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Article
APPLIED SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS ON THE WIND ENERGY OVER IRAQ

Author: Fadhil Abdulrazzaq Kareem
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 (Part-2) Pages: 75-92
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Although Iraq is an oil country, but it’s have very large sources of renewable energy. This study was discussed the results of the wind energy and exergy for six regions in Iraq at three different turbine heights. The highest exergy efficiency was in Basrah then Anbar, Tikrit, Najaf, Baghdad, and smallest in Mosul. The exergy efficiency was increase by 60 % at height 50 m, while it’s increasing by 70 % at height 100 m. The highest exergy destruction was in Mosul, Najaf, Tikrit, Baghdad, and smallest in Anbar and Basra. The exergy destruction decreasing by 33 % at height 50 m, while its decreasing by 68 % at height 100 m. The high energy efficiency was in Basra, then Anbar, Tikrit, Najaf, Baghdad, and the smallest in Mosul, the energy efficiency of a turbine increase by 52 % at height 50 m, while it’s increasing by 66 % at height 100 m. And the highest output useful energy was in Basra, then Anbar, Tikrit, Baghdad, Najaf, and it’s very small in Mosul, it is found that the output energy from turbine increase by 85 % at height 50 m, while its increase by 94 % at height 100 m


Article
DESIGN A SYSTEM TO ADSORB THE SOLUBLE METALLIC IONS USING BIOMASS MATERIALS TO MAINTAIN THE SAFETY AND STABILITY OF THE SATURATED LIQUIDS
تصميم منظومه لامتزاز الايونات الفلزيه الذائبه باستخدام مواد صديقة للبيئة للحفاظ على سلامة واستقرارية السوائل المشبعه

Author: Abbas A. Karwi عباس على محمود الكروى
Journal: KUFA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING مجلة الكوفة الهندسية ISSN: 25230018 Year: 2018 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 91-105
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Researcher design an ionic system to adsorb ions from industrial water of companies and factories, system consisted of three integrated phases designed to test the efficiency of an unspecified number of residues of food as adsorb materials. We adsorb copper and cobalt ions, these ions are available at high rates in Al Musayab thermal station, high concentration of these ions pose a threat to the health of the population. In general, the presence of these ions in the proportions set by the World Health Organization, namely, (1mg/L) are very useful for the completion of the metabolic processes of the living cell, but a greater focus for this will lead to tremendous health risks. Testing processes proved that there is an exact match between empirical testes and typical results of (Freundlich and Langmuir) models, through the mathematical analysis of the trial data under different thermal conditions, all testes proved that (husks of sunflower) is the best hypertext filtered materials for its high adsorption efficiency which equal to (71%) with enthalpy equal to (33KJ/mol), followed in the second place (peel peanuts), these peels proved have an excellent efficiency which equal to (72%) with enthalpy equal to (-14.8KJ/mol). In general, food remnants which have been selected for testing on an ion adsorption system designed by researcher have high capacity to adsorb various ionic roots of industrial water of Al-Musayab thermal station.

قام الباحث بتصميم منظومه الامتزاز الايونى لمياه الشركات والمصانع, المنظومه تتكون من ثلاث مراحل متكامله مصممه لاختبار كفاءة عدد غير محدد من مخلفات المواد الغذائيه كمواد ممتزه, تم امتزاز ايونى النحاس والكوبالت والمتوفره بنسب عاليه فى مياه محطة المسيب الحراريه وهذايشكل خطرا على حياة الكائنات الحيه بشكل عام. وجود تلك الايونات ملغم/لتر) مفيدة جدا لاتمام العمليات الايضيه للخلية الحيه ولكن زيادة 1بالنسب التى حددتها منظمة الصحة العالميه وهى ( التركيز عن ذلك يؤدى الى مخاطر صحيه هائله. اثبتت نتائج الاختبار التطابق التام بين الفحوصات العمليه ونتائج نموذجى (لانكمير وفراندلج) النظريه وذلك من خلال التحليل الرياضى لمعطيات التجربه وتحت الظروف الحراريه المختلفه. نتائج LANGMUIR & FREUNDLIC التطابق مع الموديلات الرياضيه ( ) اثبتت ان الماده الممدصه (قشور زهرة الشمس) H 71 هى افضل ماده مفلتره لكفائتها العاليه فى الامتزاز ( -) كيلوجول/مول. يليها فى المرتبه 33 %) ومحتواها الحرارى الكامن ( 63 الثانيه قشور فستق العبيد الذى اثبت انها ذات كفاءة ممتازه ( %) ومحتوى حرارى كامن يساوى (- ) كيلوجول/مول. 14.8 وعليه فبشكل عام تعتبر مخلفات المواد الغذائيه التى تم اختيارها للاختبار فى منظومة الامتزاز والتى صممت من قبل الباحث ذات قدره عاليه على امتزاز مختلف الجذور الايونيه للمعادن الفلزيه الذائبه فى مياه محطة المسيب الحراريه.

Keywords

Processes --- Remnants --- Ions --- Efficiency --- Enthalpy.


Article
15- STUDY THE EFFECT OF ADDING AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CLOVE (Eugenia caryophyllus) TO DRINKING WATER IN PRODUCTIVITY AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF BROILER CHICKEN

Author: Afrah S.AL-Tabari , Zahira A.AL-Zuhairi , Mahasen Abdulrazzaq
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: 18138497 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 165-175
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

This study was to investigate study the effect of adding the aqueous extract of clove(Eugenia caryophyllus) by two different levels to drink water to improve the productiveefficiency and some physiological characteristics of the broiler.The study was carried out on 180 chicks of Hubbard at one day old. They weredivided randomly into three groups (60 bird in each group) with three replicates for eachgroup (20 bird for each replicate. In this experment, the bird was given two types ofdiets, the first diet was a starter that has been feeding on the 1-2٢ day age-old , whereasthe second diet was finisher that has been feeding on 2٣-4٨ day age-old.The experimental treatments divided into three groups. In control group, birds drink freewater without any addition. In group T1, birds received 1% of aqueous extract of cloveflower in drinking water, whereas group T2 received 5% of aqueous extract of cloveflower in drinking water.The current study showed a significant improvement (p <0.05) in the productionefficiency of birds. Its included weight of the body, weight gain, feed conversion ratio,feed and water consumption rate, decrease in mortality rate and improvement in someblood traits including haemoglobin, white blood cell WBC, packed cell volume PCVintreatment groups(T1, T2) compared with control group. As well as the results showed asignificant decrease (P <0.05) in the glucose level, cholesterol, urea and creatinine in both166of treatment groups compared with the control group that intake water free from anaqueous extract of clove.From this study, we concluded that adding of aqueous extract of clove flower atdifferent concentrations led to improved productive and physiological effects of broilerchicken.


Article
Economic efficiency estimation of Rice crop in the Najaf Province in 2016 growing season
تقدير الكفاءة الاقتصادية لمحصول الشلب في محافظة النجف الاشرف للموسم الزراعي 2016

Authors: Nagham R. Mohammed نغم رحمن محمد --- Eskander H. Ali أسكندر حسين علي
Journal: Jornal of Al-Muthanna for Agricultural Sciences مجلة المثنى للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 40862226 Year: 2018 Volume: 6 Issue: 4 Pages: 55-65
Publisher: Al-Muthanna University جامعة المثنى

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Abstract

This study aimed to estimate the economic efficiency of economic recourses that used in Rice production. Estimation was achieved by comparing the optimal quantities of resources and the used quantities. 30 farmers were involved in this questioner study in Najaf Province in 2016 growing season. The project depends on economic efficiency assessment and separating its components into technical and special efficiencies based on data envelop analysis. Optimal input sample under fixed and changed output of the capacity in counting the technical efficiency, and changed output of the capacity in counting special and expense efficiencies. Capacity average reaches 0.89, which led to a reverse relationship with family size and in line with relationship with the cultivation experience. The technical efficiency average was 0.90 which is an evidence on that these farmers able to obtain the same level of drop production by using 90% of production expenses with keeping the same production level. Expenses efficiency average was 0.67, which is an evidence on the reverse relationship between family size and positive with years of farming experience. Although the cultivated areas were increased the cultivating economic efficiency was decreased, which means crop production decreases that causes a rising in the economic inputs. This study recommends that using the production expenses according to the scientifically recommended quantity and ways, especially, seed quantity and fertilizer that are suitable for each crop to reach the optimal efficiency.

هدف البحث الى تقدير الكفاءة الاقتصادية لاستخدام الموارد الاقتصادية لإنتاج الشلب بفروعها التقنية والتخصيصية ، وكذلك هدف الى إجراء مقارنة بين الكميات المثلى والكميات الفعلية من الموارد المستخدمة ، جمعت البيانات بصورة استمارة استبيان من 30 مزارع للمحصول في محافظة النجف الاشرف لسنة 2016 ، وقد اعتمد البحث في تحقيق أهدافه على تقدير الكفاءة الاقتصادية وفصل مكوناتها الى كفاءة تقنية وكفاءة تخصيصية على تحليل مغلف البيانات حيث تم استخدام نموذج التوجيه الإدخالي في ظل العائد الثابت والمتغير للسعة في حساب الكفاءة التقنية والعائد المتغير للسعة في حساب الكفاءة التخصيصية وكفاءة الكلفة . أذ بلغ متوسط كفاءة السعة 89 % ، كما وبلغ متوسط الكفاءة التقنية نحو 90 % وهذا يدل على أن مزارعي العينة يمكنهم تحقيق المستوى نفسه من الإنتاج باستخدام 90% من موارد الإنتاج مع الحفاظ على مستوى الإنتاج الحالي ، وان كفاءة الكلفة التي بلغ متوسطها نحو 67 % مما يدل على ان العينة تتحمل تكاليف اضافية مقدارها 33 % إذ توصل البحث الى العديد من النتائج المرتبطة بالكفاءة الاقتصادية منها هناك هدر بالموارد الاقتصادية مما يترتب عليه زيادة التكاليف وعليه يوصي البحث باستخدام مدخلات الإنتاج بالكمية والكيفية الموصى بها علميا وخاصة كمية البذور والأسمدة بما يتلائم مع احتياج المحصول للوصول إلى درجة كفاءة مثلى.

Keywords

Estimation --- Economic --- Efficiency --- Rice --- Najaf.


Article
The economics of poultry production in Muthanna Governorate for the year 2017
اقتصاديات إنتاج الدواجن في محافظة المثنى للعام 2017

Authors: Ali J. A. علي جابر عبد الحسين --- Haider H. B. حيدر حميد بلاو
Journal: Jornal of Al-Muthanna for Agricultural Sciences مجلة المثنى للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 40862226 Year: 2018 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 60-66
Publisher: Al-Muthanna University جامعة المثنى

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Abstract

The research aimed to estimate the function of poultry production and its economic derivatives, as well as the calculation of some indicators of the economic efficiency of the production and its factors, data were obtained through a random sample that included 35 fields, which accounted for 32% of the total poultry producers in the province. The logarithmic formula was chosen as the most suitable for passing the tests, also the results of the efficiency of the factors of production showed that the producers were not efficient in the use of the elements of production, especially medicines. The results of the criteria of economic efficiency of net cash income, net farm income, returns of agricultural work, The total return of the capital were as follows, respectively (30461.82, 28778.25, 28023.04, 26282.47, 33027.46, 31343.89) thousand dinars, the capital return was 1.057, which is a good indicator from the point of view of the producer and the society, and the period of capital recovery invested in the meal And the economic derivatives showed that the production elements fall within the second stage of production. The total flexibility of the production elements was about 1.16. This means increasing the return to capacity. The study recommended that the necessity to protecting and encouraging domestic poultry production by limiting the import of poultry meat. Frozen Kun production The local is able to fill a large part of the local need which involves economic and health important political benefits.

استهدف البحث تقدير دالة إنتاج الدواجن ومشتقاتها الاقتصادية ، فضلا عن حساب بعض مؤشرات الكفاءة الاقتصادية للانتاج وعوامله، تم الحصول على البيانات من خلال عينة عشوائية شملت 34 حقل شكلت نسبة 31.5% من اجمالي منتجي الدواجن في المحافظة، وتم اختيار الصيغة اللوغارتمية كونها الاكثر ملائمة لاجتيازها الاختبارات الاحصائية والقياسية، وأظهرت نتائج كفاءة عوامل الانتاج ان المنتجين كانوا غير كفوئين في استخدام عناصر الانتاج خصوصا الادوية ، وكانت نتائج معايير الكفاءة الاقتصادية المتمثلة بصافي الدخل النقدي ، وصافي الدخل المزرعي ، وعوائد العمل المزرعي ، وعوائد الادارة المزرعية والقيمة المضافة الاجمالية والصافية كما ياتي وعلى التوالي ( 30461.82 ، 28778.25 ، 28023.04، 26282.47 ، 33027.46 ، 31343.89) الف دينار ، وكان مردود راس المال هو 1.057 وهي نتائج ذات مؤشر جيد من وجهة نظر المنتج والمجتمع، وفترة استرداد راس المال المستثمر في الوجبة الواحدة هو 0.88 سنة اي مايعادل ست وجبات ، كما وبينت المشتقات الاقتصادية ان عناصر الانتاج تقع ضمن المرحلة الثانية للانتاج ، وبلغت المرونة الكلية لعناصر الانتاج نحو 1.16 وهذا يعني زيادة العائد للسعة، اوصت الدراسة على حماية وتشجيع إنتاج الدواجن محليا من خلال الحد من استيراد لحوم الدواجن المجمدة كون الانتاج المحلي قادر على سد جزء كبير من الحاجة المحلية والذي ينطوي على فوائد سياسية واقتصادية وصحية مهمة ، فضلا عن انشاء مجازر محلية لحفظ وتعبئة الدواجن .


Article
The Microstructure Properties of Ni-W Alloy Electrodeposition
الخصائص المجھریة لسبائك Ni-W المرسبة بواسطة الترسیب الكھربائي

Authors: Mofeed A. Jaleel مفید عبد اللطیف جلیل --- Eilaf Z. Gurji إیلاف زكي كرجي
Journal: AL-NAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة النهرين للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 25219154 / eISSN 25219162 Year: 2018 Volume: 21 Issue: 1 Pages: 82-85
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

The Electrodeposition process has been used to prepare Nickel-Tungsten alloys on low carbon steel substrate by using ammonical citrate bath. The influence of deposition condition by variation of current density (0.04-0.2 A/cm2) and solution temperature (60-70 °C), on the microstructure was studied. The optical microscope and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study the morphology of the deposit while the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to approximate the composition, in addition to X-Ray diffraction examination. The results show that the current efficiency has the major influence on the tungsten content in the alloys due to the formation of ternary complex which reflected into the properties of the deposit.

أستخدمت طریقة الترسیب الكھربائي لتحضیر سبائك من النیكل- تنغستن على قاعدة من الحدید واطئ الكاربون بأستخدام -0.04) A/cm أحواض تحتوي على الأمونیا والسترایت. حیث تم دراسة تأثیر متغیرات عملیة الطلاء من حیث كثافة التیار 2 70 -60 ) على التركیب المایكروي. تم أستخدام المجھر الضوئي والماسح ) °C 0.2 ) ودرجة حرارة المحلول فقد أستخدم (EDS) من أجل قیاس البنیة المجھریة للمترسب، أما جھاز مطیاف تشتت الطاقة بالأشعة السینیة (SEM) الألكتروني (XRD) من أجل حساب التكوین التقریبي للمترسب بالأضافة الى فحص حیود الأشعة السینیة . أظھرت النتائج التأثیر الكبیرلكفاءة التیار على محتوى التنغستن في السبیكة ویعود السبب في ذلك الى تكوین المعقد الثلاثي والذي ینعكس على خصائص المترسب.


Article
Performance Study of Solar Air Heater with Thermally Conducted Multi V Shaped Baffles and Ribs

Authors: Jalal M. Jalil --- Ghaydaa K. Salih --- Yosif A. Madhi
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 8 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 930-938
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

In this study, solar air heater with thermally conducted multi V shaped baffles and with same baffles and ribs are investigated experimentally and numerically to improve the performance of conventional air heaters. Numerically, steady state 3D forced convection turbulent model is used to solve Navier Stokes and energy equations of airflow inside rectangular duct of solar air heater. The code was validated by comparing the numerical result with experimental results and the agreement seems acceptable. The numerical studies were extended to study the cases of flat plate and straight baffles solar air heater. From experimental and numerical studies, it was found that the collector with V shaped baffles and ribs has the highest efficiency. The results showed that the V shaped baffles and ribs solar air heater is 14% more efficient compared to flat plate collectors.


Article
Studying the effect of Cyclone’s dimensions on the separation efficiency of wheat using computational fluid dynamics method

Authors: Javad Janatkhah --- Gholam hossein Shahgholi
Journal: Kufa Journal for Agricultural Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 20727798 23128186 Year: 2018 Volume: 10 Issue: 4 Pages: 46-73
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Cyclone is one of the most important components of pneumatic conveying system which is used for separating particles from gas stream. A CFD study was conducted to investigate the effect of Cyclone’s dimensions on its efficiency during wheat separation process. The main aim was alignment of the particles from different parts of the input and understanding the movement and separation of wheat particles. Cyclone type was high efficiency Stair and. It was designed in Solid works 2010 and meshed using Gambit software. In Fluent software based on a comparison with experimental results, the second order Reynolds stress model (RSM) was selected as the most appropriate method to model cyclone separation performance. It was found that at ratio of De/D=0.45 resulted high collection efficiency for particle size less than 4mm. In general at high 0.5 the separation efficiency for small seeds (d<4mm) was significantly less in comparison with the other ratios. Results showed that for wheat grains with approximate size of 3 mm and more, the ratio of h/d= 0.75 was the most appropriate option. However, for seeds size less than 3 mm h/d=0.5 was more appropriate. Considering the numerical results of this study, it was found that the smaller outlet diameter cyclone has a high collecting efficiency in comparison with large diameter cyclones.


Article
Solar cells based on natural dyes prepared using anatase phase titanium dioxide
الخلايا الشمسية المنشأة على الأصباغ الطبيعية المعدة باستخدام ثاني أكسيد التيتانيوم في طور الانتس

Author: Falah H. Ali فلاح حسن علي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء ISSN: 20704003 Year: 2018 Volume: 16 Issue: 39 Pages: 28-32
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Natural dye sensitized solar cell was prepared using strawberry and pomegranate dyes with anatase nanocrystalline titanium dioxide powder. A study of the optical properties of the two dyes, involving the absorption spectrum was determined in the visible region. I-V characteristics under illumination were performed. The results showed that the two prepared dye sensitized solar cells have acceptable values efficiency about (0.94 with Fill factor (45)) and (0.74 with Fill factor (44)) for strawberry and pomegranate dyes, respectively.

في هذا العمل تم تحضير الخلايا الشمسية الحساسة للصبغة الطبيعية عن طريق استخدام أصباغ الفراولة والرمان مع مسحوق النانو كريستال طور الانتس لثاني اوكسيد التيتانيوم. من خلال دراسة الخواص البصرية للصبغتين، تم تحديد طيف امتصاصهما في المنطقة المرئية. وأظهرت خصائص I-V تحت الإضاءة أن الخلايا الشمسية المحضرة بالصبغتين لهما كفاءة قيم مقبولة (%0.94 مع عامل الملئ (45)) و (%0.74 مع عامل الملئ (44)) لأصباغ الفراولة والرمان على التوالي.

Keywords

Natural dye --- low cost --- DSSC --- efficiency.


Article
INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF DUCT HEIGHT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SOLAR AIR HEATER WITH BAFFLES

Authors: Jalal Mohammed Jalil --- Ghaidaa Kaain Salih --- Yousif Ali Madhi
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 (Part-2) Pages: 111-122
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

In this study, solar air heater with straight shaped baffles is investigated numerically and experimentally to improve the thermohydraulic performance by changing the height of the duct to find the optimum value. Numerically, steady state 3D forced convection turbulent model is used to solve Navier Stokes and energy equations of airflow inside rectangular duct of solar air heater. The results showed that, the 3.75 cm duct height with air mass flow rate of 0.05 kg/s yields the highest effective efficiency. In addition, the results showed that the 2.5 cm duct height gives the highest effective efficiency for mass flow rate up to 0.0375 kg/s and it decreases as mass flow rate increases due to excessive differential pressure developed across the duct.

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