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Article
Association of Adiponectin Gene Promoter Polymprphism (rs266729) With Ischemic Heart Diseases

Authors: Maha Radhi Abass --- Majid Kadhum Hussain --- Zuhair Mohammed Ali Jeddoa
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2018 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 3889-3893
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Ischemic Heart Disease is a group of diseases of the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle. Adiponectin is a protein secreted by adipocyte with insulin-sensitizing, Anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. Several studies have shown that polymorphisms within the adiponectin gene can be associated with Ischemic heart disease. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of (rs266729) SNP in the promoter region of the ADIPOQ gene on the occurrence of Ischemic heart disease (IHD).Methods: The study included 150 patients with IHD randomly selected based on World Health Organization (WHO) guideline and 150 as controls group. DNA was extracted from blood and genotyped by PCR-RFLP by using (Hha1) enzyme. Result: The frequency of G allele of rs266729 (C/G) polymorphism was significantly (p=0.0001) in IHD (19.6%) compared with control (13.3%). The homozygous genotype (GG) significantly (0R=1.71, CI 95%=0.65-4.96, P= 0.0001) increased the risk of Ischemic Heart Disease compared with wild type (CC) after adjustment age, sex, and BMI, furthermore the heterozygous (CG) genotype significantly (0R=1.61, CI 95%=0.96-2.87, P= 0.0001) raised the risk of Ischemic Heart Disease.Conclusion: Adiponectin gene polymorphism rs266729 is involved in the pathogenesis Ischemic heart disease.


Article
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of IL1B Gene (rs16944) in a Sample of Rheumatoid Arthritis Iraqi Patients

Authors: Aseel S. Mahmood --- Abdul-Kareem A. Al-Kazaz --- Ali H. Ad'hiah
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 2C Pages: 1041-1045
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Cytokines play a prominent role in etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and one of these cytokines is interleukin-1β (IL-1β). The association between IL1B gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP: rs16944) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a sample of Iraqi patients was investigated. Fifty-one RA patients (21 males and 30 females) were enrolled and their age range was 20 - 63 years (44.9 ± 1.5 years). In addition to patients, 45 apparently healthy control subjects were also enrolled in the study. They matched patients for ethnicity (Iraqis), gender (14 males and 31 females) and age (41.3 ± 1.3 years). Analysis of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in RA patients and controls revealed that the IL1B genotypes were consistent with the equilibrium, and no significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the observed and expected genotype frequencies. Inspecting IL1B genotype and allele frequencies in RA patients and controls revealed that there were no significant variations between these frequencies, although a decreased frequency of T allele (67.7 vs. 73.3%) and an increased frequency of C allele (32.3vs. 26.7%) were observed in patients compared to controls. In conclusion, the results are in favor of no association between IL1B gene SNP (rs16944) and RA in Iraqi population


Article
Association between Resisten Gene Polymorphism (420C/G) and Lipid profile in Ischemic Heart Diseases

Authors: Asraa Ali Kadhum --- Majid Kadhum Hussain --- Riyadh. Dh. Al-zubaidi
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2018 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 3937-3942
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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background: (resistin is considered as a pro-inflammatory molecule and plays a role in the inflammatory response that lead to atherosclerosis)Aim: To evaluate the risk of resisten gene polymorphism (420C/G) in the development of Ischemic Heart Disease. To verify the relationship of the investigated SNPs with the metabolic changes related to (IHD), in particular, serum lipid profile.Methods: A case control study was performed at which 150 patients with IHD and 150 healthy individuals. Genotyping for SNP 420C>G in the resistin gene was performed by the polymerase chain reaction –restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Lipid profile were measured.Results: The genotype and allele frequencies of resistIn gene polymorphism in IHD and control persons were examined under the co-dominant, dominant and recessive models with the use of multi nominal logistic regression analysis. Neither genotype distribution nor the minor allele frequency showed significant changes among the comparison of the of IHD patients with the control group. The frequency of the G allele of 420(CG) polymorphism was significantly higher in ischemic heart diseases (IHD). There are significant increases in the level of LDL, triglyceride, VLDL, BMI and a significant decrease in the level of cholesterol in the group of patients with the GG+CG genotypes when they were compared with those of the CC genotype. It shows significant differences in BMI, Age, Cholesterol, LDL, and HDL in the group of IHD, and no significant difference was seen in VLDL and sex.Conclusion: The −420C>G SNP of resistin gene is not associated with ischemic heart disease in the population of Kerbala and Najaf. The G allele is seemed to increase serum lipid concentrations so it could be considered as an atherosclerotic parameter.


Article
Association between the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (A370T) Gene Polymorphism with Lipid Profile in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Marwa Ali Zghair --- Fadhil Jawad Al-Tu’ma --- Hassan Mahmoud Abu Al- Maali
Journal: karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences مجلة كربلاء للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 70272221 Year: 2018 Issue: 15 Pages: 103-112
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

Background: determining the genetic profile of diabetic patients with dyslipidemia is consideredimportant in terms of reducing the risk of possible vascular complications. Recent studies haveshown that the low density lipoprotein receptor gene may have a direct effect on lipids level and oneof its important genetic variants is the common single nucleotide polymorphism (A370T) that’sproduced by a guanine to adenine substitution in exon 8 in the epidermal growth factor precursorhomology region.Aim: To evaluate the association between the low density lipoprotein receptor (A370T) singlenucleotide polymorphism with lipid Profile in type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia.Method: A case control study for total 180 subjects. 120 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (80males and 40 females) and 60 patients of them were diagnosed previously with dyslipidemia, thesediabetic patients were compared with 60 (40 male and 20 female) healthy control subjects. Theblood sample collection were done at the outpatient department of Al-Imam Al-Hussein (as) MedicalCity in holy Karbala/Iraq during the period from January to June 2017.Results: The results obtained demonstrate that there is no relationship between the low densitylipoprotein receptor (A370T) single nucleotide polymorphism and dyslipidemia in patients withtype 2diabetes mellitus with no significant association between this polymorphism and the lipidprofile in these patients .Conclusion: In the current study, the genotyping analysis results agreed with much of studies whichrevealed that there is no relationship between the low density lipoprotein receptor ( A370T) singlenucleotide polymorphism and lipid levels in patients with type 2diabetes mellitus with and withoutdyslipidemia.

الخلفية:ان تحديد الشكل الجيني للمرضى المصابين بالسكري واضطراب شحوم الدم يعتبر من المعايير المهمة في تقليل خطر الاصابةبمضاعفات الاوعية الدموية لدى هؤلاء المرضى. وقد اظهرت الدراسات الجينية الحديثة بأن جين مستقبلات الدهون منخفضة الكثافةوالذي ينتج من (A370T) له تأثير مباشر على مستويات الدهون في الجسم وأحد اهم اشكاله الجينية هي تعدد الشكل النيوكليوتيدياستبدال القاعدة النتروجينية الكوانين بالادينين في الموقع 8 من منطقة التماثل للعوامل البادئة .الهدفتقييم الارتباط بين تعدد الشكل النيوكليوتيدي لمستقبلات الدهون منخفضة الكثافة مع مستويات الدهون للمرضى المصابين بالنوعالثاني لداء السكري واضطراب شحوم الدم.الطريقةاجريت الدراسة على 180 شخص, منهم 120 مريض بالنوع الثاني لداء السكري و 60 مريض منهم مصاب باضطراب شحوم الدمبالاضافة للسكري , هؤلاء المرضى تمت مقارنتهم مع 60 شخص سليم. تم جمع عينات الدم في مستشفى الامام الحسين عليه السلام. التعليمي في محافظه كربلاء المقدسة للفتره من شهر كانون الثاني الى حزيران لسنة 2017النتائجتتضمن النتائج عدم وجود علاقة بين تعدد الشكل النيوكليوتيدي لمستقبلات الدهون منخفضة الكثافة ومستويات الدهون في الاشخاصالمصابين بالنوع الثاني من داء السكري واضطراب شحوم الدم.الاستنتاجفي الدراسة الحالية ,نتائج التحليل الجيني تتفق مع اغلبية الدراسات السابقة والتي تنص على عدم وجود علاقه بين تعدد الشكلالنيوكليوتيدي لمستقبلات الدهون منخفضة الكثافة ومستويات الدهون في الاشخاص المصابين بالنوع الثاني من داء السكري مع اوبدون اضطراب شحوم الدم.


Article
The Impact of MicroRNA Gene Polymorphisms on Immune Response to Diphtheria Vaccine in Iraqi Children and Adolescents

Author: Ghaidaa Jihadi Mohammeda
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2018 Volume: 26 Issue: 6 Pages: 21-30
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background:Sinceitsinventioninthefirstquarterofthelastcentury,diphtheriatoxoidwas successfully used for vaccination against diphtheria. However, sporadic case and evenan epidemichavebeenrecordedinmanypartsoftheworld,suggestingthepresenceofgenetic factors influencing the immune response to thisvaccine.Aim: To assess the role of three single nucleotide polymorphisms(miRNA-146a G> C, miRNA-49T>GandmiRNA-196a2C>T)inmiRNAgenesinimmuneresponsetodiph- theriavaccine.SubjectsandMethods:Thisstudyrecruited68childrenandadolescentswhoreceived threedosesofdiphtheriatoxoid.DNAwasisolatedfromthebloodlymphocytesandmiRNA- 146a,miRNA-149 and miRNA-196a2 genes were amplified, and then directly sequenced. Serumlevelsofanti-diphtheriatoxoidsIgGantibodiesweredeterminedbyenzymelinked immunosorbent assay, and accordingly the immune response was categorized into good, moderate and low immunity .The association of different genotypes and alleles with immune statuswasillustratedstatistically.Results:Goodimmuneresponsetodiphtheriavaccinewassignificantlyassociatedwith the C allele of the polymorphism miRNA-146a G> C. Out of 14 carriers of GG geno- type,11(78.57%)showedgoodimmunitycomparedtoonly48.15%ofGGcarrierswhohad suchimmunity(P=0.039).ThemutantalleleofmiR-149T>Gwasmoreprevalentthanwild typealleleGamongsubjectswithgoodimmunity.However,thedifferencewasinsignificant.GenotypesandallelefrequenciesoftheSNPmiR-196a2C>Twereverycloseindifferent immunologicalstatuses.Conclusion:TheresultsofthecurrentstudysuggestthesignificantroleofmiRNA-146a G>CgenepolymorphismandtheinsignificantroleofbothmiRNA-149T>GandmiRNA- 196a2 C>T gene polymorphisms in response to diphtheria toxoids vaccine. More studies arerequiredtofindouttheassociationsofdifferentpolymorphismsinmiRNAgeneswith immune response for differentvaccines.

منذ ان تم اختراعه في الربع الاول من القرن الماضي استخدم ذيفان الدفتريا المقتول بنجاح في التلقيح ضد مرض الخناق ومع ذلك فقد سجلت حالات فردية بل وحتى اوبئة في اجزاء عديدة من العالم من ما يشير الى وجود عوامل وراثية توثر على الاستجابة المناعية لهذا اللقاح. هدفت الدراسة الحالية الى تقييم دور ثلاث تغايرات جينية (miRNA-146aG>C ، miRNA-149T>G، (miRNA-1962aC>Tفي جين MicroRNA في الاستجابة المناعية ضد لقاح الدفتريا. استخدمت هذه الدراسة 68 طفلا ومراهقا ممن تلقوا ثلاث جرع من لقاح الدفتريا . تم عزل من خلايا ومضاعفة جين MicroRNAالمناظر للتغايرات الجينية المطلوبة ، ومن ثم اجراء اختبار تتابع القواعد . حددت المستويات المصلية للاجسام المضادة بطريقة الادمصاص المناعي الانزيمي وعلى ضوء ذلك صنفت الاستجابة المناعية الى جيدة , متوسطة او منخفضة ، وتم تحديد علاقة الانماط الجينية والاليلات المختلفة بمستوى المناعة باستخدام الطرائق الاحصائية . ارتبطت المناعة الجيدة ضد لقاح الدفتريا معنويا بالاليل C للتغاير الجيني MicroRNA , ومن بين 14 فردا يحملون النمط الجينيCG اظهر 11 ((%78.57 استجابة مناعية جيدة مقارنة ﺑ %48.15 فقط مما يحملون النمط الجيني GG (P=0.039) وكان الاليل الطافر(G) للتغاير الجيني miRNA-149T>G اكثر اتشارا من الاليلT بين الافراد ذوي المناعة الجيني الا ان الفرق لم يكن معنويا . اما توزيع الانماط الجينية والاليلات للتغاير فقد كان متقاربا جدا في الحالات المناعية المختلفة .تشير نتائج الدراسة الحالية إلى دور مهم لتغاير جين miRNA-146aG>Cودور غير مهم لكلا من تغايرات جين miRNA-149 T>G و miRNA-196a2 C>T في الاستجابة المناعية للقاح الدفثريا , ويجب إجراء المزيد من الدراسات للكشف عن علاقة التغايرات الجينية المختلفة في جينات MicroRNA مع الاستجابة المناعية للقاحات المختلفة.


Article
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and related Some Genetic Markers

Author: Enas Abdul Kareem Jabbar
Journal: Journal of Education for Pure Science مجلة التربية للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 20736592 Year: 2018 Volume: 8 Issue: 3 Pages: 129-150
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

AbstractPolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most familiar endocrine disorder affecting women ofchildbearing could be happen with problem and metabolic anomalies. PCOS women present withovulatory dysfunction, abnormal hormones, hyperandrogenemia, obesity, and hyperinsulinemia.Patients with PCOS may present complaining of irregular or unpredictable menstrual cycles,undesirable hair growth, acne , scalp hair loss, unexplained weight gain or overweight,and infertility.Clinical phenotyping of PCOS involves determining medical and/or biochemical androgen excess. Thebulk of evidence points to the ovary being the source of excess androgens, which appears as a resultof an abnormal regulation of steroidogenesis.It is a heterogeneous disorder which results from interaction of multiple genes and environmentalfactors.


Article
Single‑Nucleotide Polymorphism of Interleukin‑27 Gene: A Risk Factor of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss in Iraqi Women

Authors: Esraa H. Humadi --- Layla H. Hamad --- Hasan F. Al Azzawie --- Samera H. Hamad
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 47-51
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Studies have been done to investigate the association between a single‑nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of interleukin‑27 (IL‑27)gene and the recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). However, different results have been found in different spots of the world. Therefore, more studies are needed to understand the variation in these results. This is the first study that shows the implication of the SNP of IL‑27 gene in RPL. Objective: This study aims to investigate the association between RPL and SNP of gene (−964 A > G) in Iraqi women.Materials and Methods: From September 2013 to September 2014; 100 women, as a control group, and 100 women (with three or moreconsecutive pregnancy loss), as a study group, were recruited to investigate the association between the IL‑27(−964 A > G) SNP and the PRL. The IL‑27(−964 A > G) SNP was determined using polymerase chain reaction‑restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Genotypeand allele frequencies were compared using Fisher test between the two groups. P < 0.05 is considered to be statistically significant. Results: The age and body mass index were both not significantly different between the two groups. The frequencies of genotypes of this polymorphism in the RPL group were AG (60%), AA (31%), and GG (9%), while these frequencies were AG (21%), AA (68%), and GG (11%) in the control group.The genotype frequencies of the −964 A > G polymorphism was significantly different between the study and the control groups (P = 0.007). The allele frequencies of this polymorphism were A (35%), G (65%) in the RPL group versus A (61%), G (39%) in the control group. The frequencies of A and G alleles in the both groups were not significantly different. Conclusion: IL‑27 (−964 A > G) polymorphism is a risk factor for RPL in a sample of Iraqi women. However, this is different from what has been found in some studies which might implicate other factors in the RPL.


Article
Gene Expression and Polymorphism of Interleukin-4 in a Sample of Iraqi Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients
التعبير الجيني وتعدد الاشكال الوراثي للبين ابيضاض-4 في عينة من مرضى التهاب المفاصل الرثوي العراقيين

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It was aimed to understand the interleukin-4 (IL-4) role in etio-pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Two approaches were adopted. In the first one, a quantitative expression of IL4 gene was assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and such findings were correlated with some demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters, which included gender, duration of disease, disease activity score (DAS-28), rheumatoid factors (RFs), C-reactive protein (CRP) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACCP) antibodies. In the second approach, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of IL4 gene (rs2243250) was inspected by DNA sequencing using specific primers. Fifty-one Iraqi RA patients (22 males and 29 females) were enrolled in the study. They were under therapy, which was a single weekly subcutaneous dose of 25 mg of etanercept (Enbrel) for a period of 3-5 years. The results of gene expression (2-ΔΔCt) revealed an increased expression of IL4 mRNA (Mean ± SEM: 8.247 ± 2.442), especially female patients compared to male patients (11.545 ± 3.928 vs. 3.537 ± 1.530; p = 0.03). The expression was also subjected to variations that were related to clinical and laboratory findings. With respect to IL4 gene SNP, allele and genotype frequencies showed no significant differences between RA patients and controls. In addition, the SNP genotypes had no effect on IL4 gene expression. In conclusion, an up-regulation of IL4 gene expression was observed in RA patients, and it was more pronounced in female than male patients by approximately four folds, while no association between the IL4 SNP alleles or genotypes and RA was observed.

كان الهدف بيان دور البين ابيضاض-4 في امراضية التهاب المفاصل الرثوي. اعتمدت طريقتين؛ وتم في الأولى تحديد التعبير الكمي لجين البين ابيضاض-4 بطريقة الاستنساخ المعاكس الكمي-تفاعل انزيم البلمرة المتسلسل, ودرست العلاقة بين هذه النتائج وبعض المعايير الديموغرافية والسريرية والمخبرية والتي تضمنت الجنس ومدة المرض وعامل نشاط المرض والعامل الرثوي والبروتين التفاعلي-سي ومضاد ببتيد السترولينايد الدوري. اما في الطريقة الثانية، فقد تم التحري عن تعدد اشكال النيوكليوتيدة المفرد (SNP) لجين البين ابيضاض-4 (rs2243250) وذلك باستخدام تقنية تسلسل الحامض النووي وباستخدام بوادئ متخصصة. شملت الدراسة 51 مريض من مرضى التهاب المفاصل الرثوي العراقيين (22 ذكور و29 اناث)، والذين كانوا تحت العلاج بواقع حقنة أسبوعية تحت الجلد (25 ملغم) من الدواءEnbrel لفترة 3-5 سنوات. اظهرت نتائج التعبير الجيني 2-ΔΔCt)) زيادة ملحوظة في تعبيرة (المعدل ± الخطأ القياسي: 8.247 ± 2.442) خصوصا في المرضى الاناث مقارنة بالذكور (11.545 ± 3.928 مقابل 3.537 ± 1.530؛ الاحتمالية = 0.03). وخضع هذا التعبير لتغايرات لها علاقة بالمعايير السريرية والمخبرية. اما بخصوص تعدد اشكال النيوكليوتيدة المفردة لجين البين ابيضاض-4، فلم تظهر تكرارات الانماط الاليلية والجينية اختلافات ذات دلالة إحصائية بين مرض داء المفاصل الرثوي والسيطرة. وفضلا عن ذلك، فلم يكن هناك تأثير للانماط الجينية على التعبير الجيني لجين البين ابيضاض-4. وفي الاستنتاج فقد لوحظ زيادة في التنظيم لتعبير جين البين ابيضاض-4 في مرض التهاب المفاصل الرثوي، وكان ذلك اكثر وضوحا في المرضى الاناث مما هو عليه في المرضى الذكور بحوالي اربع مرات، في حين لم تلاحظ مصاحبة بين الانماط الاليلية والجينية لتعدد اشكال النيوكليوتيدة المفردة لجين البين ابيضاض-4 والتهاب المفاصل الرثوي.

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