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Article
Pain Perception to Orthodontic Tooth Movement during Menstrual Cycle: A Clinical Study

Author: Munad J. AL_Duliamy
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2018 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 33-37
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Pain during orthodontic treatment is inevitable side effect. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the orthodontist to alleviate this pain as possible. Menstrual cycle is often a painful event to female. Female is the most of orthodontic patient. Hence, study the pain perception of female to orthodontic treatment during menstrual cycle is essential. Aim: the aim of the present study is to asses, if there is change in pain perception to orthodontic tooth movement during menstrual cycle. Seventeen healthy female with regular menstrual cycle intended to receive orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances were participated in the study. Elastomeric separators were placed mesial and distal to maxillary and mandibular first molars during the menstrual and postmenstrual period respectively. Visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess pain perception at 4 hours, 24 hours, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th days after the separators were placed. Data of VAS scores were statistically analyzed. There were statistically significant increase in the pain perception level after the insertion of separators during menstrual cycle period and decrease during postmenstrual period. During menstrual cycle, female experienced higher pain perception to orthodontic tooth movement. Hence, it is better to postpone orthodontic visits for female patients to postmenstrual period.


Article
Perception of Pain by a Sample of Patients Undergoing Orthodontic Treatment in Sulaimani City

Authors: Idriss Q. Abdul --- Tara A. Rasheed
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2018 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 48-58
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: Orthodontic treatment is known as a painful procedure among patients. They feel varying degrees of pain during orthodontic treatment from the stage of initial examination till the end of the treatment. The aims of this study are to explore pain experience among patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with the fixed appliances by comparing two different arch wires sizes. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 60 patients (26 males, 34 females) with a mean age of 17.6 years and 20.5 years consequently. Insertion of either 0.014 or 0.016-inch wire was by random selection of patients. Patients were asked to fill out a series of questionnaires for five consecutive days after the insertion of orthodontic initial arch wire, and after the arch wire activation for 4 hours, 6 hours, 24 hours, and till 5 days. The intensity (weak, mild, moderate, severe, and intensive) of the pain symptoms in connection with ten items (Biting on a hard/soft food, sensitive to hot or cold food/drink, mastication of food, fitting anterior and fitting posterior teeth together, cheeks, lips, and tongue pain) have been evaluated. Results: No significant differences were found between age groups, and between the two arch wire groups. Pain perception was more significant in females than in males and the pain perceived at the anterior teeth was greater than posterior teeth. Pain percentage level increased gradually till reaching the peak within 24 hours after the insertion of arch wire and retained the same level in the 2nd day, then decreased till the 5th day. Perceptions of pain by fitting anterior teeth were exactly the same within the period of the first few hours in both arch wire groups, and decreased over the following hours. Conclusion: No age discrimination was found for perception of pain in the two different arch wire groups, with no significant correlation for the time with initial pain that perceived after the insertion of two different initial arch wire sizes then the intensity of pain reduced over the time. Pain was perceived as being greater at the anterior than the posterior teeth and females experienced more pain than males.


Article
Effect of various surface treatment procedures on shear bond strength of stainless-steel orthodontic brackets to composite resin

Author: Bayan A Hassan
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2018 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 21-30
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of brackets bonded to composite restorations using four types of surface conditioning procedure. Materials and Methods: Thirty two cylindrical cavities were made at the center of self-cured acrylic resin blocks. All cavities were then filled with composite resin. The specimens were randomly divided into four groups. Group one: Composite surface was acid etched with 37% phosphoric acid. Group two: After using 37% phosphoric acid, bonding agent was applied and cured. Group three: After using 37% phosphoric acid silane coupling agent was applied then bonding agent was applied. Group Four: The composite surface roughened with a diamond bur, and then 37% phosphoric acid was applied. Brackets were bonded onto the composite prepared samples with Transbond XT. Shear Bond Strength was measured by a universal testing machine. KruskalWallis test was utilized for data analysis. Results: There was a significant difference between the four groups. The highest bond strength was that of Group 3. Group 1 had the lowest bond strength. Conclusions: Roughening the composite surface before acid etching was effective to improve the bond strength of orthodontic brackets to composite restorations. Addition of silane before bonding agent application result in highest bond strength.

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