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5.PATTERN AND DETERMINANTS OF PSYCHOGERIATRIC DISORDERS AMONG THE ATTENDEES OF OLD AGE PSYCHIATRIC UNIT, BAGHDAD, IRAQ

Authors: Khalida I. Ezzat خالدة عزت --- Shalan J.R. Al Abbudi شعلان جودة رحيم العبودي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2018 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 22-29
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Mental disorders in old age are frequent.Objective:To determine the diagnostic pattern of mental disorders in elderly patients aged ≥ 60 years, attending the Old Age Psychiatry Unit, Ibn-Rushed Psychiatric Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq.Methods:A retrospective study to all attendees to the Old Age Psychiatry Unit between January 2009 and November 2011 was carried out. Data collected included diagnoses, comorbid disorders, treatment received, and socio demographic characteristics. Results:Analysis of 907 patients was done; the mean age 68 ± 6.3 years, 67.5% age range 60 – 69 years, 70% married, 50% without income (unemployed and housewives), 52% illiterate, and 98.5% live with their families. Depression was 46.9%, schizophrenia 23.2%, and 20.7% dementia. 48% of clients had comorbid illness. All patients had at least one pharmacological medication. Diagnoses high statistical significant association with gender (P=0.000), marital status (P=0.001), occupation (P=0.000), and education level (P=0.000).Conclusion:Mental disorders in old age are frequent. Many old age people were with limited access to mental health services. Mental health services must be designed to meet the needs of older people at all points of the mental health continuum.Keywords:Pattern, determinants, elderly, psychiatry, IraqCitation:Al Abbudi SJR, Ezzat KI. Pattern and determinants of psychogeriatric disorders among the attendees of Old Age Psychiatric Unit, Baghdad, Iraq. Iraqi JMS. 2018; Vol. 16(1): 22-29. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.16.1.5

Keywords

Pattern --- determinants --- elderly --- psychiatry --- Iraq


Article
Determinate of Industrial Exports in south Asia country (study case)
محددات الصادرات الصناعية في ماليزيا (حالةدراسية )

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Abstract

This study sheds light on Industrial exports determinants are mostly based on cntrouy specific factors in Malaysia as export expansion schemes, subsidies, foreign exchange etc. The present study aims to find out the internal and external determinants of Industrial exports Growth and promotion in Malaysia . In this study we will follow panel data estimation for the period (1980-2014) of Malaysia.However, Industrial exports, have come to play a vital role in the first Manufactured Growth and Economic development of Malaysia due to its contribution to the accumulation of foreign exchange necessary for financing development projects and for its forward and backward linkage prospects to other sectors of the economy. However, the process of export promotion in the developing countries is influenced by many factors some of which are domestic like the structure of national industry, the relative domestic price proportions and the government industrial and commercial policies. Other factors are associated with the external price structure of imported raw material and physical capital. foreign exchange systems, competitive foreign prices of similar exported goods and the relevant importing countries policies such as protective tariff policies, common market policies and policies for exports of technology. Within this context in a Newly Industrialized economieslike Malaysia,the need arises for empirical studies to be conducted on the growth pattern of Manufactured products measuring and analyzing all factors affecting such growth whether dealing with supply and demand forces or relative domestic and external factors of production prices or national and foreign governments industrial and commercial policies. The objective of this research is to identify the most statistically significant factors affecting the growth of manufacture products. analyze the important elements justifying significant relationships. Conclusions and recommendations of relevant policies to enhance the pace of growth of Malaysia Manufactured exports are finally drawn Export growth in Malaysia has been much faster than GDP growth over the past few decades ,Several factors appear to have contributed to this phenomenon including foreign direct investment (FDI) oriented to export ,technology progress, and succeed export policy . Finally this study try to find those factory (fdi,forgen exchange,term trade ,industrial sector size,technology progress,and financial crises) effect from Industrial exports .

تسلط هذه الدراسة الضوء على محددات الصادرات الصناعية والتي تعتمد على المتغيرات الاقتصادية في دولة ماليزيا. وتهدف الدراسة إلى معرفة المحددات الداخلية والخارجية لتشجيع ونمو الصادرات الصناعية في هذه الدولة حيث تتناول الدراسة البيانات لـلفترة (1980-2014). تؤدي الصادرات الصناعية دوراً حيوياً في التنمية الصناعية أولاً ثم التنمية الاقتصادية ثانياً لدولة ماليزيا نظراً لمساهمتها في الحصول على النقد الأجنبي اللازم لتمويل المشاريع التنموية المتقدمة وآفاق ترابطها مع القطاعات الاقتصادية الأخرى. إذ أثرت عملية نمو الصادرات في الدول النامية عن طريق عدة عوامل بعضها محلية مثل هيكل الصناعة الوطنية، وأسعار السلع المحلية والتقدم التقني وأنظمة النقد الأجنبي. كما نجد أنَ هناك عوامل أخرى خارجية مثل أسعار السلع المماثلة في الأسواق الخارجية والاستثمارات الأجنبية الموجهة للتصدير، ونقل وتوطين التكنولوجيا والاستقرار الاقتصادي.في هذا السياق في دول مثل: دولة ماليزيا والتي تعتمد على إستراتيجية التصنيع للتصدير، تظهر الحاجة إلى إجراء دراسات قياسية تجريبية لمحددات الصادرات الصناعية وتحليل العوامل التي تؤثر على هذا النمو سواء كان من جانب قوى العرض أو الطلب أو من جانب العوامل المحلية كحجم الناتج الصناعي أو العوامل الخارجية مثل: الاستثمارات الأجنبية أو السياسات الصناعية للحكومات الوطنية والأجنبية.وختاما"إنَ هذه الدراسة أوجدت أن الصادرات الصناعية في دولة ماليزيا قد ازدادت بشكل كبير على مدى العقود الأربعة الماضية، وأثبتت الدراسة أن هناك عدة عوامل ساهمت في ظاهرة نمو المفرط للصادرات الصناعية في دولة ماليزيا بما في ذلك الاستثمار الأجنبي المباشر (FDI) الموجهة للتصدير وسعر الصرف والتقدم التقني والسياسات التصديرية الناجحة فضلا" عن المؤسسات التي أعدت لهذا الغرض.

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