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Article
The Effects of Sputtering Time on Cds Thin Film Solar Cell Deposited by DC Plasma Sputtering Method

Authors: Azhar K. Sadkhan --- Mohammed K. Khalaf
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 2 Part (C) Pages: 123-127
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

CdS thin films of different thickness have been prepared by dcsputtering technique on glass slides for a window layer of solar cells. The CdStarget were sputtered in different sputtering times (1,1.5,2.5,3) hrs, workingpressure (2×10-2) mbar and discharge voltage(2) kV.The structure of thenanoparticles films was investigated of CdS thin films by X-ray diffraction(XRD).The XRD patterns showed that the films were hexagonal (wurtzite)structure having strong preferential orientation along the (002) plane withparticle size in the range of (41.04-41.46-41.88-42.53) nm, the peak at (002)preferred orientations of the films are shifted a little from left to right side andfilms converted to crystalline form. The morphology of the nanoparticles filmswas studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) which indicates that theaverage grain size of CdS thin film is in the range of (41.3-44.2-51.6-50.08) nm.The roughness of films surface increases with increasing the sputtering time,which can be useful for the solar cell.


Article
Removal Of Dissolved Cadmium Ions from Contaminated Wastewater using Raw Scrap Zero-Valent Iron And Zero Valent Aluminum as Locally Available and Inexpensive Sorbent Wastes
ازالة ايونات الكادميوم من مياه الفضلات الملوثة باستخدام مخلفات برادتي الحديد والالمنيوم الصفر التكافؤ كملوثات مازة متوفرة محليا ورخيصة

Authors: Hayder M. Rashid --- Ayad A.H. Faisal
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2018 Volume: 19 Issue: 4 Pages: 39-45
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The current study was to examine the reliability and effectiveness of using most abundant, inexpensive waste in the form of scrap raw zero valent aluminum ZVAI and zero valent iron ZVI for the capture, retard, and removal of one of the most serious and hazardous heavy metals cadmium dissolved in water. Batch tests were conducted to examine contact time (0-250) min, sorbent dose (0.25-1 g ZVAI/100 mL and 2-8 g ZVI/100 mL), initial pH (3-6), pollutant concentration of 50mg/L initially, and speed of agitation (0-250) rpm . Maximum contaminant removal efficiency corresponding to (90 %) for cadmium at 250 min contact time, 1g ZVAI/ 6g ZVI sorbent mass ratio, pH 5.5, pollutant concentration of 50 mg/L initially, and 250 rpm agitation speed were obtained. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were presumed to fit the batch kinetics data for the sorption of Cd(II) onto ZVAI and/or ZVI and found that Langmuir (I) was the most representative model type with coefficient of determination R2 greater than 0.9115. Kinetics data for the sorption of Cd(II) onto ZVAI/ZVI mixture and due to the good agreement between the fitted and the experimental results; the data was found to obey the pseudo second order model. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the ZVI and ZVAI was conducted before and after the sorbent-liquid reaction and revealed distinct morphological changes in the sorbent surface due to the contaminant saturation and pore channel blockages that ceased the sorption process.

تقوم الدراسة الحالية على فحص مدى قابلية وفعالية استخدام مخلفات برادة الحديد والالمنيوم كفضلات متوفرة ورخيصة في اقتناص, اعاقة, وازالة اكثر العناصر الثقيلة خطورة وهو الكادميوم الذائب في الماء. لقد تم استخدام معالم تجريبية في اختبارات الوجبة مثل زمن تماس (0-250) دقيقة ،جرعة (0.25-1) غم برادة المنيوم و(2-8) غم برادة حديد 100مل من المحلول المائي الملوث، دالة حامضية (3-6)،تركيز بدلئي للملوث (50-200) mg/L وسرعة تقلّب (0-250) دورة في الدقيقة حيث تحققت 90% ازالة للكادميوم مقترنة بأفضل معالم تجريبية وهي زمن التماس (250) دقيقة ،جرعة ((1 غم برادة المنيوم و(6) غم برادة حديد 100مل من المحلول المائي الملوث، دالة حامضية (5.5)، تركيز ملوث بدائي ( (50 mg/L وسرعة تقلّب ( ( 250دورة في الدقيقة ومن خلال نتائج تجارب الوجبة تبيّن ان موديل لانكمير(I) هو افضل تمثيل لبيانات امتزاز الكادميوم على برادة الألمنيوم والحديد وبمعامل ارتباط اكبرمن 0.9115 وقد وجد ان بيانات حركيات التفاعل لامتزاز الكادميوم على خليط البرادتين وكنتيجة لمدى التقارب الحاصل بين النتائج النظرية والعملية تخضع لنموذج تفاعل الرتبة الثانية الكاذب حيث تكون الية الامتزاز الكيميائي هي المهيمنة على عملية الامتزاز. لقد تم اجراء الفحص المجهري لكل من برادة الحديد والالمنيوم قبل وبعد التفاعل بينها ةبين الكادميوم وقد لوحظ بان هنالك تغييرات سطحيه للمواد المازة نتيجة لتشبعها بالملوث وغلق قنواتها المسامية والتي كانت سبب في توقف عملية الامتزاز.

Keywords

Cadmium --- ZVI --- ZVAI --- Langmuir --- SEM --- Equilibrium


Article
Effect of Cadmium Sulfide Particles on A.C Electrical Properties of (PVA-PVP) blends

Author: Khansaa Saleem Sharba
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2018 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 173-178
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The (PVA-PVP- CdS) composites were made with different weight percentages of Cadmium sulfide particles as a filler. All samples were prepared as films by solution casting way. The experimental outcomes show that the dielectric constant increase with rising of the frequency of applied electrical field and concentration of the filler. Dielectric loss decreases with the increasing the frequency while it increased with the increases of concentration of the Cadmium sulfide. The A.C electrical conductivity increases with increasing the filler and frequency for the (PVA-PVP- CdS) composites.

تم تصنيع متراكبات (PVA-PVP- CdS) بنسب وزنية مختلفة من جسيمات كبريتيد الكادميوم كمادة مالئة. جميع العينات تم تحضيرها كأغشية بطريقة الصب. أظهرت النتائج التجريبية أن ثابت العزل الكهربائي يزداد مع ارتفاع تردد المجال الكهربائي المسلط وتركيز المادة مالئة. وايضا ان الفقدان العزلي ينخفض مع زيادة التردد، بينما يزداد مع زيادة تركيز كبريتيد الكادميوم. وان الموصلية الكهربائية المتناوبة تزداد مع زيادة المادة مالئة والتردد لمركبات (PVA-PVP- CdS).


Article
USE OF CLEAN ENERGY TO REMEDIATE CONTAMINATED SOIL
إستعمال الطاقة النظيفة في معالجة التربة الملوثة

Author: Ahmed Alaa Hussein
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 1 Pages: 12-24
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The aim of this laboratory study is to investigate the feasibility of using solar energy in combination with electro-kinetic remediation without enhancement conditions to remove cadmium from artificially contaminated soil. Two tests were performed to investigate the effect of applying continuous and constant voltage from DC power supply, and non-continuous and constant DC voltage from solar panel. The experiment was carried out in Baghdad city. The DC volte was generated by two Solar panel each one has a maximum voltage of (17 V). The experiments were commented in the mid of May 2016 (average length of daytime 14 h 3 min). The results showed that the use of solar energy in the present study to remove cadmium from contaminated soil is not successful because of the low removal efficiencies and the need for more time to substitute the stoppage of night times.


Article
Geochemical distribution of Cadmium in geological formation (Miocene- Pliocene)Outcropped in Jambur area , Kirkuk Government /Northern IRAQ
التوزيع الجيوكيميائي للكادميوم في التكوينات الجيولوجية (المايوسين- البلايوسين) والمنكشفةفي منطقة جمبور، محافظة كركوك/شمالي العراق.

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Abstract

The study deals with geochemical distribution of cadmium ion in some geological formations outcropped, in Kirkuk area, Northern Iraq. Fifteen samples were taken from Fatha (Middle Miocene), Injana (Upper Miocene), Mukdadiya (Upper Miocene-Pliocene) Formation (5) samples from each formation were collected. Induced coupled plasma (ICP-MS) method used to measure the Cd ion concentration and other elements. Analysis done at Vancouver labs in Canada. Cadmium (Cd) ion concentration in Fatha, Injana and Mukdadiya formations are 0.117, 0.149 and 0.194 ppm respectively, which is below that internationally reported value except the pebbly sand unit of Mukdadiya Formation which have values above the international recorded.

اشتملت الدراسة الحالية على التوزيع الجيوكيميائي لعنصر الكادميوم في بعض التكاوين الجيولوجية المتكشفة في محافظة كركوك شمالي العراق. تم اخذ 15 نموذجاً من المكاشف الصخرية والمتمثلة بتكاوين الفتحة (MiddleMiocene)، انجانة (Upper Miocene)،والمقدادية (Upper Miocene-Pliocene)، وبواقع5 نماذج لكل تكوين. تم استخدام تقنية بلازما مزدوجة الحث(ICP-MS) الموجودة في مختبرات فانكوفر في كندا لقياس تركيز الكادميوم والعناصر الكيميائية الاخرى في منطقة الدراسة. بلغ معدل تركيز الكادميوم في مكونات التكاوين الجيولوجية المدروسة والمتمثلة بالفتحة، وانجانة والمقدادية الى (0.117 ppm)، (0.149 ppm) و(0.194 ppm) على التوالي وهو اقل مما منشور عالمياً باستثناء طبقة الرمل الحصوي (Pebbly Sandstone) الموجودة في تكوين المقدادية، اذ تجاوز تركيزه فيها عن ما هو منشور عالمياً.


Article
Effect of laser energy on grain size of cadmium oxide nanoparticles in ethanol by PLD method
تأثير طاقة الليزر على الحجم الحبيبي لجسيمات (CdO) النانوية في الإيثانول بطريقة الترسيب بالليزر النبضي

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Abstract

The Pulse laser deposition technique was used in the preparation of nanoparticle solutions (CdO) using Nd:YAG laser and five deposition energies (400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 mJ) with fixed pulses (300 pulse and 6 Hz) was used . (CdO) nanoparticles were deposited on glass substrate at (300C°) to study structure properties and formed thin films of thickness (200 nm). The grain size of cadmium oxide nanoparticles in ethanol have been found to be affected by the laser energy , The results of the AFM tests showed that the higher the deposition energies, the greater the higher the grain size.

استعملت تقنية الترسيب بالليزر النبضي في تحضير محاليل جسيمات (CdO) النانوية حيث استعمل ليزر النديميوم ياك ، واستعملت خمس طاقات للترسيب mJ (800، 700، 600، 500، 400) وبعدد نبضات ثابت (300( نبضة وبتردد Hz(6( وبطول موجي nm(1064(.رُسبت محاليل جسيمات (CdO) النانوية على أرضيات زجاجية بدرجة حرارة (300C°) لمدة ساعة لدراسة الخصائص التركيبية وتكونت أغشية بسمك nm(200( . وجد أن الحجم الحبيبي لجسيمات أوكسيد الكادميوم (CdO) النانوية المحضرة في الإيثانول يتأثر بتغيير طاقة الليزر، إذ بينت نتائج فحوصاتAFM)) بأنه كلما زادت طاقة الترسيب كلما ازداد معدل الحجم الحبيبي.


Article
Annealing Temperature Dependent Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Thermally Deposited CdSe Thin Films

Author: Mohammad M. Ali
Journal: Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences) مجلة ابحاث البصرة ( العلميات) ISSN: 18172695 Year: 2018 Volume: 44 Issue: 1A Pages: 33-46
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

CdSe thin films have been deposited on suitably cleaned glass substrates by thermal evaporation method. The pressure during evaporation was maintained at 10-6 to 10-5 Torr. The samples are annealed in vacuum for 2h at various temperatures and characterized by structural, optical and electrical properties. The crystal structure and lattice parameter of these films were determined from X-ray diffractograms. It was observed that the films have a polycrystalline hexagonal (wurtzite) structure with preferred orientation along (002) plane. The crystallite size, dislocation density and micro strain were calculated by considering high intense diffraction peaks of the as-deposited and annealed films. It was found that the average size of the crystallites increases and the average dislocation density decreases with increasing annealing temperature. Absorption and transmittance spectra of these thin films were studied using UV-visible double beam spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 300 – 1100 nm. The energy band gaps have been determined using absorption spectra. The values of the optical band gap energy, Eg, decreased from 2.37 – 2.08 eV with increasing the annealed temperature. Dependence of optical band gap on crystallite size has also been studied. The electrical resistivity and activation energy of CdSe thin films are calculated by two probe resistivity measurements. The decrease in dc resistivity with increase the grain size was also noted.


Article
Adsorption study of some inorganic elements on the surface of activated charcoal prepared from ceratonia siliqua
دراسة امتزاز بعض العناصر اللاعضوية على سطح الفحم المنشط المحضر من الخرنوب

Authors: Sarhan A Salman سرحان علي سلمان --- , Faiz M Hameed فائز محسن حامد --- , Wesam F Ahmed وسام فارس احمد
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Pure Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 18131662 Year: 2018 Volume: 23 Issue: 9 Pages: 61-66
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

This study included the process of adsorption of some inorganic elements known as environmental risk (Cd, Cr, Cb, Pb) of its water solutions on the surface of activated charcool to ceratonia siliqua . The percentage of adsorption and isothermal adsorption curves were calculated according to equation, as well as the effect of temperature , pH and particle size of adsorbent on the adsorption of these elements. The study included the comparative study of the adsorption with natural ceratonia siliqua powder. The results showed an optimum conditions at PH=5 and the partical size of adsorbent was 500 μm, while the percentage of adsorption ranged from 81% to 93% .

تضمنت الدراسة عملية االامتزاز لبعض العناصر اللاعضوية المعروفة بخطرها البيئي (Cd،Cr،Cb ،Pb) من محاليلها المائية على سطح الفحم المنشط للخرنوب، والنسبة المئوية للامتزاز الايزوثيرمي. وكذلك تاثير درجة الحرارة والأس الهيدروجيني وحجم الدقائق على امتزاز العناصر، وكذلك دراسة مقارنة للأمتزاز باستخدام مسحوق الخرنوب الطبيعي وبينت النتائج الظروف المثلى باستخدام pH=5 وحجم الدقائق للمادة المازة كان 500 μm, وان النسبة المئوية للأمتزاز كانت 81% الى 93%

Keywords

ceratonia siliqua --- adsorption --- cadmium --- chromium --- copper --- lead --- balance


Article
Study the of effect of micro and nanoCadmium Oxide on the hardness test of (epoxy-polyurethane) blend

Authors: Ghasaq Talal Suhail --- Faik Hammad Anter --- Ziyad Shihab Al-Sarraj
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 4B Pages: 2020-2025
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This research includes using epoxy resin and polyurethane resin to form a blend (EP+PU) with different resin ratios (90 – 10)%, (80 – 20)%, (70 – 30)%, and (60 – 40)% to achieve best ratio for impact strength as a function of better toughness; then reinforced with micro and nano (CdO) with weight fraction (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08). Mechanical properties were studied including hardness before and after exposure to UV irradiation. Results showed that the composite (nano CdO+ blend) had better properties compared with (micro CdO+ blend) composite. Also hardness show increases with increasing the weight fraction for all samples.

Keywords

micro --- nano --- cadmium oxide --- hardness test --- epoxy --- polyurethane.


Article
The Effect of Cadmium Selenide Thin Film Thickness on Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensing Properties prepared by Plasma DC-Sputtering Technique

Author: Baha'a A. M. Al-Hilli
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 4C Pages: 2234-2241
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) thin films have been deposited on a glass substrate utilizing the plasma DC-sputtering method at room temperature at different deposition time in order to achieve different films thickness, and studied its sensitivity to the carbon monoxide CO gas which are show high response as the film thickness increases, the DC-conductivity and photoconductivity are also studied and which are increased too as the film thickness increases, that indicates the good semiconducting behavior at room temperature and light environments.

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