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Article
Effect of NaCl and Sorbitol on the Production of Some Alkaloids of Fenugreek Cotyledons Derived Callus

Authors: Emad H. Jassim --- Saeb A. Hassan
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2018 Volume: 21 Issue: 1 Pages: 90-97
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Alkaloids often had pharmacological effects. The aim at this study is to increase some alkaloids in fenugreek. Callus induction occurred on cotyledon segments 5 mm long. Murshige and Skoog medium (MS) supplied with 1 mg.lˉ¹ of 2, 4 – D and 0.4 mg.lˉ¹ of kinetin was prepared. The best medium maintained callus was using MS medium supplied with 0.5 mg.lˉ¹ 2, 4-D and 0.5 mg.lˉ¹ kinetin. Callus formation was allowed to take place for a period of thirty days in the dark at 25°C±2. Calli were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Methanol callus extract showed high concentrations of some alkaloids compared to the methanol extract of cotyledons. For increasing, the concentration of secondary metabolites, NaCl was added at concentrations 0, 1, 1.5 or 2 g.lˉ¹, sorbitol at concentrations 0, 7, 8 or 9 g.lˉ¹. NaCl at 2 g.lˉ¹ led to significant increase in trigonelline reaching 1354.72 µg per 100 mg fresh weight of callus. NaCl at 1g.lˉ¹ increased choline and carpaine reached 400.82, 483.92 µg.mlˉ¹ per 100 mg respectively. Treatment with 9 g.lˉ¹ sorbitol increased trigonelline and carpaine reached 1666.41, 742.67 µg per 100 mg respectively, while treatment 8 g.lˉ¹ sorbitol significantly increased in choline recorded 588.87 µg per 100 mg.

Keywords

fenugreek --- alkaloids --- NaCl --- sorbitol


Article
Effect of Nano-Zirconium Oxide and Other Applications on Cowpea Seedlings Growth Under T Salt Stress

Authors: Amal Abdul S. Habib --- Alyaa Muhsin Yousif
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 2C Pages: 1006-1011
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study was carried out in the botanical garden / department of biology /college of science in Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad. During spring 2017 under controlled environmental conditions in greenhouse to study the role of Nano ZrO2 activity in decrease negative effect of salinity under two levels from NaCl . The treatments included (Salinity levels : natural soil , 3000 ppm and 6000 ppm NaCl) and ( Applications : control , 100 , 300 Zirconium oxide , 5 ppm of liquorice root extract and 10 ppm liquorice root extract and 300 ppm GA3) , The collected data were analyzed statistically using factorial completely randomized design. The results appeared that 300 ppm nano zirconium gave the highest values in all morphological traits (except leaves number) than other treatments. In addition to the highest values in fresh weight, dry weight, Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b and carbohydrate contain. Also 300 ppm nano zrconium oxide reduced the effect of salinity stress (3000 and 6000 ppm NaCl) by giving the highest values in morphological traits and in chemical contains (chlorophyll and carbohydrate) in Cowpea seedling growth


Article
Direct Contact Membrane Distillation for Desalination Brine Solution
التقطير بواسطة الاغشية بالاتصال المباشر كنظام لتحلية المياه المالحة

Authors: Asrar Abdullah Hassan اسرار عبد الله حسن --- Ahmed Khalid Mohammed Reda احمد خالد محمد رضا
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2018 Volume: 24 Issue: 11 Pages: 18-29
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Desalination is a process where fresh water produces from high salinity solutions, many ways used for this purpose and one of the most important processes is membrane distillation (MD). Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) can be considered as the most prominent type from MD types according to ease of design and modus operandi. This work studies the efficiency of using DCMD operation for desalination brine with different concentration (1.75, 3.5, 5 wt. % NaCl). Frame and plate cell was used with flat sheet PTFE hydrophobic type membrane. The study proves that MD is an effective process for desalination brines with feed temperature less than 60˚C especially for feed with low TDS. 37˚C, 47˚C, and 57˚C was feed temperature and 17, 22, 27˚C as permeate temperatures used in study, temperature in both sides of membrane are recorded and TDS for permeate collected to assure that there is no penetration of brine to permeate side, the results took every 30 min for time experiment of 180 min. From results, the flux increases with increasing feed temperature and flow rate, and decreasing with increasing feed concentration, experiment time, and permeate temperature.

التحلية عبارة عن عملية انتاج مياه نقية من مياه عالية الملوحة, عدة طرق استخدمت لهذا الغرض وواحد من اهم الانواع هو التقطير بواسطة الاغشية. يعتبر التقطير بواسطة الاغشية بطريقة الاتصال المباشر من ابرز الانواع بالنسبة لطرق التقطير بالاغشية استنادا الى سهولة العمل والتصميم. العمل لحالي يدرس كفاءة استخدام طريقة التقطير بواسطة الاغشية بطريقة الاتصال المباشر لتحلية محلول ملحي مختلف التراكيز (1.75, 3.5, 5 نسبة مئوية من ملح NaCl). تم استخدام خلية الاطار واللوح كنموذج في التجربة وباستخدام ورقة مسطحة لغشاء طارد للمياه من نوع (PTFE). الدراسة اثبتت بان عملية التقطير بواسطة الاغشية فعالة لتحلية المياه في درجة حرارة لقيم اقل من 60 درجة مئوية خصوصا لمياه ذات كمية املاح ذائبة كلية قليلة. 37, 47, 57 درجة مئوية تم استخدامها كدرجة حرارة لقيم فيما كانت درجة حرارة الماء المقطر 17, 22, 27 درجة مئوية. تم تسجيل درجة الحرارة على جانبي الغشاء وقيمة الاملاح الكلية الذائبة للماء المقطر لغرض التأكد من عدم نفاذ المياه المالحة خلال الغشاء, وكانت مدة كل تجربة 180 دقيقة يتم جمع النتائج كل 30 دقيقة. بينت النتائج ان كمية التدفق تزداد بزيادة درجة حرارة اللقيم ومعدل الجريان, بينما ينخفض التدفق بزيادة الوقت وتركيز اللقيم وارتفاع درجة حرارة الماء المقطر.

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