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Article
IMPROVED SOME PROPERTIES OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE SYNTHESIS USING FIBER GLASS FOR PIPES AND RESERVOIRS APPLICATIONS
تحسين بعض خصائص البولي أثيلين عالي الكثافة باستخدام الألياف الزجاجية لتطبيقات الأنابيب والخزانات

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Abstract

In this paper, the effect of surface modification of short glass fiber on some properties of high-density polyethylene composite was investigated. The chemical treatment of short glass fiber (SGF) with solvent ethanol was achieved, and composites with weight fraction (0.5, 2.5, 4wt. %) were fabricated. Mechanical behavior tests include (tensile strength, impact, and hardness tests) and structure test (FTIR) were used. Values of mechanical tests for treated short glass fiber – reinforced High density polyethylene composites were much better than the neat high density polyethylene. The tensile strength value of composite from (37 to 41 MPa), impact strength from (83 J/m² to 100 J/m²), and hardness from (64 to 86 N/m²). Result of FTIR test showed physical reaction without the formation of new peaks.

في هذه البحث ، تمت دراسة تأثير معالجة سطح الالياف الزجاج القصيرة على بعض الخواص للمواد المركبة والمقواة بالألياف الزجاج المعالجة. تمت عملية المعالجة الكيميائية لألياف الزجاج القصيرة باستخدام مذيب الايثانول، وتم تصنيع المواد المركبة مع نسب وزنيه (0.5, 2.5, and 4 wt. %) . تم استخدام فحوصات الميكانيكية تشمل (معامل المرونة، الصدمة والصلادة) والفحص التركيبي FTIR)). كانت قيم الفحوصات الميكانيكية لعينات المواد المركبة المقواة بالألياف الزجاجية القصيرة المعالجة اعلى من قيمتها للمادة البولي اثيلين عالي الكثافة. قيم معامل المرونة لعينات المواد المركبة من ( MPa 37 الى MPa 41) , متانة الصدمة من (83 J/m² الى 100 J/m²) , و الصلادة من ( N/m² 64 الى N/m² 86 ) . أظهرت نتيجة فحص FTIR حدوث تفاعل فيزيائي دون ظهور قمم جديدة.


Article
EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING PARAMETERS FOR LOW CARBON STEEL SHEET

Author: Kamal Abdulkareem Mohammed
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 3 Pages: 14-22
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) is one of the most efficient fusion welding processes which known as a thermo – electric process used in joining metal by a combination of adjustable parameters (heat, pressure and time), it is high speed, flexible and highly productive process. It is extensively used for many industrial purposes in particular in the automotive industry. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of welding nugget area on the tensile strength of the resistance spot welded joints, the present discussion deals with effect of the parameters of resistance spot welding process (current, time, electrode force) on nugget formation and on failure load of the spot weld joints (the relation between nugget size and strength with input parameters). The test material of the specimens which used in this study is low carbon steel. The mechanical performance (peak load, failure mode) of the welded joints was determined by tensile testing, the testing results were analyzed which were obvious the effectiveness and the necessaries of the suitable or proper welding parameters for the strength of the spot weld joints.


Article
Effect of Waiting Time before Re-vibration on Mechanical Properties of Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Author: Aseel A. Abdulridha
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 7 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 748-758
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

A knowledge of the concrete vibration after casting have led to improve the mechanical properties of concrete, reduce the deformations due to creep and shrinkage and reduce the concrete permeability. At the Structural and Material Laboratories- Building and Construction Engineering Department, University of Technology, series experimental tests on prisms, cubes and cylinders were carried out to investigate the effect of waiting time after initial vibration on the flexural-tensile strength, compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of fiber reinforced concrete. The variables considered in this study were; the amount of steel fiber and waiting time after initial vibration. The test results showed that the concrete prisms without steel fiber show approximately linear behavior till the maximum flexural-tensile load due to brittle behavior of concrete. The maximum improvement in flexural-tensile strength of concrete prism occurs after the initial setting of concrete i.e after 90 minutes of waiting time. The re-vibration after time period increase the stiffness of concrete prism in case of presence of steel fiber compared with the prisms initially vibrated only. The modulus of rupture of concrete prism increased with the increasing of steel fiber content for all waiting time before re-vibration.


Article
Study of the Mechanical Properties of Jute Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites

Author: Lamees S. Faiq
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 12 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1244-1248
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

t-The study results show the use of jute fibers to develop a low costmaterial for wall panels, roofs and other construction board. The study has beeninvestigates the cement mechanical characteristics jute fibers reinforcedconcrete. Different lengths of fibers (2cm) and (4cm) were mixed to act asreinforcement for the concrete samples. The samples with different fiberpercentages (0.5%, 1% and 1.5% by weight of cement) were tested in axialcompression and splitting tensile strength. A total of (42) concrete cube samples(100mm*100mm*100mm) and (42) cylindrical samples (100mm*200mm) wereused in the tests, these include compressive and splitting tensile strength andwere conducted at (7) and (28) days of concrete age. The results showed thatincreasing the fiber content and length leads to a slight decrease (4.3% - 12.3%)in the compressive strength but it improves the splitting tensile strength whichreached best value at the (1% by weight of cement) fiber content and (5cm)length. The increasing of splitting tensile strength was up to (19.4%) from thereference concrete strength


Article
EFFECT OF ADDING THE PLASTIC WASTE AS FIBERS ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

Author: Aseel Madallah Mohammed
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 (part-6) Pages: 86-95
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

This study investigated the effect of adding the plastic waste resulting from cutting the bottles by hand as fibers in the concrete mixture with long of (3cm) and width of (0.3cm) with and without using of silica fume (SF) with (5 and 10)% of cement weight. Fibers of plastic waste added as a percentage of concrete volume. These percentages were (0.5 and 1)%. Reference concrete mix was also made for comparative purposes. Mechanical properties were tested included compressive and splitting tensile strength. Results showed that, there was an increasing in splitting tensile strength of the mixes containing plastic fibers with (SF) (5)% more mixes included plastic fiber with (SF) equal to 1% of cement weight. At 28 days according to reference concrete , the increasing percentages were (9%, 17.67%) for (0.5%,1%) plastic fibers. (8%, 15%) for plastic fibers with (SF) equal to (5%) and (5%, 3.34%) for plastic fibers with (10%) (SF). There were a decreasing in compressive strength for mixes containing plastic fibers and this decreasing increased with the percentage of plastic fibers. According to the reference concrete the decreasing values of compressive strength at (28 days) were (9.82%, 22.12%) for (0.5%, 1%) plastic fibers, (5.72%, 17.08%) for (0.5%, 1%) plastic fibers with (5%) (SF) and (6.78%, 19.04%) for plastic fibers (0.5%, 1%) with (SF) (10%) respectively.


Article
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF WELDING ELECTRODE TYPES ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF LOW CARBON STEEL AISI1010

Authors: Ameen A. Nassar --- Rafil M. Lefta --- Muthanna J. Abdulsada
Journal: KUFA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING مجلة الكوفة الهندسية ISSN: 25230018 Year: 2018 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 163-173
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

This paper discussed the effect of welding variables on the heat-affected zone (HAZ) by using a tensile test of welded 10 mm thick low carbon steel AISI1010 commercial plate, which is welded using the Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) method. Different welding electrodes E6013 and E7018 were considered as welding parameters investigated. After that, the welded specimens were cut and machined to standard configurations for tensile test. The results showed that selecting different welding electrodes had a remarkable effect on the mechanical properties such as the ultimate tensile strength, elongation percentage, and yield strength of the welded specimens. The increment in the electrical current for each electrode in the welding processes led to decrease in yield strength and tensile strength. The initial decrease in tensile strength and yield strengths were observed. This behavior was attributed to the fact that different welding electrodes and increased the required electrical current to melting for the welding electrode, increased the electrical current led to increased heat input on heat affected zone (HAZ), then the observed change mechanical properties [which could create area for defect. The welding processes and tensile test at a room temperature was performed


Article
EFFECT OF NANO ZINC OXIDE ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF NATURAL RUBBER COMPOSITE
تأثير أوكسيد الزنك النانوي على خواص الشد لمتراكب من المطاط الطبيعي

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Abstract

This study investigates the effect of Nano-zinc oxide on tensile properties of natural rubber composites by replacing the conventional zinc oxide by Nano-zinc oxide as an activator. It has a small particle size and large surface area in comparison with conventional zinc oxide. In this paper, one compound has a conventional zinc oxide as an activator with concentration 8phr (part per hundred rubber) and eight compounds have Nano-zinc oxide as an activator with concentrations (0.2, 0.6, 1, 1.4, 1.8, 2.2, 2.6, 4) phr. The tensile test sample carried out by using the Monsanto T10 Tensometer. Results show that maximum values of tensile strength and elastic modulus at 300% are found with Nano-zinc oxide at 1.8 phr. Replacing the conventional zinc oxide by Nano-zinc oxide decreases the price of the compounds due to reducing the amount of zinc oxide inside the compounds by 77.5%. It also reduces the contamination of the environment and improves the tensile strength by 38.31%.

هذه الدراسة تبحث تأثير أوكسيد الزنك النانوي على خواص الشد لمتراكبات المطاط الطبيعي باستبدال أوكسيد الزنك الاعتيادي بأوكسيد الزنك النانوي كمادة منشطة .ذات حجم دقائق صغير ومساحة سطحية كبيرة مقارنة مع أوكسيد الزنك الاعتيادي. في هذا البحث، تم اخذ عجنات تحتوي على أوكسيد الزنك الاعتيادي كمنشط بتركيز (جزء من مائة من وزن 8 PHR 0.2 المطاط) وثمان عجنات تحتوي على أوكسيد الزنك النانوي كمنشط بتركيز , 0.6, 1, 1.4, 1.8, 2.2, 2.6, 4) PHR.) أجريت عملية فحص الشد باستخدام جهاز التنسومتر .بينت النتائج ان اعلى قيمة لمقاومة الشد ومعامل المرونة عند ال % (( قد وجدت مع أوكسيد الزنك النانوي عند 300 .ان استبدال أوكسيد الزنك الاعتيادي بأوكسيد الزنك 1.8 PHR . %علاوة على ذلك 77.5 نتيجة انخفاض كمية أوكسيد الزنك داخل العجنات بنسبة ، النانوي سوف يقلل من سعر العجنات %38.31 فهو يقلل من تلوث البيئة ويحسن من قوة الشد بنسبة .


Article
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE FRESH AND HARDENED PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE INCORPORATING POLYVINYL

Author: Abo Dhaheer, M.S
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2018 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 134-147
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) has undergone intensive research work that has led to confidence in its utilization in various applications. Nevertheless, its utilization as a construction material in the concrete industry still needs to be fully addressed. In this paper, an experimental study was dedicated to investigate the influence of PVA on the fresh and hardened properties of concrete. Three different strength grades, represented by water to cement ratios (w/c), of 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6, with four different PVA dosages of 1, 2, 3 and 4%, by mass of cement, were employed in the preparation of the concrete mixes. Concerning the fresh properties, results showed that there was a significant contribution of PVA to the workability in all produced mixes, irrespective of w/c ratio. In addition, the initial and final setting time of cement pastes modified with 2% PVA were longer than that of the control paste. In term of the hardened properties, results demonstrated that the compressive (fcu) and splitting tensile (fst) strengths of concrete are dominated by amounts of PVA in the mix and w/c ratios. With the high and moderate w/c ratios, they increased when up to 2% PVA was used, and thereafter decreased. However, with the low w/c, PVA did not provide any improvement in the strength, but instead, it decreased the strength when more than 2% was added. The findings revealed also that increasing PVA content resulted in a significant reduction in total water absorption (TWA) of concrete specimens. The larger the PVA contents the lower is the TWA of the specimens


Article
STUDYING THE IMPROVEMENT OF TENSILE STRENGTH OF LOW ALLOY HIGH STRENGTH STEEL WELDS USING AN ECONOMICAL TECHNIQUE
دراسة تحسين مقاومة شد ملحومات الفولاذ الواطئ السبائك العالي المقاومة باستخدام تقنية اقتصادية

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Low alloy steels are particularly used in manufacturing several parts in the heavy engineering industries, agricultural equipment and dies which may be subject to service failure, and thus may need to be repaired by one of the welding processes. The weldability of steels is determined by their sensitivity to cracks that can be prevented by the use of special welding procedures which are often expensive and difficult to use. Manual metal arc welding of low alloy high strength steels was done firstly, using a cheap electrode (OK 46.00), followed by the use of an economical technique which depends on coiling copper wires with different diameters around the cheap electrode. The expensive electrode (OK 73.68) was also used for comparison.Results showed an increase in the tensile strength (712 MPa) and weld joint efficiency (83.8%) when the expensive iron powder low hydrogen covering electrode (OK 73.68) was used. On the other hand, the tensile strength was decreased to (206 MPa) and the weld joint efficiency to (24.2%) when the cheap electrode (OK 46.00) was used. Coiling a (0.6 mm) dia. copper wire around the (OK 46.00) electrode increased the tensile strength and weld joint efficiency to (510 MPa) and (60%) respectively.

يستخدم الفولاذ الواطئ السبائك بشكل خاص في تصنيع الكثير من أجزاء المعدات الهندسية الثقيلة والمعدات الزراعية والقوالب والتي قد تكون عرضة للفشل اثناء الخدمة، مما قد يتطلب الامر إصلاحها بواسطة احدى عمليات اللحام. يتم تحديد قابلية لحام الفولاذ من خلال تحسسه للشقوق والتي يمكن الوقاية منها عن طريق استخدام إجراءات لحام خاصة غالبا ما تكون مكلفة وصعبة الاستخدام. تم لحام الفولاذ الواطئ السبائك العالي المقاومة بطريقة القوس الكهربائي المعدني اليدوي، أولا باستخدام قطب لحام رخيص الثمن (46.00OK )، ثم باستخدام تقنية اقتصادية تعتمد على لف أسلاك نحاسية بأقطار مختلفة حول القطب الرخيص الثمن، كما تم استخدام قطب اللحام المكلف (73.68OK ) ايضا للمقارنة. وقد أظهرت النتائج زيادة في مقاومة الشد (712 MPa) وكفاءة وصلة اللحام (83.8%) عندما تم استخدام قطب اللحام المكلف ذو التغطية المحتوية على مسحوق الحديد والمنخفضة الهيدروجين (OK 73.68). من ناحية اخرى، انخفضت مقاومة الشد الى (MPa 206) وكفاءة وصلة اللحام الى (%24.2) عندما تم استخدام قطب اللحام الرخيص الثمن (OK 46.00). كما ان لف سلك نحاسي بقطر (0.6 mm) حول قطب اللحام (OK 46.00) ادى الى زيادة قيمتي مقاومة الشد وكفاءة وصلة اللحام الى (510 MPa) و (60%) على التوالي.


Article
Some Mechanical Properties of Polymer Matrix Composites Reinforced by Nano Silica Particles and Glass Fibers

Authors: Sudad I. Younis --- Jawad K. Oleiwi --- Reem A. Mohammed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 12 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1283-1289
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This research studied the effect of nano silica particles on wearbehavior test , ultimate tensile strength ,impact strength, fracture toughness andhardness shore D of specimens composite material. The hand-lay-up method isused to preparation of specimens established from unsaturated polyester resinmatrix reinforcement with 4% weight fraction glass fiber (chopped / woven) matand 1%, 3%, 5% weight fraction of nano silica particle. The nano silicaparticles used in this study has an average size of (less than 45nm). The resultsshowed that the specimen (up+4% woven glass fiber+5% nano SiO2) givesbetter mechanical properties include ultimate tensile strength, impact strength,fracture toughness and hardness shore D (110 MPa, 13.7 K.J/m2, 18.92MPa.m1/2, 85 shore D) respectively,when compare other specimens. The wearrate decreased from (22.5×10-4cm3/N.m) for specimen (pure unsaturatedpolyester resin) to (0.18×10-4cm3/N.m) for specimen (UP+4% woven glass fiber+5% nano SiO2) under parameter 7N (load), 15 minutes (sliding time), 2m/s(sliding speed) and (7 cm) sliding distance.

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