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Article
CALCULATIONS OF EARTHWORK QUANTITY BY USING CIVIL 3D

Authors: Montaqa Mokhalad Alhaydary --- Asmaa Abdul Al- Jabbar Hadi
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 6 Pages: 13-20
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

This study aims to calculate the earthwork volumes by Civil 3D. Civil 3D is modern software techniques application used by civil engineers and other professionals to plan, design, and manage engineering projects .These projects need an efficient techniques for computation the earthworks volumes with high accuracy and short time in both theoretical and practical works. Surveying methods for the earthworks quantity are most common and important activities for civil engineers these modern techniques have a potential to offer more productivity and efficiency for Civil 3D in earthwork quantity calculation. Civil 3D connects design and documentation to enabling you to boost productivity, deliver higher quality designs and construction documenters.

Keywords

earthwork --- Volume --- Contour Map --- Civil3D.


Article
LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF GYPSEOUS SOILS

Authors: Yasir Mawla Al-Badran --- Ahmed Abd Al-Azal Al-Mufty --- Isam Hamed Nashat
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 (Part-5) Pages: 119-126
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The construction of many major projects is located on many areas of gypseous soils in Iraq, which present about 20 % of Iraqi land. In many projects buildings on gypseous soils suffered from cracks, tilting, collapse and leaching the soil, because by dissolution of gypsum. The collapse of gypseous soil can be divided into two types, first, the soaking collapse, which is caused by soaking the dry soil or partly saturated soil with water, and under specific pressure, without flow of water, second, the leaching collapse, which caused by flow of water through the soil under any specific. The major purpose of this research is to investigate the leaching collapse and permeability of gypseous soils. Undisturbed block samples of a gypseous soil were obtained from Al-Tharthar area, Iraq. The gypsum content was found to be about 75%. An experimental investigation was made through carrying out several series of tests on these samples. Also, a series of leaching tests were carried out using special oedometer cells at different stresses. Results of leaching tests showed that the strains due to leaching would be higher if the OCR equal to 1. When the OCR exceeds unity, an increase in void ratio occurs and leaching strains become insignificant.


Article
Effect of heavy metals pollution from roadside dust on some growth parameters of Okra ( Abelmoschus esculunta Moench ) grown in Samawa city/ south of Iraq .
تأثير التلوث بالمعادن الثقيلة من عوادم السيارات في بعض مؤشرات النمو لنبات الباميا Abelmoschus esculenta Moenchالمزروعة في مدينة السماوة / جنوب العراق .

Author: Baqer Challab Hadi Al-Rubaye باقر جلاب هادي الربيعي
Journal: Kufa Journal for Agricultural Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 20727798 23128186 Year: 2018 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 250-267
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

An experiment was conducted at Samawa city during the growing season 2015 – 2016 to study the effect of pollution of heavy metals of road side dust in some natural and chemical characteristics of Okra plants. An experiment was included two factors. First factor was three levels of space distance i.e.(20 , 40 and 60 m ). Second factor was two levels of Traffic dentist where two ways have been chose one was a branch road within Samawa city and second road was main road between Samawa and Dewania. An experiment was adopted in Randomized Complete Block Design( R.C.B.D) with three replicates and means were compared using L.S.D Test on probability 0.05 . The result of this study have shown that the higher values of vegetative growth parameters was recorded the plants that have a distance 60m from the road where that plants were significantly better them other plants in all characteristics(leaf content of total chlorophyll 1.59 mg. g -1 Fresh weight , leaves number per plant 66.30 leaves. plant -1, stem diameter27.40 mm , pods number per plant 57.60 pods. plant -1, protein percentage in fruit11.55 % , plant yield, 331.66 gm and total yield4977.30 Kg. h-1. In contract, the concentrations of Ca, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd elements were 59.85, 12.84. 14.10, 5.09 and 0.51mg. g-1 respectively, which were significantly higher in the plants grow a distance of 20m. Also results were showed that traffic dentist had a significant effect, where plants grow in the branch road were significantly different in all studied characteristics, including the concentrations of Ca, Zn, Pb and Cd elements which were( 61.17, 2.21, 0.95 and 0.0951mg. g-1dry weight) respectively. However there were no significant difference between treatments in case of Cu of fruit. The interaction was significantly different that treatment of branch road with 60m space distance gave the highest vegetative growth parameters, meanwhile treatment of the main road with 20m space distance gave the highest values of elementa Ca, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd.

أجريت التجربة في مدينة السماوة للموسم الزراعي 2015 – 2016 لدراسة تأثير لتلوث المعادن الثقيلة بغبار مقتربات الطرق في بعض مؤشرات النمو لنباتات الباميا. تضمنت التجربة عاملين, الاول مسافات الامان عن الطريق اذ زرعت نباتات الباميا صنف بتراء على مسافات 20 و 40 و60 م عن الطريق الرئيسي والفرعي, الثاني هو كثافة المرور اذ تم اختيار طريقين أحدهما فرعي ضمن مدينة السماوة والأخر رئيسي هو الطريق الرابط بين السماوة والديوانية, نفذت التجربة بتصميم القطاعات العشوائية Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D)وقورنت المتوسطات الحسابية باستخدام اقل فرق معنوي L.S.D. وبمستوى اختبار 5 %.


Article
Finite Volume and Finite Difference Numerical Methods for Conduction Heat Transfer via an Aluminum Rod

Author: Amir Hussein Ali
Journal: Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences) مجلة ابحاث البصرة ( العلميات) ISSN: 18172695 Year: 2018 Volume: 44 Issue: 1A Pages: 1-10
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate a conduction heat transfer phenomenon in Aluminum metal rod. Finite volume method has been used as a numerical technique to simulate the study in addition to finite difference method for more details. Both methods were compared to the exact solution which has been performed and utilized as a base line for the physical case in current study. Due to its widespread applications, Aluminum material has been used as a viable metal for the solid rod in this study. The Aluminum rod length and diameter were (10 cm) and (1 cm) respectively. The Aluminum rod has been set into a computational domain of air for the convection case to be taken into account. The computational domain of the air length and diameter were (12 cm) and (2 cm) respectively. The left side of the Aluminum rod has been set at temperature of (700 K) and the right side at (300 K). The surrounding computational domain of the air has been set at (300 K). Energy equation has been solved numerically to visualize and calculate the temperature distribution along the Aluminum rod. The results showed that there was good approach between finite volume and finite difference methods in one-dimensional temperature distribution. Hence, in addition to the fact that finite volume is crucial technique in all directions and used in more complicated applications, finite difference is still important method in one dimensional case as well. Moreover the results showed that volumetric heat source raises the temperature of the material during heat transfer operation. Also, the three methods, finite volume, finite difference and exact solution have showed good approach


Article
Resistance of High-Volume Fly Ash SelfCompacting Concrete to Internal Sulfate Attack

Authors: Tareq S. al-Attar --- Ahmed A. Taha
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 12 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1260-1266
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This paper investigates the durability of high-volume Fly ash selfcompactingconcrete, HVFASCC that exposed to internal sulfate attack. At thepresent work, HVFASCC was produced with two Fly ash replacements: 50 and60% by weight of Portland cement. The internal sulfate attack was simulated byadding natural gypsum (CaSO4) that contain ion (SO3-2) to fine aggregate bytwo weight percentages: 1 and 2%. Limestone dust was used as filler with acontent of 100 kg/m3. The cementitious materials, cement and Fly ash, contentwas 400 kg/m3 and the water to powder ratio for the studied mixes was 0.34 byweight. To ensure the self-compact ability of the mixes, slump flow, T500, Vfunneland L-box tests were done. The Compressive, Splitting and Flexuralstrength Tests were extended to the age of 240 days. The results showed thatthere is no significant difference between 1 and 2% of SO3 content on thebehavior of all mixes. The presence of limestone powder in the paste solutioncould have a role in stabilizing ettringite and reducing paste porosity at earlyages. At later age, 240 days, the harmful effect of SO3 is diminished and thatmay be caused by the depletion of gypsum and the dominant product will becalcium monosulfoluminate hydrates instead of calcium sulfoaluminatehydrates


Article
Calculation of Wear Rate by Weight and Volume for Aluminum Samples

Authors: FadhelAbbas Abdulla --- NaderMajed Moustafa --- Ehsan Sabah Al-Ameen
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2018 Volume: 26 Issue: 7 Pages: 331-339
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Two ways of calculating the wear rate was investigated experimentally by weight and volume using aluminum samples with different load (500g, 1000g, and 1500g) and different time of test (300 s, 600 s, and 900 s). The results show that, When the load increasing from 500 g to 1500 g the wear rate by weight increase by (83%, 80%, and 37%) for test time (300s, 600s, and 900s) respectively. Also, the increasing test time from 300s to 900 s causes increasing in wear rate by weight by (216%, 155%, and 136%) for load (500g, 1000g, and 1500g) respectively. Also, when the load increasing from 500 g to 1500 g the wear rate by volume increase by (740%, 612%, and 662%) for test time (300s, 600s, and 900s) respectively. Also, the increasing test time from 300s to 900 s causes increasing in wear rate by volume by (152%, 110%, and 128%) for load (500 g, 1000g, and 1500g) respectively.

تم التحقيق في طريقتين لحساب معدل التآكل بالوزن والحجمعمليا باستخدام عينات ألمنيوم مع حمل مختلف (500 جم، 1000 غرام،و1500 جم) ووقت اختبار مختلف (300 ثانية، 600 ثانية،و900 ثانية). تظهر النتيجة أنه عندما يزيد الحمل من 500 جم إلى 1500 جم فإن معدل التآكل بالوزن يزداد بنسبة (83٪ و80٪ و37٪) لوقت الاختبار (300sو600s و900s) على التوالي. كذلك، يزيد زمن الاختبار المتزايد من 300 إلى 900 ثانية من معدل التآكل حسب الوزن (216٪، 155٪،و136٪) للحمل (500 جرام، 1000 جرام، 1500 جرام) على التوالي. أيضا، عندما يزداد الحمل من 500 غم إلى 1500 غم معدل التآكل من خلال زيادة الحجم بنسبة (740 ٪، 612 ٪،و662 ٪) لوقت الاختبار (300s، 600s،و900 s) على التوالي. كذلك، يزيد زمن الاختبار المتزايد من 300 إلى 900 ثانية من معدل التآكل بالحجم بنسبة (152٪، 110٪،و128٪) للحمل (500 جرام، 1000 جرام، 1500 جرام) على التوالي.


Article
Numerical Simulation of Natural Convection in a Square Cavity Utilizing Nanofluid and Subjected to Air Stream Cooling

Author: Khalid B. Saleem خالد بكر سليم
Journal: Basrah Journal for Engineering Science مجلة البصرة للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: Print: 18146120; Online: 23118385 Year: 2018 Volume: 18 Issue: 2 Pages: 15-25
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

In the present paper the natural convection in a squarecavity utilizing Cu-water nanofluid is examined numerically.The cavity is exposed to cooling air stream with free streamtemperature (T∞) from left wall and its right and bottom wallskept with cold and hot temperatures (TC) and (TH) respectively,while the cavity top wall considered as adiabatic. The nanofluidflow inside the cavity is assumed to be laminar and obeying toBoussinesq approximation. The governing equations are solvedby finite volume method using ANSYS FLUENT code. Theresults are accomplished with a range of nanofluid volumefraction =0–0.16, Rayleigh number Ra=103–105 and freestream Reynolds number Re∞=103–104. The effects of thesevariables are displayed on the stream function (), isotherms ()contours and average Nusselt number (Nuavg). The results showthe heat transfer rate augmented with increasing , Ra and Re∞.Also, the increment in both  and Ra increases the circulationinside the cavity while increasing Re∞ produces secondaryvortices and reduces circulation at the main vortex of the cavity.The results of local Nusselt number (Nu) and isotherms () arecompared with other studies and show good agreement withmaximum error values 14.28% and 3.2% respectively.


Article
EFFECT OF USING OF LIQUID WHEY CHEESE ON SOME PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF YELLOW LAYER CAKES

Authors: Karzan T. Mahmood --- Sheler F. Ahmad --- Zardasht K. Ali
Journal: Euphrates Journal of Agriculture Science مجلة الفرات للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 38752072 Year: 2018 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 150-155
Publisher: Al-kasim University جامعة القاسم الخضراء

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to using liquid sweet whey as substitute ingredient to milk or/and water in Yellow Layer Cakes. This main recipe was used to prepare the standard cake (control) while the milk was substituted by whey in cake Wm, and in cake Ww the water was substituted by whey. Also results showed that substitution of milk and water by whey in both cakes increased the shrinkage index to 2cm and 2.5cm compared with standard cake which was 1cm. The substitution of milk and water in both cakes (Wm and Ww) by whey caused increasing of cake volume index, and the volume index for standard cake was 17.3 while it was 18.24 and 17.15 for Wm and Ww respectively. The results showed that substitution milk with whey did not prevent the cake collapse, but there was a benefit effect for using whey instead of milk or water in the cakes uniformity index. The sensory evaluation results showed that, no significant effect of liquid whey addition on enhancingsensory characterististic of whey addition treatment comparied with stander cake.


Article
EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL STRESS ANALYSIS INVESTIGATION FOR COMPOSITE PLATE UNDER THERMAL LOAD
دراسة تجريبي ونظرية لتحليل صفيحة مركبة تحت الحمل الحراري

Authors: Emad Q. Hussein عماد قاسم حسين --- Sara J. Alasadi سارة الاسدي
Journal: KUFA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING مجلة الكوفة الهندسية ISSN: 25230018 Year: 2018 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 205-221
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

A paper focuses on the investigation of the stress-strain for E-glass fiber /polyester composite plates subjected to the uniform temperature at various factors, such as fiber volume fraction and fiber orientation. To study the stress analysis of composite plate two methods are used: The First method is an experimental test by applying a uniform temperature on the composite plate inside the furnace and a measure the deformation of the plate by using dial gage. The second method based on a finite element solution using ANSYS (ver. 15) program. The results presented here that, the maximum strain in longitudinal direction occurs at a ply angle (90º), whereas the minimum value at a ply angle (0º). However, the maximum strain in transverse direction occurs at a ply angle (0º) whereas the minimum value at a ply angle (90º). In general, the magnitude of thermal strain increases with increasing temperature difference (∆T) and decreases with increasing the fiber volume fraction (

تركز هذه المقالة على التحقيق في تحليل الإجهاد لوحة مركبة من للألياف الزجاجية(/ ( البوليستر معرضة E-GLASS لدرجة حرارة منظمة مع تغير في الحجم واتجاه الالياف .وقد تم استخدام طريقتين لدراسة تحليل الإجهاد لوحة المركبة : الطريقة الأولى هي اختبار تجريبي بواسطة تسليط عليها درجة حرارة موحدة على لوحة المركبة داخل الفرن وقياس التشوه .النتائج الواردة في هذه ANSYS اللوحة باستخدام دايل كيج .اما الطريقة الثانية هي حل العنصر المحدود باستخدام برنامج في حين ان اقل قيمة عندما تكون ،)º90( اعلى قيمة للانفعال في الاتجاه الطولي يحدث عندما تكون زواية الاياف ،المقالة )واقل قيمة º0( في حين أن اعلى قيمة للانفعال في الاتجاه العرضي يحدث عندما تكون زواية الاياف ،)º0( زواية الاياف Δ ( .)بشكل عام، فإن قيمة الانفعال الحراري تزداد مع زيادة تغير درجة حرارة º90( عندما تكون زواية الاياف )وتنخفض T


Article
Estimation of kidney tumor volume in CT images using medical image segmentation techniques
تقدير حجم الورم الكلوى في الصور المقطعية باستخدام تقنيات تقسيم الصور الطبية

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Abstract

Kidney tumors are of different types having different characteristics and also remain challenging in the field of biomedicine. It becomes very important to detect the tumor and classify it at the early stage so that appropriate treatment can be planned. Accurate estimation of kidney tumor volume is essential for clinical diagnoses and therapeutic decisions related to renal diseases. The main objective of this research is to use the Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) algorithms to help the early detection of kidney tumors that addresses the challenges of accurate kidney tumor volume estimation caused by extensive variations in kidney shape, size and orientation across subjects. In this paper, have tried to implement an automated segmentation method of gray level CT images. The segmentation process is performed by using the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering method to detect and segment kidney CT images for the kidney region. The propose method is started with pre-processing of the kidney CT image to separate the kidney from the abdomen CT and to enhance its contrast and removing the undesired noise in order to make the image suitable for further processing. The resulted segmented CT images, then used to extract the tumor region from kidney image defining the tumor volume (size) is not an easy task, because the 2D tumor shape in the CT slices are not regular. To overcome the problem of calculating the area of the convex shape of the hull of the tumor in each slice, we have used the Frustum model for the fragmented data.

أن أورام الكلى تتكون من عدة أنواع مختلفة و ذو خصائص مختلفة بالاضافه إلى إن معالجتها مختلفة, إن كشف الورم وإزالته يعتبر من المشاكل الطبية التي تبقى من التحديات التي تواجه حقل الطب البايلوجي, وأصبح من المهم الكشف عن الأورام وتصنيفها في المراحل الأولية كي يتم التخطيط للعلاج المناسب. تقدير دقيق من حجم ورم الكلى ضروري للتشخيصات السريرية والقرارات العلاجية المتعلقة بأمراض الكلى. تعتمد طرق تقدير حجم الورم الكلوي الموجودة على خطوة تجزئة وسيطة تخضع لقيود مختلفة. الهدف الرئيسي من هذا البحث هو استخدام خوارزميات التشخيص بمساعدة الحاسوب للمساهمة في الكشف المبكر عن أورام الكلى. تم في هذا البحث تنفيذ طريقة التجزئة الآلية للصور المقطعي للكلى ذات التدرج الرمادي. حيث تم تنفيذ عملية تجزئة باستخدام طريقة الـ(Fuzzy C-Means (FCM)). الطريقة المقترحة تبدأ من مرحلة المعالجة الأولية للصورة المقطعية والتي تبدا بمرحلة عزل الكلى عن باقي أجزاء البطن في الصورة المقطعية تم بعد ذلك متم مرحلة تعزيز التباين وإزالة الضوضاء غير المرغوبة في الصورة من أجل جعل الصورة مناسبة. يتم تطبيق عملية التجزئة على الصور الناتجة، ثم تستخدم لاستخراج منطقة الورم من صورة الكلى بعدها يتم حساب مساحة الورم لكل شريحة ثم بعد ذلك يتم تحديد حجم الورم وهذه المرحلة ليست مهمة سهلة، لأن شكل الورم 2 في شرائح الصور ليست منتظمة. للتغلب على هذه المشكلة في حساب المساحة، استخدمنا نموذج (Frustum model).

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