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Article
Using of Hybrid Nanoantibiotics as Promising Antimicrobial Agent

Author: Saife D. Al-Ahmer , AbdulMuhsin M. Shami , Basima Q.Hasan AL-Saadi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 1-16
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Nanoparticles are particles with size 1-100 nm, which exhibit different shapes like spherical, triangular, rod, etc. Research on synthesis of nanoparticles is the current area of interest due to the unique visible properties (chemical, physical, optical) of nanoparticles compared with the bulk material. Owing to the wide range of applications offered by nanoparticles in different fields of science and technology, different protocols have been designed for their synthesis. The nanoparticles can be synthesized using the top-down (physical) approach which deals with methods such as thermal decomposition, diffusion, irradiation, arc discharge, and bottom-up (chemical and biological) approach,which involves seeded growth method, polyol synthesis method, electrochemical synthesis, chemical reduction, and biological entities for fabrication of nanoparticles. Different synthesis methods involve the use of different types of chemical, physical, and biological agents to yield nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes. The most often used method for the chemical synthesis of nanoparticles is the chemical reduction method, which deals with the reduction of metal particles to nanoparticles using chemical reducing agents like sodium borohydride or sodium citrate.


Article
Evaluation of some bioactive effect of phenolic compounds in Costus speciosus rhizome extract
تقييم تاثير بعض الفعاليات الحيوية للمركبات الفينولية في مستخلص جذور نبات القسط الهندي

Author: Zaid Akram Thabit زيد اكرم ثابت
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 1A Pages: 38-43
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This work was evaluated the antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Costus speciosus rhizomes methanol extract. The FLC analysis showed the presence of five compounds in the methanol extract of C. speciosus rhizomes. These compounds were Quercetin (5.2mg/ml), Rutin (6.02mg/ml), Luteolin, (18.3mg/ml), Kaempherol, (11.34mg/ml) and Coumarin (1.41mg/ml). The maximum antioxidant activity of the extract was at concentration 1000 μg/ml with free radical scavenging activity approximately 67.5%. It was less than standard ascorbic acid 85.5% and Gallic acid 90% with significant difference (p≤0.05), with no significant difference in comparison with standard TBA 68.5%. The IC50 of extract was 3093μg/ml, while the IC50 of ascorbic acid, Gallic acid and TBA were (277.2, 364.5 and 601.3 μg/ml) respectively. The extract revealed influential growth inhibition for all bacteria used in this experiment. The extract was moderately effective at concentration 400 μg/ml of extract with inhibitory activity 50.7 % on MCF-7 cell line and IC50 139.1 μg/ml.

قيم هذا العمل تأثير المستخلص الميثانولي لجذور نبات القسط الهندي في فعاليته كمضاد للاكسدة وعلى البكتريا المرضية المختارة للدراسة وفعاليته السميه تجاه نوع من الخلايا السرطانية . تحليل FLC اظهر وجدود خمس مركبات ، وهي الكوارستين بتركيز 5,2 ملغم/مل والروتين بتركيز 6,02 ملغم/ مل واللوتين بتركيز 18,3 ملغم/مل والكامفيرول بتركيز 11,34 ملغم/مل والكومارين بتركيز 1,41 ملغم/مل. اعلى فعالية كمضاد للاكسدة كانت عند تركيز 1000 مايكروغرام / مل ، وبلغ نشاط الجذور الحرة حوالي 67,5% والتي كانت اقل من العقار القياسي حامض الاسكوربك 85,5% وحامض الكاليك 90% مع اختلاف معنوي عند (0,05≥P ) بينما لم يكن هناك فرق معنوي عند المقارنة مع TBA 68,5%. وكان IC50 للمستخلص 3093 مايكروغرام / مل ، بينما كان لحامض الاسكوربك ، وحامض الكاليك، و TBA ( 277,2 ، 364,5 و 601,3 مايكروغرام/ مل ) على التوالي.. اظهر المستخلص تأثيرا واضحا في تثبيط نمو كل انواع البكتريا المستخدمة في التجربة .كما اظهرالمستخلص فعالية سمية متوسطة وعند تركيز 400 مايكروغرام/مل وبفعالية تثبيطية 50,7% على خط الخلايا السرطانية MCF-7 ، و IC50 139,1 مايكروغرام / مل.


Article
Determination of Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal concentration (MAC) of seed methanolic extract of Peganumharmala L. against Gram negative bacteria
تحديد الحد الادنى لتركيز تثبيطي والحد الادنى لتاثيرقاتل لمستخلص الميثانول لبذور الحرمل لفصيلة الغردقية ضد جراثيم السالبة لصبغة الغرام

Author: Saadia Saleh Mehdy Al-zeiny
Journal: Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الطبية البيطرية ISSN: 20779798 Year: 2018 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 26-34
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) used in traditional medicine of Iraq and itis one of the most famous medicinal plants. The most bacteria pathogen is resistance for synthesis antibiotic drugs resulting from abuse uses of the patient or produce resistance strains for microorganism therefor, the aim of this search is the effect antibacterial of seed alcoholic extract of peganum harmala on some Gram negative bacteria pathogen. Methods: The broth serial dilution assay method determined the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of seed methanolic extract of Peganum harmala were tested for antibacterial effect against bacterial isolates (salmonlla enteric , klebsiela pneumonia multidrugresitant E. Coli and highly resist E.coli), used phytochemical analysis of seed mathanolic extrac of peganumharmala. Result: showed good antibacterial activity against strain Salmonella enteric and Klebsella pneumonia, were MBC at concentration (25 mg/ml) and no effect of low concentration of MIC. The MBC value against strain multidrugresistant Escherichia coli, was at concentration (3.125 mg/ml) and MIC at (25 and 12.5 mg/ml), while MBC of highly resist Escherichia coli was in (12.5mg/ml) and MIC value at 50 mg/ml compared with standard antibiotics synthesis. Phytochemical analysis of component seed methanolic extract of peganumharmala showed presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, terpenoids and steroids.

بذور الحرمل او غلقة الذّئب الفصيلة الغرقديّة هي واحدة من النباتات الطبية الأكثر شهرة المستخدمة في الطب التقليدي فيالعراق. معظم البكتريا المرضية تكون مقاومة للمضادات البكتيرية نتيجة اساءة استخدامها من قبل لمرضى او انتاج سلالاتمقاومة للكائنات الحية الدقيقة لذا الهدف من هذا البحث تأثير المضاد البكتيري لمستخلص الميثانولي لبذور الحرمل ضد بعضالبكتيريا السالبة المرضية الطريقة. بطريقة تخفيف الميديا المغذية تم فحص المضاد الجراثيم ضد العزلات البكترية لمستخلص


Article
Preparation and Characterization of TiO2 Nanoparticles and its Applications as Antibacterial Agents

Authors: Ghadah R. Kahdim --- Riyad H. AL- Anbari --- Adawiya J. Haider
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 10 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1068-1074
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

TiO2NP’s were synthesis by sol-gel method at different calcination temperatures. The prepared TiO2NP’s were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The antimicrobial activities of the prepared TiO2NP’s were investigative for two kinds of bacteria, (Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterium. XRD results shows that the type of the TiO2 structure was anatase (A) at low temperatures, rutile (R) with rise of calcination temperature (Tc) into 800 ᵒC and mixed phases .SEM demonstrated that the size of nanoparticles seems larger and the accumulations appears clearly with raise calcinations temperature. The optical properties measured by the UV-Vis. Spectroscopy to compute the energy band gap for all phases around (3.75- 3.5 eV) for anatase and (3.4eV) for rutile. TiO2 nanoparticles in both phases showed excellent antibacterial activity against two representative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aurous.


Article
Synthesis of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Decorated with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Removal of Pathogenic Bacterial

Authors: Adawiya J. Haider --- Riyad H. AL- Anbari --- Hayder.A.Mohammed --- Duha.S. Ahmed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 10 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1075-1080
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

A series of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnONPs)-functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (F-MWCNTs) Nano composites were developed as antibacterial. In this study, chemical oxidation of pristine MWCNTs were carried out with a mixture of strong acids (3H2SO4 98%:1 HNO3 65%).The F-MWCNTs were used as templates to prepare hybrid material like ZnONPs decorated F-MWCNTs. Pristine MWCNTs, F-MWCNTs and (ZnONPs/F-MWCNTs) Nano composites powder were investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Anti-bacterial activity has been carried out using standard agar dilution (plate count) method against Escherichia coli (E. coli). This study demonstrated that (ZnONPs/F-MWCNTs) Nano composite has a powerful bactericidal effect against Escherichia coli (E. coli) at concentration 0.5 mg/ml after 3 hr, which led to speculation that the combination of ZnONPs and F-MWCNTs altered their toxicity and improved antibacterial property of Nano composite.


Article
Fabrication of ZnO-Ag Nanocomposite and Their Antibacterial Activities

Authors: Wisam J. Aziz --- Nisreen Z. Jassim
Journal: Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science مجلة علوم المستنصرية ISSN: 1814635X Year: 2018 Volume: 29 Issue: 1 Pages: 204-207
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

ZnO nanopowder was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal technique using zinc acetate and Triethanolamine (TEA) as surfactant agents. The resultant powder was annealed at 140 ᵒC for 12 hours. The as – synthesized ZnO nanopowder was then mixed with AgNO3 to prepare ZnO-Ag nanocomposites. The structural, morphological, and optical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The results confirm that Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been covered the ZnO hexagonal NPs, and show the redshift with the peak centered at 334 nm, because the interfacial electron coupling between ZnO and Ag NPs, the surface Plasmon peak centered at 403 nm was detected along with the excitonic peak of ZnO confirming the formation of ZnO-Ag nanocomposite. The antibacterial effect of ZnO - Ag nanocomposites was studied for Gram- negative (E.coli) and Gram– positive (Staphylococcus aureus), which showed that the diameter of the inhibition zone of pathogenic bacteria about 15 mm for E.coli and did not show any activity for Staphylococcus aureus.

في هذا العمل، تحضير جزيئات أوكسيد الخارصين بواسطة تقنية مائية حرارية بسيطة باستخدام خلات الخارصين و ثلاثي الايثيلامين كعامل مساعد للتفاعل. تم تلدين المسحوق الناتج عند 140 درجة مئوية لمدة 12 ساعة. ثم تم خلطها مع نترات الفضة لتحضير مركبات اوكسيد الخارصين- الفضة النانوية. وقد تم دراسة الخصائص الهيكلية وخصائص السطح والبصرية بحيود الأشعة السينية والمجهر الإلكتروني الماسح والأطياف المرئية للأشعة فوق البنفسجية حيث اكدت النتائج ان جسيمات الفضة المكعبة التركيب النانوية تغطي اوكسيد الخارصين ذو التركيب السداسي في حين تظهر نتائج الاشعة فوق البنفسجية انحياز نحو الاطوال الموجية الحمراء مقارنة مع اوكسيد الخارصين النقي وتم ملاحظة قمة البلازمون التي تؤكد تكوين المركبات النانوية. تم دراسة التاثير المضاد للبكتيريا لمركبات اوكسيد الخارصين - الفضة النانوية ضد بكتيريا جرام السالبة (الاشريكية القولونية ) وبكتريا جرام الموجبة ( المكورات العنقودية الذهبية), أظهرت النتائج أن قطر منطقة تثبيط البكتيريا المسببة للأمراض حوالي 15 ملم للإشريكية القولونية ولم تضهر اي نتيجة للمكورات العنقودية الذهبية.


Article
Antibacterial Activity of Alcoholic and Aqueous Extracts of Agaricus bisporus Against Food Borne Bacterial Pathogens

Authors: Ebtehal Hamid --- Eman Mohammed Ali --- Alyaa Razooqi Hussein⃰
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2018 Volume: 21 Issue: 1 Pages: 111-114
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Two extracts of 50 mg.ml-1 Agaricus bisporus alcoholic and aqueous were used in order to study their effect against two pathogenic bacteria. Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from chicken and minced meat samples respectively, then identified according to biochemical tests. Antibacterial activity of Agaricus bisporus extracts (alcoholic and aqueous) was studied by agar well diffusion method. The results exhibited that aqueous mushroom extract has no effect against the two tested bacteria, while alcoholic extract of mushroom affect against the two tested bacteria and the effect against S. aureus was more than that against Salmonella typhi and the zone of inhibition was 15 mm and 9 mm respectively. The ethanol alcohol 96% and water were used as control. From this study, mushroom extracts especially ethanolic or alcoholic could be used to control the transmission of pathogenic bacteria from food


Article
Black and green tea antimicrobial effect on Mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli

Authors: Minan Y. Al-Ezzi --- Abbas S. Al-Mizrakchi --- Athraa M Alwaheb --- Aylin Baysan --- et al.
Journal: Journal of Oral and Dental Research مجلة طب الفم والاسنان ISSN: 23106417 Year: 2018 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 36-54
Publisher: Iraqi Association for Oral Research الجمعية العراقية لبحوث طب الفم

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Abstract

Background Dental caries continues to be a major public health problem in many countries. The aetiology of dental caries is multifactorial and it is widely accepted that Mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli play major role in the formation of dental caries through adhering to the tooth surface and producing acid from dietary sucrose.Objectives Finding affordable natural product with anti-cariogenic potential will have a great impact on dental caries management worldwide. There is some published evidence supporting the antibacterial activity of green tea (GT) but studies of black tea (BT) are scanty. This preliminary study aimed to test the activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of BT and GT in comparison with sodium fluoride, chlorhexidine and distilled water, on clinical isolates of Mutans Streptococci (MS) and Lactobacilli (LB). Materials and Methods In the in-vitro study, MS and LB sensitivity and viable counts were tested with different concentrations of tea extracts. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the tea extract, and the time required for killing MS and LB in the presence of tea extracts were determined. An in-vivo study of sequential saliva samples collected from 30 volunteers after rinsing with the aqueous extracts was conducted, to investigate the longevity of tea extract as an antibacterial agent in the mouth. Results MS and LB counts were reduced with tea aqueous extract progressively with time. The largest inhibition zone was produced by 50% GT aqueous extract. LB least viable count was recorded at 30% BT aqueous extract. MBC was 35%and 30% for BT and GT extracts respectively. The maximum reduction of MS and LBviable counts was at 30 and 15 minutes respectively, after rinsing with 50% GT aqueous extract. Conclusion Tea extract has the potential to reduce MS and LB viable counts, and can be incorporated in the dental products as an effective anti-cariogenicagent.


Article
Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of some new 2-Thioxoimidazolidin- 4-one Derivatives (part II)

Authors: Amjad G. Eliwi --- Sahar Abdulla --- Zeina Kedaer --- Abdul Jabar Kh. --- et al.
Journal: Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science مجلة علوم المستنصرية ISSN: 1814635X Year: 2018 Volume: 29 Issue: 1 Pages: 79-86
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

In the present work, a various new derivatives of 2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one have been synthesized starting from reaction of thiosemicarbazide with two substituted aromatic aldehydes (4-bromobenzaldehyde, 4-chlorobenzaldehyde) to afford shiff,s bases (1a,b) which suffering from intermolecular cyclization when treating with ethylchloroacetate to give compound (2a, b), reaction of compound (2a, b) with4-bromobenzaldehyde produce compounds (3a, b), which is award six member ring product (compound 4a, b) when react with ethylacetoacetate. After a series of reactions with different reagents compound (4a, b) converted to anther compounds by reaction with hydrazine, aldehyde and then with chloroacetylchloride bearing β-Lactam moiety. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds have been confirmed on the basis of FT-IR and some of them by 1H-NMR. All of the prepared compounds were tested for their antibacterial activity against E.coli, P. mirabilis, and Staphylococcus and some of these compounds give good results.

في هذا البحث تم تحضير مشتقات جديدة لمركب 2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one حيث تم البدء بتفاعل مركب ثايوسيمسكاربزايد مع اثنين من الالديهايدات الاروماتية المعوضة (4- بروموبنزالديهايد, 2- كلوروبنزالديهايد ) للحصول على قواعد شيف (1a, b ) ثم اجري لها غلق حلقي لها مع مركب كلوروخلات الاثيل للحصول على ( 2a, b ) تفاعل المركب ( 2a ) مع الديهايدات اوماتيه معوضه اعطى المركبات (3a, b ), المركبات (4a, b ) تم الحصول عليها من من تفاعل المركبات (3a, b ) مع اسيتو خلات الاثيل و, بقية المشتقات تم تحضيرها من المركبات (4a, b ) مع الهيدرازين ومن ثم مع الالديهايد للحصول على قواعد شيف ثم مع كلورو اسيتيل كلوريد للحصول على بيتا لاكتام . تركيب المركبات المحضرة تم اثباتها باستخدام FTIR وبعضها باستخدام H-NMR, كل المركبات المحضرة تم اختبار فعاليتها مع بكتريا E.coli, P. mirabilis, and Staphylococcus واعطى بعضها نتائج جيدة جدا.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of 1,3,4- oxadiazole Derivatives using an Ultrasonic Technique

Authors: Faiq H. Saaid --- Shatha J. Dawood --- Bushra H. Marbeen
Journal: Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science مجلة علوم المستنصرية ISSN: 1814635X Year: 2018 Volume: 29 Issue: 2 Pages: 101-105
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

In the present study, a new of 1,3,4-oxadizole derivatives(4a1,4a2,4b1,4b2) were synthesized using an ultrasonic technique.Benzohydrazine and its substituted (2a, 2b) were obtained from the reaction of hydrazin with benzoylchloride and its substituted (1a, 1b). Compounds (2a, 2b) react with chloroacetic acid to form compounds (3a,3b) which react with p-phenylene diamine and hydrazine in presence of DMSO as a solvent to obtain new compounds (4a1,4a2, 4b1,4b2) by ultrasonic technique. The structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by spectral data: infrared spectra (FT-IR) and 1HNMR and CHN analysis. The synthesis compounds (4b1, 4b2, 4a1, and 4a2) were evaluated for antibacterial (Staphylococcus1 aureus) by the serial dilution method.

يتضمن البحث تخليق مركبات جديدة من 1,3, 4- اوكسادايازول ومشتقاته (4a1,4a2,4b1,4b2) بتقنية الموجات فوق الصوتية . تم الحصول على مركب بنزوهيدرازين ومشتقه (2a,2b) من تفاعل البنزويل كلورايد ومشتقه(1a,1b) مع الهيدرازين . من تفاعل (2a,2b) مع كلورو استيك اسيد تم الحصول على مركبات (3a,3b) الذي بتفاعلهم مع بارا – فينلين داي امين و مع الهيدرازين بوجود ثنائي مثيل سلفونيل كمذيب بطريقة الموجات فوق الصوتية للحصول على مركبات جديدة (4a1,4a2,4b1,4b2) . تم توضيح هياكل المركبات المحضره بواسطة البيانات الطيفي باستخدام تحليل العناصر وطيف الاشعة تحت الحمراء وتقنية الرنين المغناطيسي. تم فحص المركبات (4b1,4b2,4a1,4a2) للمضاد للبكتيريا ((Staphylococcus aureuss بواسطة طريقة التخفيف المسلسل.

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