upstream slope, angle of downstream slope, angle of toe filter, height of dam, crest width of dam, free board, length of toe filter and coefficient of permeability on the quantity of seepage were studied. The results show that, the seepage quantity decreased with increasing angle of toe filter, free board height and crest width of dam. Also, from the results can be concluded that, the flow quantity increased with increasing angle of "upstream slope", angle of "downstream slope" and length of toe filter. Using statistical analysis by a SPSS-19 program, a new empirical equation was suggested to estimate the quantity of seepage through earth dams with triangular toe filter.


Article
The Dynamic Behavior and Control of Methanol-Toluene Distillation Column

Authors: Duraid F. Ahmed --- Maher O. Ahmed
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2017 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 1-11
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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In this study the dynamic behavior for two control methods of the distillation column for the separation of methanol and toluene mixture are studied. The experimental responses of temperature in each tray of distillation column for step changes in set point of reboiler, reflux ratio and feed weight fraction were obtained. Based on a derived mathematical model, the Simulink simulator of the distillation column is used to implement the PID and fuzzy logic control methods. The Comparison between two controllers is done for step changes in set point, feed flow rate, feed weight fraction and liquid reflux. The controller performance is measured by using mean square error and integral square error. The results showed that the performance of the fuzzy controller is the best than the PID controller in fast access to the desired value and cancelling the disturbances.

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