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Article
Kinetic of Disinfection reaction by Sodium Hypochlorite Solution

Authors: Majid I. Abdul-Wahab --- Bashaer M. Namoos
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2018 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 51-56
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present studier aims to study the kinetic of reaction at different experimental conditions depending on coliform bacteria concentration and hypochlorite ion. The effects that had been investigated were different of sodium hypochlorite doses, contact time, pH and temperature (20, 29, 37) o C. The water samples were taken from Al-Wathba water treatment plant in Risafa side of Tigris River in Baghdad. The biological tests included the most probable number (M.P.N) for indicating the concentration of coliform bacteria with different contact times and the total plate count (T.P.C) for indicating the amount of colonies for general bacteria. The iodimetry method (chemical test) was used for indicating the concentration of hypochlorite ion with different contact times. Different models were examined to fit the experimental data including the kinetics power law (first and second order) and Selleck model. It was found that the Selleck model fitted well the experimental data in which degree of Selleck model was equal to two and the rate constants was 1.3791 x 10-5 L / (mole min) at 20o C, 3.0806 x 10-5 L / (mole min) at 29oC, and 5.738 x 10-5 L / (mole min) at 37o C.


Article
EVALUATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF AL-WAHDA PLANT IN PURIFICATION OF POTABLE WATER
تقييم كفاءة مشروع ماء الوحدة في تصفية مياه الشرب

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Abstract

Water samples were collected from output of water for Al-Wahda plant where located in al-karrada area in Baghdad city to study water contamination with bacteria, fungi and Algae. The study lasted one year started on August, 2016 to July,2017.Results were acquired according to two tests performed, the first is biological test included total coliform,E.coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, total fungi, Diatom and non Diatom Algae and the second is physiochemical test included temperature, turbidity and residual chlorine. The results of bacteria were within the permitted specification in the Iraqi standards no. 14/2270 for the year 2015 except August was exceeded the permitted standard for total coliform, it was 1.1< cell/100 ml.Total Fungi, Diatom and non Diatom Algae were exceeded the permitted standard for Syrian potable water no 45/2007. Total fungi between 0-10 cfu/ml, Diatom algae value between 7533-16300 cell/l and non diatom between 6533-39200 cell/l. Temperature for water 10.4-33.33 oC, turbidity value between 3.4-57 NTU and residual chlorine between 0.9-4.98 mg/l.

جُمعت عينات مياه من مصدر التجهيز الرئيسي لمشروع ماء الوحدة الواقع في منطقة الكرادة في مدينة بغداد لغرض دراسة تلوث مياه الشرب بالبكتريا والفطريات والطحالب، وكانت مدة الدراسة سنة كاملة ابتداءاً من شهر آب/2016 ولغاية تموز/2017، وقد تم الحصول على النتائج وفقا ً لنوعين من الفحوصات الأولى بايولوجية تضمنت بكتريا القولون الكلية والأشريكية القولونية والزائفة الزنجارية والفطريات الكلية والطحالب الدايتومية وغير الدايتومية، والثانية فيزوكيميائية تضمنت درجة الحرارة والعكارة والكلور المتبقي في مياه الشرب. أظهرت نتائج معدلات البكتريا في مياه الشرب لمشروع الوحدة مطابقتها الحدود المسموح بها في المواصفة القياسية العراقية رقم 14/2270 لسنة 2015 خلال مدة الدراسة اذ كانت أعداد بكتريا القولون الكلية والاشريكية القولونية <1.1 خلية/ 100 مل وبكتريا الزائفة الزنجاريةZero خلية لكل وحدة/ مل، في جميع أشهر الدراسة عدا شهر آب اذ بلغت أعداد بكتريا القولون الكلية 1.1 خلية/ 100 مل، اما بالنسبة لأعداد الفطريات الكلية والطحالب الكلية فقد كانت خارج الحدود المسموح بها لمواصفة مياه الشرب السورية رقم 45 /2007 اذا تراوحت أعداد الفطريات في مياه الشرب بين (0-10) خلية لكل وحدة/ مل، واعداد الطحالب الدايتومية بين (7533-61300) خلية/ لتر وغير الدايتومية بين (6533-39200) خلية/ لتر، اما درجة حرارة الماء فقد تراوحت بين (10.4-33.33)م، وقيم العكارة كانت بين (3.4-57) نفثالين وحدة كدرة وقيم الكلور المتبقي كانت بين (0.9- (4.98ملغم/ لتر. وعلى ضوء النتائج التي تم الحصول عليها تبين ان مشروع الوحدة كان ملوثاً بالفطريات والطحالب حسب مواصفة مياه الشرب السورية التي تنص على خلو مياه الشرب من الفطريات والطحالب.


Article
Reducing The Microbialled Of Chicken Meat by Improving Grill Machine Design

Authors: Abdulrazzak Abdullatif Jasim --- Muna Turkey Mossa Al-Mossawei --- Khalid Zemam Amer
Journal: Kufa Journal for Agricultural Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 20727798 23128186 Year: 2018 Volume: 10 Issue: 4 Pages: 26-45
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

The experiment was conducted to improve the microbial load and sensory characteristics of chicken meat using locally designed and manufactured an improved grill and compared it with traditional grill in the department of Agricultural Machines and Equipment/College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad in 2017. The study included test of complete roasted chicken samples that ready for sale consumption from the top and bottom rows of improved grill, also included incomplete roasted chicken samples from the top row in addition to complete roasted chicken that ready for sale and consumption from the bottom row of the traditional grill, as well as a control sample that was roasted chicken by putting it in traditional grill alone. Bacteriological included total number of aerobic bacteria (Aerobic Plate Count APC), total number Coliform, fecal E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Spp, In addition to Molds and Yeasts were tested in this study. Despite the lack of microbial limits for roasted chicken in Iraqi standard specifications, the results showed that absence of all study samples, including control from the presence of Salmonella, but it showed the superiority of improved grill to reduce the mean of APC, coliform, yeasts and molds, which they are free of fecal coliform and Staphylococcus aureus, and recorded significant reducing. Also, high microbial load in complete roasted chicken samples that taken from the bottom row from traditional grill compared with improved grill demonstrates that the exudates fluids from the top row chicken on the bottom row chicken of the traditional grill has contributed to the rise of these microbial load, also demonstrates the erroneous practice adopted in the roasted method of chicken in the traditional grill, when the worker puts the chicken intended for roasting in the top rows of the grill and put the complete roasted chicken that ready for sale or consumption in the bottom of the grill, which contributes in contamination by exudates fluids that fall out of the raw and incomplete roasted chicken in the top row. The results of the current study also showed superiority of the improved grill to register the highest average in sensory evaluation scores of complete grilled chicken by the evaluators experts in a number of sensory qualities of odor, flavor, palatability and juiciness, it recorded significant differences compared with traditional grill, as well as it hood to get to complete roasting compared with samples of traditional grill and control.

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