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Article
Isolation, Purification and Identification of Seven species of Algae in three drinking water plants supply springs in Sulaimani province and growth control of isolated algae by using some plant extracts
عزل وتنقية وتشخيص سبعة انواع من الطحالب في ثلاث مشاريع لمياه الشرب ينبوعية المصدر في محافظة السليمانية والسيطرة على نمو الطحالب المعزولة منها باستخدام بعض المستخلصات النباتية

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Abstract

In this study, three drinking water treatment plant supply springs were selected within different sites in Sulaimani province - Kurdistan region of Iraq. Samples were collected over period of eight months from May to the end of December 2015.Five stations were selected, Stations 1, 2 and 3 were located at Bestan Sowr drinking water project in Sharazur district, station 4 was located at Saray Subhan Agha drinking water project in Said sadiq district and station 5 was located at Khurmal drinking water project in Khurmal district within Halabja district. The study involved an Isolation, purification and identification seven species of algae by using Chu-10 media and Bold Basal Medium (BBM), and evaluation of the effectiveness of plant extracts (as antialgal) on the growth of isolated algae by Agar-Well Diffusion Method.Seven strains of algae from studying stations were isolated, purified and identified after collection which were: Ulothrix zonata, Desmodesmus lunatus, Desmodesmus itascaensis, Chlorella vulgaris, Calothrix fusca, Chroococcus turgidus and Navicula riediana. These isolated algae included 2 species of blue-green algae, 4 species of green algae, and 1 species of diatoms.In this study, the suggested plants extracts for use as inhibitors belong to different families of plant (5 plants) which were Hordeum vulgare (Barley straw), Peganum harmala, Artemisia annua, Thymus vulgaris and Nasturtium officinale (Watercress).On the assessment of the effectiveness of crude plant extracts (as antialgal) on the growth of selected algae by Agar-Well Diffusion Method, the results showed that the greater inhibition zone diameter was obtained 62 mm against Calothrix fusca by using crude extracted from Peganum harmala in concentration 80 mg/ml, and less inhibition zone diameter was 7 mm against Ulothrix zonata by using crud extracted from Artemisia annua in concentration 30 mg/ml. Nasturtium officinale (Watercress) did not show any effective against any type of isolated algae in all concentrations. Generally inhibition zones diameters differed according to the algal types and types and concentration of plant’s extracts.

في هذه الدراسة تم اختيار ثلاث مشاريع لمياه الشرب ينبوعية المصدر ضمن مواقع مختلفة من محافظة السليمانية - اقليم كردستان العراق. جمعت العينات لمدة ثمانية اشهر اعتبارا من شهر ايار 2015 وحتى نهاية شهر كانون الاول 2015.اختيرت خمس محطات للدراسة، المحطات الثلاثة الاولى تقع في مشروع بيستان سور لمياه الشرب في قضاء شارزور، وتقع المحطة الرابعة في مشروع سراي سبحان اغا لمياه الشرب في قضاء سيد صادق، وتقع المحطة الخامسة في مشروع خورمال لمياه الشرب في ناحية خورمال ضمن قضاء حلبجة.شملت الدراسة عزل وتنقية وتشخيص سبعة انواع من الطحالب باستخدام الوسطين Chu-10 وBBM، وكذلك تقييم كفاءة المستخلصات النباتية لتعمل كمثبطات طحلبية تم تجربتها في المختبر على سبعة انواع من من الطحالب المعزولة عن طريق استخدام Agar-Well Diffusion Method.تم عزل وتنقية وتشخيص سبعة انواع من الطحالب وهي:Ulothrix zonata, Desmodesmus lunatus, Desmodesmus itascaensis, Chlorella vulgaris, Calothrix fusca, Chroococcus turgidus and Navicula riediana.هذه الانواع السبعة المعزولة تضمنت نوعان من الطحالب الخضراء المزرقة واربعة انواع من الطحالب الخضراء و نوع واحد من الديتومات تم اقتراح 5 انواع من المستخلصات النباتية لاستخدامها كمثبطات نمو للطحالب وهذه النباتات تنتمي لعوائل نباتية مختلفة وهي نبات الشعير (Barley straw) H. vulgare (تبن الشعير)، وبذور نبات الحرمل Peganum harmala، ونبات الشيح (Artemisia annua)، ونبات الزعتر (Thymus vulgaris)، ونبات كرفس الماء Nasturtium officinale Watercress)). اما فيما يتعلق بتقييم فعالية المستخلصات النباتية الخام (كمثبطات) لنمو الطحالب تم استخدام طريقة Agar-Well Diffusion، اظهرت النتائج ان اكبر قطر للتثبيط حصل ضد النوع الطحلبي Calothrix fusca بطول قطر 62 ملم عند استخدام مستخلص نبات الحرمل عند التركيز 80 ملغم/ مل، واقل قطر تثبيط 7 ملم فقد سجل ضد النوع الطحلبي Ulothrix zonata عند استخدام مستخلص نبات الشيح عند التركيز 30 ملغم/ مل، اما نبات كرفس الماء فلم يظهر اي فعالية ضد اي نوع من الطحالب المعزولة وفي جميع التراكيز المستخدمة. بشكل عام قطر التثبيط يختلف تبعا للنوع الطحلبي ونوع وتركيز المستخلص المستخدم.


Article
Evaluation of a Number of Water Treatment Plants in Kirkuk Governorate using the Water Quality Index

Authors: AbdulRazaq Khader Abdul Wahid --- Idan I. Ghdhban --- Rodhan Abdullah Salih
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2018 Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 49-59
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

A study was conducted on sixteen water purification plants in Kirkuk governorate to evaluate the treatment of water in them, where physical and chemical tests were conducted for raw water and treated water for a period of (6) months from December until May. Temperature, turbidity, pH, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Electric Conductivity (EC), alkali, Total Hardness (TH) and calcium (Ca+2) were measured. Water quality index Canadian method (CCME) was used to classify raw water quality and treated water. The results showed that the raw water for all stations was classified as category (4) (bad) during the study period. The treated water was different for the treatment plants. Two of the treatment plants recorded good efficiency in water treatment (AL-Shallalah plant and Sin AL-Thiban) the treated water remained in category (2) (good). While the water quality of AL-Mosanaa plant indicated that there was a problem in the treatment of water in this plant, the treated water remained in category (4) bad during the study period. Water quality index fluctuated for other plants during the study period. The study also showed that alkali values of all stations were higher than the allowable limit for raw water and treated water.


Article
Static Model of Zubair Reservoir in Luhais Oil Field

Authors: Ahmed Abdulmueen Alher --- Mohammed Saleh Aljawad --- Abdullah Abdulhasan Ali
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2018 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 57-60
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Static reservoir modeling is the interacting and analysis of the geological data to visualize the reservoir framework by three-dimensional model and distribute the static reservoir properties. The Petrel E&P software used to incorporate the data. The interpreted log data and core report used in distribution of petrophysical properties of porosity, water saturation and permeability for Zubair reservoir in Luhais oil field. The reservoir discretized to 274968 cells in increments of 300, 200 and 1 meter in the direction of X, Y, and Z respectively. The geostatistical approach used in the distribution of the properties of porosity and water saturation overall the reservoir units. The permeability has been calculated with classical method depending on the routine core reports data. The results show the main reservoir unit is 1C where its porosity and permeability are about 20% and 400md respectively. This unit underlaid by barrier unit and rounded by water. The estimated value of oil in place is about 209*106 ScM3, most of it accumulate at 1C unit and the other at the upper parts of unit 1E.


Article
Effect of using three different sources of water in some hematological traits of local male rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus).
تأثير استخدام ثلاث مصادر مختلفة للمياه في بعض الصفات الدمية لذكور الأرانب ( (oryctolagus cuniculusالمحلية

Author: Mohamad K. Hamed AL-Absawi محمد كريم حمد العبساوي
Journal: Jornal of Al-Muthanna for Agricultural Sciences مجلة المثنى للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 40862226 Year: 2018 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 68-74
Publisher: Al-Muthanna University جامعة المثنى

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Abstract

An experiment was carried out during 15/2/2017 to 1/5/2017, besides, 15 days as adaptation period, at the Animal house, Veterinary College, AL-Muthanna University, to evaluate the effect of three different sources of water in some hematological parameters of local male rabbits. Twelve healthy local male rabbits of 2.5-3 months' age were selected for this trail. Rabbits were randomly divided into three groups, each of 4 rabbits, on body weight. First group RO [(Reverse osmosis water group) control, second group (Tap water group ) and third group (river water group)]. Significant increases (P<0.05) were found in RBC of G2(6.37±0.33) at wk8compared with G1(5.77± 0.26), G3 at wk8(7.03±0.24) and wk4(6.70±0.18) compared with G1 (5.78± 0.32), (5.77± 0.26) respectively. There was a significant increase (P<0.05) in WBC count of the groups G1 (8.89± 0.49), G2(9.67±0.40), respectively, at wk8 compared with G3(6.41± 0.81), also, G1(10.30±0.27) was significantly increased (P<0.05) at wk4 compared with G3(5.91±1.26). Lymphocyte cells% was significantly increased (P<0.05) in G1(44.02 ± 0.82) at wk4, wk8 compared with G3(31.17± 2.61) and G2(42.75±1.52) respectively. Neutrophil cells % was significantly increased (P<0.05) in G1 at wk0andwk8(53.70± 0.62) (52.87± 0.66),compared withG3(48.52±1.23), while G2 was significantly increased (P<0.05) at wk4 and wk8(51.92±2.16), (50.7±1.05) compared with G3(44.67± 1.68),(43.17± 1.21) .There was no significant difference in the Esinophiles and Monocytes between all groups of rabbits during the whole period of experiment while in monocytes G3 was significantly decreased (P<0.05) at wk4andwk8(4.63± 0.27),(4.34±0.36) compared with wk0(7.34±1.17). Basiophile cells% showed that there was significant increase (P<0.05) in G2 (1.34±0.14) at wk8 compared with G3 (0.67±0.13). In conclusion from this study that the quality and resources of water play an important role in some blood parameters of local male rabbits, subsequent impact in animal hygienic performance.

أجريت هذه الدراسة في البيت الحيواني التابع لكلية الطب البيطري جامعة المثنى للفترة من 15/ 2/ 2017 لغاية 1/5/ 2017مضافة لها فترة التكيف (15 يوم) والتي هدفت الى توضيح تأثير ثلاث مصادر مختلفة للمياه في بعض معايير الدم لذكور الأرانب المحلية ((oryctolagus cuniculus حيث أستخدم 12 ذكر من ذكور الأرانب المحلية بعمر 2.5-3 شهر تقريباً قسمت عشوائيا إلى ثلاث مجاميع متساوية مع الأخذ بنظر الاعتبار وزن الجسم الحي الى: (المجموعة الأولى مجموعة الماء RO((Reverse osmosis water (سيطرة) والمجموعة الثانية مجموعة ماء الإسالة والمجموعة الثالثة مجموعة ماء النهر) ، غذيت المجاميع جميعاً على العلف المركز (75 غم لكل رأس) مع تقديم الجت بفترات متساوية واعطيت المياه المخصصة لمجاميع الحيوانات بصورة حرة. سحبت عينات الدم ثم قيست ( مستوى خضاب الدم ،النسبة المئوية لحجم خلايا الدم المرصوصة كريات الدم الحمراء، عدد خلايا الدم البيض والعد التفريقي لخلايا الدم البيض. أظهرت النتائج ان استخدام المصادر المختلفة للماء ادى الى ما يلي: فقد أظهرت تفوق معنوي (P ≤0.05) للمجموعة الثانية (37.00±1.41)خلال الاسبوع الثامن في نسبة كريات الدم المرصوصة على المجموعتين الاولى(27.00±1.63) والثالثة(30.50±1.50) في حين لم تظهر فروقات بين الفترات، ولم تظهر اختلافات معنوية بين المجاميع والفترات في النسبة المئوية لخضاب الدم ، اما خلايا الدم الحمراء فقد اظهرت ان المجموعة الثانية(6.37±0.33) خلال الاسبوع الثامن تفوق معنوي (p≤0.05) على المجموعة الاولى((5.77± 0.26، وتفوق معنوي (P ≤0.05) للمجموعة الثالثة خلال الاسابيع الرابع والثامن) (7.03±0.24) (6.70±0.18 ) على المجموعة الاولى(,(5.78± 0.32((5.77± 0.26.أظهرت خلايا الدم البيض هناك تفوق معنوي(P≤0.05) للمجموعتين الاولى(8.89± 0.49 ) والثانية(9.67±0.40 ) في الاسبوع الثامن على المجموعة الثالثة ((6.41± 0.81 ،وتفوق معنوي(P≤0.05) المجموعة الاولى(10.30±0.27 ) خلال الاسبوع الرابع على المجموعة الثالثة((5.91±1.26. نسبة الخلايا اللمفاوية فقد أظهرت أن المجموعة الاولى(44.02 ± 0.82) تفوقت معنويا

Keywords

Water --- traits --- hematological --- Rabbits


Article
26- HISTOMORPHOLOGY OF HAEMOLYMPH NODES OF WATER DEER (HYDROPOTES INERMIS ARGYROPUS): NOVEL STUDY

Author: Artemeva E.A
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 315-325
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The objective of the present work was to investigate the anatomical andhistological structures of haemolymph nodes in the adult water deer (Hydropotesinermis argyropus). Methodology: the morphology of haemolymph nodes from 5adult water deer was studied by gross inspection and by histological methods.Results: the haemolymph nodes were determined for the first time in water deer(Hydropotes inermis argyropus). The nodes located in the neck on the trachea,thoracic and abdominal cavities in water deer. Dark red in color and oval- or roundshaped haemolymph nodes in water deer were observed particularly along theabdominal aorta and caudal vena cava; as well as on the trachea along the jugularvein, on the internal carotid artery and internal jugular vein and on the aortic arch.These nodes had a hilus with hilar vessels, which entered the haemolymph nodesthrough the trabeculae as trabecular artery. The parenchyma was organized in theform of cortex and medulla. Lymphoid rim was located between subcapsular sinusand cortex. The cortex was composed of a many secondary lymphoid follicles anddiffuses interfollicular lymphoid tissue, and medulla contained medullary cords andmedullary sinuses. A reticular meshwork extended throughout the haemolymphnodes formed the structure backbone. The interstices of the reticular meshwork werefilled with free blood cells, many macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells.Conclusion: the dark red haemolymph nodes of water deer examined were seenalong the course of large blood vessels in the neck on the trachea, thoracic andabdominal cavities. This is first study has demonstrated the presence of haemolymph nodes in water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus) and provided essentialinformation on their anatomical and histological structures. The data obtained in thepresent study may be used for further research in this field


Article
Study of Surface Water Quality and Trends Assessment at Shatt Al-Arab River in Basrah Province
دراسة وتقييم نوعية المياه السطحية وتغيراتها في نهر شط العرب في محافظة البصرة

Authors: Ammar Salman Dawood --- Ammar Ashour Akesh --- Ahmed Sagban Khudier
Journal: journal of kerbala university مجلة جامعة كربلاء ISSN: 18130410 Year: 2018 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 215-231
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

In this paper, the monitoring of surface water quality for the Shatt Al Arab River between 2011 and 2014 have been done by using the physico-chemical parameters. These parameters are sulphate (SO4), phosphate (PO4), nitrate (NO3), magnesium (Mg), dissolved oxygen (DO), chloride (Cl), and calcium (Ca). Five sampling stations were selected to monitor these parameters along the Shatt Al Arab River. Mann-Kendall Seasonal Test for the water quality assessment was done to detect the different levels of pollution and trend is made use of in the area under investigation. The results have revealed parameter variation over time due to, at most, the increasing pollution levels at the monitoring stations along the Shatt Al Arab River during the 2011-2014 period. The current research submits the use and utility of trend statistical assessment of large and complicated database in order to get more useful information on the quality of surface water, sampling design and analytical protocols, the efficient control of pollution, and the good management of the surface water.

تم في هذا البحث رصد نوعية المياه السطحية لنهر شط العرب بين عامي 2011 و 2014 , حيث شملت الدراسة تغطية المعاملات الفيزيائية والكيميائية. حيث ان المعاملات التي تم اختيارها شملت كلا من الكبريتات (SO4)، الفوسفات (PO4)، النترات (NO3)، المغنيسيوم (Mg)، الأوكسجين المذاب (DO)، الكلوريدات (Cl)، والكالسيوم (Ca). وقد تم رصد هذه المعايير السبعة على طول نهر شط العرب في خمس محطات لجمع العينات. تم إجراء اختبار (مان-كندال) الموحد لجميع المعاملات لتقييم جودة المياه وللكشف عن مستويات التلوث المختلفة وقد تم استخدام اتجاه سلوك المتغيرات مع الزمن في منطقة الدراسة. وأظهرت النتائج تباين القيم والتراكيز المقاسة مع مرور الوقت بسبب ارتفاع مستويات التلوث في محطات المراقبة على طول نهر شط العرب خلال الفترة 2011-2014. وتقدم هذه الدراسة استخدام وفائدة التقييم الإحصائي للاتجاه لقاعدة البيانات الكبيرة والمعدة من أجل الحصول على معلومات أفضل عن نوعية المياه السطحية وتصميم العينات والبروتوكولات التحليلية، وكفاءة السيطرة على التلوث، والإدارة الجيدة للمياه السطحية


Article
Pollution Assessment of Surface and Drainage Water by Heavy Elements in Al Ahrar District, Wasit Governorate, Iraq

Authors: Ayser Al-Shamma --- Reyam A. Hassan
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 2B Pages: 886-891
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The study area lies in Wasit governorate south west Kut city, where Al Ahdeb oil field is located to the south of Al Ahrar district. The present study deals with assessment of heavy metals pollution in water by collecting eleven water samples (five samples from drainage and six samples from surface water) in 5th of December 2016. The water samples analysis of heavy elements in the study area shown that water is polluted with high concentration of (Pb, Cd) elements, while the concentration of (Cu, Fe, Zn) in water samples are within the permissible limits of both World Health Organization, and Iraqi standards and there are no hazard effects from these elements. The study detected some diseases that injured the people living in the vicinity of the oil field complex such as scabies, vitiligo, eczema and contact dermatitis, as a result of increasing of (Pb) ion in water samples.


Article
Environmental assessment of heavy metals in surface and groundwater at Samarra City, Central Iraq

Authors: Mahmood Fadhil Abed --- Balsam Salim Al-Tawash --- Shatha Amer Ibrahim
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 3A Pages: 1277-1484
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Urban Samarra City is characterized by high population density and wide variation in land use, has led to many environmental problems, for this purpose the environmental assessment became an urgent need for surface and ground water at study area. Three water samples from Tigris River and six groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metals as Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cu, Co ,Pb, Ni, Cr, As, Mo, Hg, Al, Li, Be, Se, V, U, Sr. Most heavy metal concentrations have shown higher level than standards, such as Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, As, Mo, Hg, Al ,Li ,Be, Se, V, that might be due to anthropogenic activities such as agricultural and the heavy use of fertilizers, besides other activities among them industrial . All water samples have higher concentration level of Uranium except (SW1, SW2, SW3, GW1) might be due to military activity. On the other hand all samples were polluted in Co except SW2, GW4, high value of Co may be caused by industrial processes and oil product spills. Physical and chemical properties values which have obtained in this study are pH, EC, TDS, TSS, DO, BOD,COD and turbidity. Water analyses reveal unacceptable values for physical and chemical parameters according to WHO standard and IQS2009 limits for drinking water, BOD, EC have shown high values in all surface and groundwater samples. Whereas, high values of TDS, COD and turbidity only in ground water samples. The water is not drinkable according to Water Quality Index (WQI) all values are above 100 and, in the sequence (GW1>GW5>GW4>GW3>GW6>GW2), the water quality index of surface water (SW3>SW2>SW1). Mixing of the shallow groundwater and Tigris River water show various patterns affected by other factors such as the aquifer recharge and evaporation, especially at the shallowest parts.


Article
Design and Construct Intelligent Tank “Water Level Sensor”

Author: Baraa I. Farhan
Journal: Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Computer Science and Mathematics مجلة القادسية لعلوم الحاسوب والرياضيات ISSN: 20740204 / 25213504 Year: 2018 Volume: 10 Issue: 3 Pages: Comp Page 1-8
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

The system proposed in this paper design a system of intelligent reservoir " water level sensor" helps reduce thewaste percentage of water. Through the automatic control and control of the water level by determining the water proportion of the reservoir in terms of emptiness and fullness and is carried out using the concept of artificial intelligence with micro controls, where the use of a simple and cheap control is arduino and is stored and stored information is written in IDL program to determine the percentage of fullness and lack Depending on the need of the user of the reservoir with the management of electronic parts associated with the Arduino to fill the tank when it is free of water and stop the filling process when reaching the specified level of fullness while monitoring the level of water during use. This system can be applied at the level of tanks reservoirs Cities and irrigation tanks and reservoirs for agricultural land with the development of electronic parts used in the control system to achieve the desired goal in preserving the amount of safe water for drinking and non-potable.


Article
PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF AN AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM DURING REFRIGERANT EVAPORATION

Authors: Mohammed Hamed Alhamdo --- Maathe Abdulwahed Theeb --- Jaafar Jaber Abdulhameed
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 6 Pages: 101-113
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

In hot weather countries, the temperature and pressure of the air-conditioning system are increased considerably. This causes a decrease in the cooling capacity of the cycle and also causes an increase in the power consumption. In this work, an experimental and theoretical investigation has been done to improve the evaporator outlet fluid temperature. Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software has been used to analyze the performance of the experimental data. For this purpose, several ranges of evaporator water flow rate are considered tested. The amount of water flow rate is varied with respect to the evaporator load. The results indicate that the increase of water flow rate (160 to 190) L/h causes increase of COP by (11.1 %). The outlet cooling temperature from evaporator has been found to reduce by about (11.3%). However, (170 L/h) flow rate of water has been found as the best rate for improving evaporator temperature.

Keywords

Evaporator --- water flow rate --- COP.

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