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Article
TRANSPORT SUSTAINABILITY INDEX OF MAIN ARTERIALS AT HILLA CASE STUDY (SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS)

Authors: Mohammad Ali Al-Anbari --- Abdulhaq Hadi Abedali --- Ali Abdul Ameer Alwash
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 (Part-3) Pages: 106-117
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

In recent works on the Internet of Vehicles, “intelligent” and “sustainable” have been the significant in the case of transportation. Maintaining sustainability is always a challenge. Sustainability can be achieved not only by the use of pollution-free vehicular systems, but also by maintenance of road traffic safety or prevention of accidents or collisions. Quantifying the sustainability of urban transport is important as evidenced by a growing number of studies to measure sustainability in transportation. This paper dealt with the challenge of measuring transport sustainability based on the long environmental and safety indicators. To overcome the issue of using too many indicators for evaluation, this paper develops a method for obtaining a composite transport sustainability index for limited sources and time for collecting data. Seven sustainability indicators relevant to urban transport which deal with environmental and social (safety) aspects were selected depending on available data. The indicators were integrated to environmental, social (safety) sub-indices and then to a composite index, in a way that overcomes the limitations on normalization, weighting and aggregation. It is an attempt to quantify transport sustainability for arterials streets within the Hilla network which provides information about current situation of urban transport in different parts of the city. The value of ICST (composite index of transport sustainability) for main arterials at Hilla city (as case study) equal to 0.648, 0.542 and 0.462 for 40th, 60th and 80th streets respectively. The value ICST¬ is the highest at 40th street (inner Hilla city – the best case) and the lowest at 80th street (outer Hilla the worst case).


Article
A model for assessing sustainability of universities in iraq

Author: Mustafa Khudhair Al-Alwani
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2018 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 66-78
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Universities started to sign declarations and international agreements to introduce university's sustainability in. Studies for assessing the university's sustainability are common in developed countries; on the other hand, these studies are inadequate and insufficient in developing countries. In Iraq, there is not an inclusive study that demonstrates and measure the Iraqi universities sustainability. Moreover, this country lacks an assessment tool to assess the university's sustainability. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to propose a model that allows Iraqi universities to promote and evaluate sustainability. Furthermore, this paper provides a model that enables the development of university sustainability indicators, and eliminates some of the main weaknesses found in the models currently available. The model resulted in a set of 28 indicators, which form a flexible tool to assess sustainability of Iraqi universities which consist of (9) curriculums indicators, (7) social sustainability indicators, (3) transportation indicators and (5) green building and energy indicator, (2) recycling and waste management and (2) water use and conservation. These 28 indicators are suggested to be the key indicators for measuring the sustainability of the universities in Iraq

Keywords

Sustainability --- Universities --- Assesses --- Iraq


Article
MEASURING THE URBAN INTEGRAL SUSTAINABILITY IN “MUSTANSIRIYA UNIVERSITY “ACCORDING TO THE INTEGRAL DESIGN THEORY

Authors: Zaynab Radi Abaas1 --- Duaa Faal Niama --- Ruqaia Layth Muhammed Ali
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 (Part-4) Pages: 150-167
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Lots theories and researches have been researching and analyzing the principles of the sustainable architecture according to the international standards. However, Iraq, its architects, and specialists are still behind the possibilities of applying the accelerating global green architecture trends and sustainable criteria. Hence this research represents a sustainable analytical process to one of the most unique event in the Iraqi architecture which is “MUSTANSIRIAYA UNIVERSITY”. This process called the integral sustainable design theory. The main point of this research concentrate on the importance of the objective behavioral successfulness of the University complex around the years and the creativity of the designer (Qahtan Awni) in adopting the heritage vocabulary and giving its sense of belonging to the environment in a contemporary modern architecture with local material. As a result, we can consider “Mustansiriya University “as a successful example of a sustainable urban academic complex from the idea that the connectivity in its part make the sustainable holistic picture.

Keywords

Urban --- Sustainability --- Integral --- Design --- Theory.


Article
ابعاد الاستدامة في العمارة المتنقلة العائمة

Authors: أسماء محمد حسين المقرم --- زينب سعد مهدي
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 (Part-5) Pages: 1-14
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

: برز في الاونة الاخيرة نمطا من العمارة له جذوره العميقة عبر التاريخ وهو نمط العمارة المتنقلة التي يرجع اساسها الى خيام البدو الرحل . استمد هذا النوع من العمارة تسميته من صفة التنقل من مكان الى آخر وضمن أماكن متغايرة وبخصائص مختلفة عن العمارة الثابتة ، وليتصف بالتالي بمباديء عامة منها المرونة والتكيف والانشاء السريع وغيرها . تطرقت المعرفة السابقة الى هذا النوع من العمارة من جوانب عدة منها ماركزت على انواعها الطائرة والعائمة والمتدحرجة والمتحركة ، ومنها ما تناولت خصائصها الشكلية والتركيبية ، ومنها ما تناولت انماطها الوظيفية كالسكن والتجارة والتعليم والصناعة وغيرها . رغم ذلك فقد برز عدم كفاية المعرفة الشمولية عن احد أنواعها وهي العمارة العائمة وبارتباطها بخاصية محددة كالاستدامة ، لذا تركزت مشكلة البحث بـ " الحاجة المعرفية لتوضيح أبعاد ومستويات الاستدامة البيئية والاقتصادية والاجتماعية في العمارة العائمة " وليتركز هدف البحث بتحديد هذه المستويات ضمن العمارة العائمة . تطلب ذلك منهجا مؤلفا من مراحل ثلاث ، الاول بناء اطارا نظريا حول مستويات الاستدامة ضمن نوع العمارة المتنقلة ، واستكشاف طبيعة مفردات ومؤشرات مستويات الاستدامة ضمنها منها : الاكتفاء الذاتي والتصنيع المسبق والمواد ذات الديمومة والتواصل والتالف . والثاني تفحص هذه المفردات ضمن عينات منتخبة ، ليتم ثالثا مناقشة النتائج والاستنتاجات التي تعزز بالتالي الاطار النظري لهذا المفهوم .


Article
IDENTIFYING BARRIERS TO THE USE OF SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIALS IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

Authors: Alyaa Hammadi Mohsin1 --- Dunya Sahib Ellk
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 (part-6) Pages: 107-115
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The research aims at examining the barriers to the use of sustainable building materials in the construction of buildings despite the environmental awareness of the designers in the field of building construction. In order to achieve the research objective a scientific methodology consists of two phases was followed, the first phase included a theoretical study to identify the reasons that prevent the use of green building materials in building construction, while the second phase included a practical study to collect the needed data and information related to research subject. The practical study included personal interviews and open questionnaire with experienced engineers in the field of building design and conducting a closed questionnaire to achieve the research objective. The results showed that the gap between the environmental awareness of the designers in the field of building construction and the realistic application is due to many reasons which were classified into two categories: administrative reasons and technical reasons.


Article
EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS OF NORTHERN RUSTIMEH WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT IN BAGHDAD, IRAQ, USING SIMAPRO7.1 PROGRAM
تقييم مؤشرات الاستدامة البيئية لمحطة الرستمية الشمالي لمعالجة مياه الصرف الصحي في بغداد ، العراق ، باستخدام برنامج SimaPro7.1

Authors: Mohammad Ali Alanbari --- Mais Salim Muter
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 5 Pages: 188-199
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The importance of the management of wastewater treatment plants is the process of purification of wastewater from impurities, suspended materials, pollutants and organic matter to be re-usable (non-human) or to be suitable for disposal in the waterways without causing pollution. Wastewater treatment involves several physical, chemical and biological phases. Because any wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) has environmental risk and negative impact, it is necessary to assess environmental sustainability indicators and thus can diagnose their risks and find solutions to reduce their environmental and health impacts in order to preserve the essential elements of the environment (water, air and soil) and on the conservation and sustainability of the natural resources of generations. There are many software programs designed to assess environmental sustainability indicators for any sewage treatment plant. SimaPro7.1 is one of several programs which are used to count and determine the ecological (environmental) effects related to wastewater treatment technologies. In this study, SimaPro7.1 has been used to inventory test namely the analysis of inputs to the plant, such as materials used in stage of construction of the plant, incoming wastewater, consumed energy, quality of treated wastewater and quantity of sludge produced, as well as the analysis of effluents to water and emissions air and assess an effects caused by Northern Rustimeh WWTP. An outcome from Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) shows the pollutant which emitted to all environment sub-compartment such as Carbon monoxide, Lead, Dinitrogen monoxide and another pollutant which causes impacts and damages to environment by 12.4GPt to every (1m3) of sewage. The results show that generality effects were (global warming, respiratory inorganics and nonrenewable energy); also most damages were on human health, climate change and resources.


Article
Sustainable Accounting indicators that related with create value for the firm
مؤشرات محاسبة الاستدامة وعلاقتها بخلق قيمة للشركة - دراسة تحليلية في بعض الوحدات الاقتصادية العربية -

Authors: سلمان حسين عبد الله --- سكنه سوادي وادي
Journal: journal of Economics And Administrative Sciences مجلة العلوم الاقتصادية والإدارية ISSN: 2227 703X / 2518 5764 Year: 2018 Volume: 24 Issue: 109 Pages: 583-611
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The business environment is witnessing great and rapid developments due to the economic and technological development that has caused damage to human beings, which requires the need to reduce this damage and work to protect the environment and participate in supporting the social aspects. This requires economic resources to be realized by the economic units. Economic development in preserving the environment that has caused damage and supporting the social aspects that preserve human rights, enhance their position and satisfy their needs in society. Global professional organizations, the United Nations and stakeholder representatives have been issuing the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) to find guidelines for the preparation of sustainability reports according to SASB standards, which instructs economic units to issue sustainability reports so that they can make comparisons with similar units and disclose related matters The relative importance and reporting on the essential aspects of their environmental, social and economic contributions that help them to gain the support of society, and this helps them to continue their work and achieve their goals, thus achieving their values for them and the society and all the owners of the Saliha. The publication of sustainability reports as well as the annual financial report provides sufficient information on all aspects of the economic unit of the stakeholders so that they can know their future vision and direction and current and future strategies. Therefore, they can make good decisions that lead to the expansion of economic units activities that benefit the economic development and society, This leads to the economic growth and social well-being of society as a whole. As demonstrated by sustainability reports prepared by the Economic Units of 2015

تشهد بيئة الاعمال تطورات كبيرة وسريعة بسبب التطور الاقتصادي والتكنولوجي الذي اوجد اضرار على الانسان مما يتطلب ضرورة التقليل من هذا الضرر والعمل على حماية البيئة والمشاركة في دعم الجوانب الاجتماعية, وهذا يتطلب موارد اقتصادية تحققها الوحدات الاقتصادية. وازدياد وعي اصحاب المصلحة ومطالباتهم بمعلومات اضافية عن مساهمات الوحدات الاقتصادية في محافظتها على البيئة التي تسببت في اضرارها ودعم الجوانب الاجتماعية التي تحافظ على حقوق الانسان وتعزز موقعه وتشبع احتياجاته في المجتمع . وقد دأبت المنظمات المهنية العالمية ومنظمة الامم المتحدة وممثلين عن اصحاب المصلحة بإصدار مبادرة الابلاغ العالمية GRI لإيجاد مبادئ توجيهية لأعداد تقارير الاستدامة وفق معايير مجلس محاسبة الاستدامة SASB, التي ترشد الوحدات الاقتصادية الى اصدار تقارير استدامة بما يمكنها من اجراء المقارنات مع الوحدات المماثلة والإفصاح عن الامور ذات الاهمية النسبية والإبلاغ عن النواحي الجوهرية لمساهماتها البيئية والاجتماعية والاقتصادية التي تساعدها على كسب دعم المجتمع, وهذا يساعدها على الاستمرار بعملها وتحقيق اهدافها, وبهذا تحقق قيمه لها وللمجتمع ولجميع اصحاب المصلحة. ان اصدار تقارير الاستدامة فضلا عن التقرير المالي السنوي يوفر معلومات كافية عن جميع اوجه اداء الوحدة الاقتصادية لأصحاب المصلحة بما يمكنهم من معرفة رؤيتها وتوجهها المستقبلي واستراتيجييها الحالية والمستقبلية, ومن ثم يمكنهم اتخاذ القرارات الرشيدة التي تؤدي الى توسع انشطة الوحدات ألاقتصاديه ذات النفع الاكثر للتنمية الاقتصادية والمجتمع , وهذا يؤدي الى تحقيق النمو الاقتصادي والرفاهية الاجتماعية للمجتمع ككل. كما يظهر ذلك من خلال تقارير الاستدامة التي اعدتها عينه من الوحدات الاقتصادية لعام 2015 .


Article
The Effects of adding Waste Plastic Fibers on the Mechanical Properties and Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams
تأثير ألياف النفايات البلاستيكية على الخواص الميكانيكية للخرسانة و مقاومة القص للعتبات الخرسانية المسلحة

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Abstract

The concept of sustainability was developed in the last years and included the construction industry to solve the issues that pertaining by high consumption of natural sources, environmental pollution and high amount production of solid wastes. On the other hand, the plastics generation is growing exponentially every year, especially, types of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) that are used to produce soft drinks bottles, this study attempts to apply the concept of sustainability and reduce the environmental pollution by cutting the plastic bottles (PET) as small fibers added to the ordinary concrete to improve the shear and tensile strength of reinforced concrete beams. For this purpose, the experimental work was carried out to study the effect of waste plastic fibers (PET) on the shear behavior of seven reinforced concrete beams with dimensions of (100×150×1200) mm that were designed to fail in shear, the fibers percentages that were used in this study are (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5%). Also, the influence of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete was studied such as: workability, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, static modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic pulse velocity.

تم تطوير مفهوم الأستدامة في السنوات الماضية لتشمل صناعة البناء والتشييد لحل القضايا التي تتعلق بالاستهلاك المرتفع للمصادر الطبيعية والتلوث البيئي وإنتاج كميات عالية من النفايات الصلبة، ومن ناحية أخرى فإن إنتاج البلاستيك ينمو بشكل كبير في كل عام، وخاصة أنواع البولي إثيلين تيريفثالات (Polyethylene Terephthalate-PET) التي تستخدم لإنتاج قناني المشروبات الغازية. تحاول هذه الدراسة تطبيق مفهوم الاستدامة للحد من التلوث البيئي عن طريق تقطع قناني المشروبات البلاستيكية على شكل ألياف صغيرة التي تضاف إلى الخرسانة العادية لتحسين مقاومة القص و الشد للعتبات الخرسانة المسلحة، ولتحقيق هذا الغرض، تم إجراء الفحص المختبري لدراسة تأثير ألياف النفايات البلاستيكية (PET) على سلوك القص لسبع عتبات خرسانية مسلحة بأبعاد (100 × 150 × 1200) ملم صممت لتفشل في القص، وكانت النسب المئوية للألياف التي استخدمت في هذه الدراسة هي (0.25، 0.5، 0.75، 1، 1.25 و 1.5٪). كما تم دراسة تأثير ألياف البولي إثيلين تيريفثالات (Polyethylene Terephthalate-PET) على الخواص الميكانيكية للخرسانة مثل قابلية التشغيل، مقاومة الانضغاط، ومقاومة شد الانشطار، معامل المرونة و سرعة الموجات فوق الصوتية.


Article
Multi-Objective GA-Based Optimization to Maximize Sustainability for Product Design and Manufacturing

Authors: Halla Atiyab --- Luma Adnan Al-Kindia
Journal: Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة الأنبار للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19979428 Year: 2018 Volume: 7 Issue: 3 Pages: 195-201
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

Responding quickly and economically to the diversification of customer needs has forced manufacturing companies adopting approaches to delivering low cost, high quality sustainable products based on finding a link between the design or the manufacturing processes and other key elements of sustainability; economic, environmental, and social. However, these approaches had limited success. The most likely reason for the lack of integration between the design and manufacturing stages of the product and complexity of addressing the above mentioned three key elements of sustainability due to existing of many variables in relation to design, manufacturing, locations, logistic operations and so on. Taking into account the required integration as well as the associated complexity of considering sustainability elements can lead to large space alternative solutions and it is more difficult to use only exact methods to the optimization of such problem. This paper presents a genetic algorithm (GA) approach aiming to optimize a high sustainability performance by designing a product and the corresponding manufacturing processes for that product. Process optimization is carried out in terms of the highest fitness function achieved where different objectives are to be optimized simultaneously. The proposed GA approach is applied to the industrial case example. The proposed approach can assist decision makers to help explain when justifying their decision on what are the best product design and its manufacturing processes to obtain high sustainability performance.


Article
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF GLAZED ROOF WITH PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS AS AN APPLICATION OF ENERGY CONSERVATION IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

Authors: Hayder Mohammad Jaffal --- Tawfeeq Wasmi Mohammed --- Marwa Hamid Wasmi
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 (Part-3) Pages: 49-59
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The majority of electric energy that supplied to a residential house is consumed by air-conditioning during both summer and winter. Thus it has a major impact on the greenhouse gases and climate. Thermal energy storage systems using phase change materials (PCMs) in building elements has become a reliable solution for energy saving. The present study assists for the ‎utilization of PCMs in the roof of residential buildings to absorb the heat comes from solar ‎radiation during the daytime and releasing it to the inside nightly. The building considerations ‎as well as thermo-physical properties of PCMs have been taken and measured experimentally. ‎Results have shown that these materials have a good potential for reducing energy demand ‎and satisfy comfortable thermal conditions. The experimental data ‎show that the indoor temperature increases by 4-7 oC in the winter compared to that ‎measured in a traditional one. Furthermore, a simulation program depended on degree-days ‎method explained that the energy consumption could be saved up to 70%. Thus PCMs could ‎submit encouraging suggestions toward the sustainability.‎

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