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Article
The anti- Leishmaniasis activity of Purified Bacteriocin Staphylococcin and Pyocin Isolated from Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: Mais E. Ahmed --- Issra S. Mousa --- Mohammad M.F Al-Halbosiy --- Entsar J. Saheb
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 2A Pages: 645-653
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Tropical illnesses caused by parasites proceed to cause socioeconomic devastation that reverberate worldwide protozoan parasites, like Leishmania. This parasite has an enormous public health problem in many countries. There is a growing requisite for new control methods for many of these illnesses due to the increasing drug resistance showed by the parasites and problems with drug poisonousness. In this study, fifty-five patients (burns and wounds) were collected from patients from Al-Yarmouk Hospital and Teaching Baghdad Hospital during the period from November, 2015 to January, 2016. Cultural and morphological characteristic examination, biochemical tests were conducted and confirmed the diagnosis by antibiotics sensitivity test and Vitek-2 system. The results identified thirty-three Staphylococcus aureus and thirty Pseudomonas aeruginosa from skin burn and wounds. Vitek 2 system gave confirmation of positive results for both strains with a probability 98-99%. The S. aureus isolate (S3) and P. aeruginosa (P 5) was chosen among bacterial isolates as a good producer for crude both bacteriocins according to their widest inhibition zone by well diffusion assay WDA. Two steps method extraction were used for bacteriocin purification, first via ammonium sulphate at 70% and next step by Sephadex G-50 gel filtration chromatography. The two new drugs staphylococcin and pyocin at different concentrations was used for the treatment of L. tropica and L. donvani. All concentration of Staphylococcin showed no inhibitory activity on promastigotes of L. tropica and L. donvani. While the concentration of 32.5 µgmL-1 of pyocin showed the maximum cytotoxic effect on promastigotes of L. tropica and L. donovani, where the inhibition rate (IR%) were 87.1% and 87.9% respectively. As part of the research objectives is the discovery of new treatments against leishmaniasis also benefit from improved models.


Article
Epidemiological and clinical study of leishmaniasis in Kirkuk city, Iraq

Authors: Hiro M. Obaid --- Hager A. Shareef
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 3A Pages: 1195-1204
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

leishmaniasis is a disease of global concern, Leishmania types and distribution rates vary from country to another. For visceral leishmaniasis serum samples were examined by the kala-azar dipstick rapid test. Meanwhile smears were taken from lesions, air dried, fixed and Leishman stained then microscopically examined for amstigote stage in cutaneous leishmaniasis. From April 2014 to April 2015, 150 samples for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and 108 serum sample for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) from in and out patients in Pediatric, Azadi Teaching and Kirkuk General Hospitals were examined. The incidence of visceral leishmaniasis was very low (2.7%) comparing to that in cutaneous leishmaniasis (64.6%). No significant differences had appeared between the cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence in male or female. The most age group infected with cutaneous leishmaniasis in both genders was 5 ≤ years old, with rate of 26.1% in male and a rate of 15.8% in female. Significantly high frequency of the patients were presented with only one or two lesions with rate of 39.17, 25.7 % for each type of lesions respectively. The most location that infected with CL was hand (27.7%) and high rate of them being moist type (71.13%). In Kirkuk city CL is more prevalent than VL. High rate of CL is moist type locating in the limbs and face. The infection is more frequent in children than in adult. For CL a smear taken from the lesion is much worthy than a lesion blood sample or re aspirated saline injected to the lesion.


Article
Intralesional Streptomycin: New, Safe, and Effective Therapeutic Option for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Author: Wisam Majeed Kattoof
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 42-46
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Leishmaniasis encompasses a spectrum of chronic infections in humans in which organisms are found within phagolysosomesof mononuclear phagocytes. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is divided into Old World and New World cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmaniatropica. Aminoglycosides as it antibacterial, were also tried as a new therapeutic option for parasitic infestation. Proliferation rate and proteinsynthesis in the promastigote stage of the parasite are inhibited by aminoglycoside such as streptomycin. Aim: The aim of this study is to estimatethe effectiveness of intralesional streptomycin as a new antileishmanial agent. Settings and Design: This was a therapeutic trial with controls.Materials and Methods: Sixty three lesions (57.8%) from a total of 109 lesions were treated with intralesional injection of streptomycin afterdilution with distilled water (20%) and 46 lesions (42.2%) were used as a control. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Analysis System programand Chi‑square test were used. Results: In Group A, clinical cure was achieved in 40 lesions (83.3%). Moderate response was noticed in 8lesions (16.7%). In Group B, none of the remaining 39 control lesions shows moderate, marked or total clearance degree of response. Only3 lesions (7.7%) showed a slight degree of response and 1 lesion (2.7%) with mild degree. Conclusion: Intralesional streptomycin solution20% can be considered as a new effective therapeutic option for cutaneous leishmaniasis


Article
Effect of Azithromycin in Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
تأثير ازثرومايسين في علاج عدوى لیشمانیا الجلدیة (حبة بغداد)

Author: Dindar Sharif Qurtas
Journal: The Medical Journal of Basrah University المجلة الطبية لجامعة البصرة ISSN: 02530759 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 2 Pages: 97-102
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a vector born protozoal infection. Cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak occurred during 2014 in Erbil governorate, Kurdistan-Iraq. First choice of its treatment is pentavalent antimony. Other options of treatment are available. Azithromycin is used as trial to be effective but human studies are lacking. Patients and Methods: Prospective randomized open labeled interventional study conducted on 63 patients. The sample divided in to two groups. Group A received only intra-lesional sodium stibogluconate and the group B received combination therapy of intra-lesional sodium stibogluconate and azithromycin 500 mg orally. Follow up done for lesions’ healing at 6th week and at the end of 8th week of therapy.Results: Nodular lesions were dominant morphology among the Lesions (71.5%). Lesions mostly were ulcerated (59%). Mean duration of lesions were 3 ± 1.1 and 2.4 ± 1.8 weeks in patients of group A and B respectively. At 6th week in patients of group A, there were 13(41.9%) patients with complete healing of the lesions, while in group B it was found in 23(71.8%) patients. At the end of 8th week group A patients showed complete healing in 21(67.7%) patients while in patients of group B complete healing found in 27(84.3%). Conclusions: Results of this study concludes that combination therapy of azithromycin and intra-lesional sodium stibogluconate provides more therapeutic effect if compared with the effect of intra-lesional sodium stibogluconate alone.

المقدمة: عدوى اللشمانیا هو مرض طفيلي متوطن في الحشرات. شهدت مدينة اربيل –كردستان العراق انتشار وبائي لعدوى لیشمانیا الجلدیة (حبة بغداد) في عام 2014. العلاج الاساسي الاولي لهذه العدوى هو- بنتا فالنت انتيموني, خيارات اخرى لعلاج هذه العدوى ايضا متوفرة. المضاد الحيوي ازثرومايسين استخدم بحثيا كعلاج فعال لعدوى حبة بغداد الجلدية ولكن هذه البحوث تخلو من التجارب البشرية.خطة البحث: اجريت دراسة بحثية تداخلية مستقبلية عشوائية على 63 مريض. تم فرز العينة البحثية الى مجموعتين. المجموعة الاولى –استخدم في علاجها زرق ابر صوديم ستبوكلوكونيت بشكل مباشر داخل العدوى الجلدية فقط لا غير. المجموعة الثانية-استخدم في علاجها كل من زرق ابر صوديوم ستبوكلوكونيت المباشرة بالإضافة الى استخدام المضاد الحيوي ازثرومايسين كعلاج مرافق وبجرعه 500 ملغم حبوب فموية. تم متابعه المسار العلاجي للعدوى الجلدية خلال الاسبوع السادس وفي نهاية الاسبوع الثامن من العلاج.النتائــج:•تدمل في اغلب العدوات الجلدية بنسبة 71.5 % بينما تصل نسبة القروح في هذه العدوات الى59%.•المتوسط الوقتي للعلاج يتراوح من 3.3± 1.1 اسبوع , 2.4±1.8 اسبوع لكل من المجموعة الاولى والثانية على التوالي.•في الاسبوع السادس من المجموعة الاولى يصل عدد المرضى الذين تم شفائهم بشكل كامل من العدوى الجلدية الى 13 مريض (نسبة 41.9%),بينما يصل عدد شفاء المرضى في المجموعة الثانية الى 23 مريض (بنسبة 71.8%).•في نهاية الاسبوع الثامن وصل عدد المرضى الذين تم شفائهم بشكل كامل من العدوى الجلدية الى 21 مريض (بنسبة 67.7%),بينما وصلت نسبة الشفاء في المجموعة الثانية الى 84% ما يعادل 27 مريض.الاستنتاج: النتائج المستنبطة من هاذا البحث تدعم اقتران المضاد الحيوي ازثرومايسين مع ابر الصوديوم ستيبوكلوكونيت لتعطي فعالية علاجية اكثر مقارنتا مع ابر الصوديوم ستبوكلوكونيت لوحدها.


Article
Epidemiological and Molecular Characteristics of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis In Al-Diwanyiah hospital
الخصائص الوبائية والجزيئية لداء الليشمانيات الجلدي في مستشفى الديوانية

Author: suhad jassim abdlkadhim سهاد جاسم عبد الكاظم
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal مجلة القادسية الطبية ISSN: 18170153 Year: 2018 Volume: 14 Issue: 26 Pages: 71-79
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Abstract:Aims of study: The current study aimed to epidemiological identification and molecular detection of Cutaneous Leishmaniasisin Diwanyiah provinceby using the nested PCR method.Material and methods: The present study include (145) patient came to the dermatology lab. of Al-Diwanyiah hospital with suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis at period from (September 2016 to the April 2017). Epidemiological finding including study of age, sex and periods of infection, than, (50) suspected patient samples out of (145) patients samples undergo to performed Nested PCR technique, the frozen skin lesion samples were exposed to genomic DNA extraction step and Nested PCR was carried out by using specific primer forKinetoplast DNA (kDNA) for detection and identification cutaneous Leishmania species, such as L. major and L. tropica.Results:Our study shows infection of CLin the male(67) (46.2%) and the female(78) (53.8%) and it found Age (1-12month)(5) (3.5%) ; (1-10year):(42)(28.9%) ; (10-20year):(46%) (31%); (20-30 year): (19)(13.4%) ; (30-40 year):(14%) (9.85%) ; in more than 40 year(19) (13.4%); .Also the highest infection rate of CL were appeared during December 2016 (30.5 %), while the lowest were during April 2017 (2% ).The nested PCR was shown specific identification of cutaneous leishmaniosis. Where, the results shown (38) positive samples out of 50 samples at (78%) as cutaneous leishmaniosis. 28/38 positive at (73.7%) as L.majorand 10 /38 positive at (26.3%) as L. tropica.The nested PCR amplification was 560bp product size for L.majorand 750bp product size for L. tropica on Agarose gel electrophoresis. Conclusion:Cutaneous Leishmaniasisinfected both sex , all age and more prevalence in young patients with high infection rate during December. Both L. major and L. tropicawere the causative agents of cutaneousleishmaniasis but L.majorwas the main species in study area.

الهدف من الدراسة: تهدف الدراسة الحالية إلى التعرف على الأوبئة والكشف الجزيئي لمرض الليشمانيات الجلدي في محافظة الديوانية باستخدام طريقة PCR المتداخلة. المواد والأساليب: تشمل الدراسة الحالية (145) مريضاً جاءوا إلى مختبر الأمراض الجلدية. مستشفى الديوانية المصاب بداء الليشمانيات الجلدي المشتبه به في الفترة من (سبتمبر 2016 إلى أبريل 2017). النتائج الوبائية بما في ذلك دراسة العمر والجنس وفترات العدوى ، من (50) عينات مريضة مشتبه بها من (145) عينة مريض خضعت لأداء تقنية PCR المتداخلة ، وعينات الآفة الجلدية المجمدة تعرضت لخطوة استخراج الحمض النووي الجينومي و PCR المتداخل أجري باستخدام التمهيدي المحدد للحمض النووي DNA (kDNA) للكشف عن أنواع الليشمانيا الجلدية وتحديدها ، مثل L. major و L. tropica.Results: أظهرت دراستنا إصابة CLIN الذكر (67) (46.2 ٪) والأنثى (78) (53.8 ٪) ووجد العمر (1-12 شهر) (5) (3.5 ٪) ؛ (1-10 سنة) :( 42) (28.9 ٪) ؛ (10-20 سنة) :( 46 ٪) (31 ٪) ؛ (20-30 سنة): (19) (13.4 ٪) ؛ (30-40 سنة) :( 14 ٪) (9.85 ٪) ؛ في أكثر من 40 سنة (19) (13.4 ٪) ؛ كما ظهر أعلى معدل إصابة CL خلال شهر ديسمبر 2016 (30.5 ٪) ، بينما كان أدنى معدل خلال أبريل 2017 (2 ٪). وقد أظهر PCR المتداخلة تحديد محدد لداء الليشمانيات الجلدي. حيث أظهرت النتائج (38) عينة إيجابية من أصل 50 عينة بنسبة (78٪) داء الليشمانيات الجلدي. 28/38 موجبًا عند (73.7٪) كـ L.majorand و 10/38 موجبًا عند (26.3٪) كـ L. tropica. كان تضخيم PCR المتداخل حجم المنتج 560bp لحجم منتج L.majorand 750bp لحجم L. tropica على الكهربائي لـ Agarose gel . خاتمة: داء الليشمانيات الجلدي المصاب بكل من الجنس وكل الأعمار ومعدلات الانتشار الأعلى في المرضى الصغار الذين يعانون من ارتفاع معدل الإصابة خلال شهر ديسمبر. كل من L. major و L. tropicawere هما العاملان المسببان لداء جلدي الليشمانيات ولكن L.majorwas هما النوعان الرئيسيان في منطقة الدراسة.


Article
Effect of NRAMP1 Gene polymorphism on levels of (TNF-α and IL-1β) cytokines in cutaneous Leishmaniasis patients in Iraq

Author: Ghada B. Alomashi
Journal: Muthanna Medical Journal مجلة المثنى الطبية ISSN: 2226146x Year: 2018 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 56-65
Publisher: Al-Muthanna University جامعة المثنى

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Abstract

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is vector-borne disease, and endemic in most regions of Iraq especially with poor populations. Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1) gene play an essential role in susceptibility to CL and disease pathology, NRAMP1 influences a production and activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β). Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines play an essential role in susceptibility/ resistance and the immunopathogenesis of Leishmania infection, these cytokines are crucial factors in the initiation and enhances of protective immunity against Leishmania infection, this study aimed to studying effect of polymorphism in NRAMP1 genes on cytokines secretion, and their effect in susceptibility to CL infection. Samples of blood were collected from (60) patients with CL and (32) apparently healthy controls. Polymorphism of NRAMP1 (D543N) detected in patients and control groups by PCR-RFLP technique. While (TNF-α and IL-1β) cytokine concentration detected by ELIS technique using a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique, Results indicate to effect of NRAMP1 Gene Polymorphism on levels of (TNF-α and IL-1β) cytokines and this a clearly recorded in present study were A allele is associated with lower levels of (TNF-α and IL-1β) in patients and control groups compression to that absorbed in allele G with statically significant (P ≤ 0.05).


Article
The activity of extracts chara vulgaris against promastigotes of leishmania tropica
فعالية مستخلصات طحلب الكارا ضد الطور المسوط للشمانيا المدارية الجلدية

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Abstract

Leishmaniasis is a widespread parasitic disease caused by Leishmania parasite, this disease considers as a major health problem worldwide. The available therapy is unsatisfactory expensive with a cytotoxic side effects. Studies of marine algae as a source of pharmacological active compounds have increased worldwide. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of a type of green algae (Chara vulgaris) on promastigotes of L. tropica, by using. various concentrations (500, 250, 125, 62.5, 31.25, 15.6 µg/mL) in vitro by MTT assay [3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2.5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide)], to investigate its effect on the proliferation of promastigotes, by three incubation periods (24, 48, 72 hr.) The results showed a significant (p< 0.05) decrease in survived of promastigotes in treatment groups with concentrations that ranged between 15 to 500 μg/ ml. This study revealed a major growth inhibition effect of the organic extract of C. vulgaris against L. tropica promastigotes, and the extract of ethyl acetate showed potential activity is better than the aqueous extract.

داء الليشمانيا مرض طفيلي واسع الإنتشار يسببه طفيلي الليشمانيا، ويعتبر هذا المرض مشكلة صحية رئيسية بين جميع أنحاء العالم. العلاج المتاح غير مُرضٍ وباهظ الثمن مع تأثير جانبي سام للخلايا. مؤخراً إزدادت الدراسات حول الطحالب البحرية كمصدر للمركبات النشطة دوائياً في جميع أنحاء العالم. هدفت هذه الدراسة إلى التحقق من تأثير نوع من الطحالب الخضراء (Chara vulgaris) على الطور المسوط من اللشمانيا تركيزات مختلفة (500 ، 250 ، 125 ، 62.5 ، 31.25 ، 15.6 ميكروغرام/ مل) في المختبر بواسطة فحص MTT لدراسة تأثيره على إنتشار بروماستيجوتس على ثلاث فترات من الحضانة (24 ، 48 ، 72 ساعة). أظهرت النتائج انخفاضاً ملحوظاً (p< 0.05) في النجاة من الطور المسوط في المجموعات المعالجة ذات تراكيز تراوحت بين 15 و 500 ميكروغرام / مل . هذه الدراسة كشفت عن تأثير كبير للمستخلص العضوي C. الشائع ضد الطور المسوط للشمانيا ، حيث أظهرت خلاصة النتائج ان لمستخلص خلات الأثيل نشاط محتمل أفضل من المستخلص المائي.

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