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Article
Experimental Evaluation and Finite Element Simulation to Produce Square Cup by Deep Drawing Process
بحث عملي و المحاكاة بالعناصر المحدد لإنتاج وعاء مربع بواسطة عملية السحب العميق

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Abstract

Deep drawing process to produce square cup is very complex process due to a lot of process parameters which control on this process, therefore associated with it many of defects such as earing, wrinkling and fracture. Study of the effect of some process parameters to determine the values of these parameters which give the best result, the distributions for the thickness and depths of the cup were used to estimate the effect of the parameters on the cup numerically, in addition to experimental verification just to the conditions which give the best numerical predictions in order to reduce the time, efforts and costs for producing square cup with less defects experimentally is the aim of this study. The numerical analysis is used to study the effect of some parameters such as die profile radius, radial clearance between die and punch, blank diameter on the length and thickness distributions on the cup, dynamic-explicit (ANSYS11) code based on finite element method is utilized to simulate the square deep drawing operation. Experiments were done for comparison and verification the numerical predictions. effective square cup with less defects and acceptable thickness distributions were produced in this study. It is concluded the most thinning appear in the corner cup due to excessive stretching occur in this region and also it is found the cup thickness and height prediction by numerical analysis and in general in harmony with experimental analysis.

عملية السحب العميق المستخدمة لإنتاج أوعية المربعة الشكل هو عملية جدا معقدة وتسيطر عليه الكثير من المتغيرات وبالتالي ترافقها الكثير من العيوب مثل التاذن والتجاعيد والكسر في الأواني الناتجة. دراسة تأثير بعض من هذه المتغيرات العملية لتحديد قيم هذه المتغيرات التي تعطي أفضل النتائج , حيث تم الاعتماد على توزيع السمك والأعماق لوعاء المنتج لغرض دراسة تأثير هذا المتغيرات عدديا, إضافة إلى الإثبات التجريبي الظروف التي تعطي أفضل التنبؤات العددية فقط لغرض تقليل الجهود والوقت والكلفة لإنتاج وعاء مربع خالي من العيوب تجريبا هو هدف هذا البحث. دراسة عددية استخدمت لدراسة تأثير بعض المتغيرات من نص قطر تقوس القالب والخلوص بين القالب والخرامة و قطر الغفل على ارتفاع الوعاء و توزيع السمك على طول الوعاء المسحوب, برنامج Ansys المعتمد على طريقة العناصر المحددة استخدم لإجراء المحاكاة لعملية السحب العميق المربع. تجارب عملية استخدمت لمقارنة واثبات النتائج التي تم الحصول عليها من المحاكاة العددية. وعاء مربع خالي من العيوب تم إنتاجه مع توزيع مقبول السمك على طول الوعاء,وقد تم استنتاج ان الترقق غالبا ما يظهر عند زاوية الوعاء نتيجة للتشوهات القاسية في هذا المنطقة و وقد وجد أيضا توافق بين نتائج التنبؤات العددية لتوزيع السمك والارتفاعات والتجارب العملية.


Article
Taylor Galerkin Pressure Correction (TGPC) Finite Element Method for Incompressible Newtonian Cable-Coating Flows

Author: Alaa H. Al-Muslimawi
Journal: Journal of Kufa for Mathematics and Computer مجلة الكوفة للرياضيات والحاسوب ISSN: 11712076 Year: 2018 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 13-21
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Based on Taylor Galerkin /pressure-correction (TGPC) finite element method, this work is concerned with numerical study for incompressible Newtonian cable coating flows. The fluid motion is described by using the Naiver-Stoke equations, which include two essential differential equations. One of them is the equation for conservation of mass and the other one is the equation of conservation of momentum equations.


Article
Investigation of The Effect of Loading Paths in the Tube Hydroforming Process

Author: Adil SH. Jaber
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 12 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1236-1243
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The control accurately of internal pressure, axial feeding and pathsof loading which have important influences on the final tube quality. In thisresearch an impact of loading path of the tube hydroforming process andfinal part requirements ( i.e. thickness specification and shape conformation)were studied numerically. Small bulge shape tube hydroforming parts wereutilized in the finite element analyses to get several guidelines on the effect ofthe relation between the internal pressure and axial compressive feedingprograms. Two dimension model of bulge shape tube (50 mm) bulge widthhas been developed from cylindrical tube with thickness (2mm) of the copperand (60 mm) outer diameter. A commercial available finite element programcode (ANSYS 11), is used to perform the numerical simulation of the tubehydroforming operation. The results demonstrate that, the loading path hasvery important influenced on the thickness distribution over the tube andcapability attained the target shape of the required product


Article
Experimental and Numerical Study of the Earing Defect During Square Deep Drawing Process

Authors: Kariem M. Younis --- Adil Sh. Jaber
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 12 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1267-1275
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Deep drawing process is a very complex process which controls a lotof parameters and the associated defects. The aims of this research are to discussthe effect of parameters of the process utilized in square deep drawing processsuch ; material properties, blank size, blank shape on the height and shape ofearing defect appear of the drawn cup. Three dimensions model from low carbonsteel (AISI 1008) with thickness 0.7mm of square cup (41.4mm by 41.4mm).The finite element software (ANSYS 11) was utilized to carry out the numericalsimulation of the deep drawing process, and the experimental work result ofearing was compared with numerical of earing shape result. In this work, threetypes of the radius of die entry of 3, 5, 7mm, three shapes of the blank (circular,octagonal, and square) with various diameters, four types of radius of the punchprofile of 3, 5, 6, and 7mm had been selected to form a cup with square sides.The results show that, The circular blank give the best results according to earingdefect and useful height of the drawn cup, when square shape of blanks wereutilized, excessive earing will show in the square cup, due to non-uniformdistribution of blank material around the perimeter of the die cavity, minimummaterial in the flat side and too much material found in the die corner, whilewhen using octagonal shape of blanks which have a same surface area to thesquare blank, the earing will reduce in the corner of the cup due to extract of thetoo much material from the blank corners. The results showed a high agreementbetween the experimental work and numerical simulation reached to 85 % interms of the shapes and lengths of the earing appearing in the square cups.


Article
Investigation of the Effect of Loading Paths in the Tube Hydroforming Process

Author: Adil Shbeeb Jaber عادل شهيب جابر
Journal: Basrah Journal for Engineering Science مجلة البصرة للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: Print: 18146120; Online: 23118385 Year: 2018 Volume: 18 Issue: 2 Pages: 40-52
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The precise control of internal pressure andaxial feeding loading paths important influences thefinal tube quality. In this research the impact ofloading path of the tube hydroforming process andfinal part requirements ( i.e. thickness specificationand shape conformation) were studied numerically.Small bulge shape tube hydroforming parts wereutilized in the finite element analyses to get severalguidelines on the effect of the relation between theinternal pressure and axial compressive feedingprograms. Two dimension model of bulge shape tube(50 mm) bulge width has been developed fromcylindrical tube with thickness (2mm) of the copperand (60 mm) outer diameter. A commercial availablefinite element program code (ANSYS 11), is used toperform the numerical simulation of the tubehydroforming operation. The results demonstratethat, the loading path has very important influencedon the thickness distribution over the tube andcapability attained the target shape of the requiredproduct.


Article
Analysis of Double Skin Composite Slabs
تحليل البلاطات المركبة ذات غطائين

Authors: Husain M. Husain حسين محمد حسين --- Mohannad H. Al-Sherrawi مهند حسين الشراوي --- Asmaa Taha Ibrahim أسماء طه إبراهيم
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2018 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 135-151
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This paper deals with finite element modeling of the ultimate load behavior of double skin composite (DSC) slabs. In a DSC slab, shear connectors in the form of nut bolt technique studs are used to transfer shear between the outer skin made of steel plates and the concrete core. The current study is based on finite element analysis using ANSYS Version 11 APDL release computer program. Experimental programmes were carried out by the others, two simply supported DSC beams were tested until failure under a concentrated load applied at the center. These test specimens were analyzed by the finite element method and the analyses have shown that these slabs displayed a high degree of flexural characteristics, ultimate strength, and ductility. The close agreement has been observed between the finite element and experimental results for ultimate loads and load–deflection responses. The finite element model was thus found to be capable of predicting the behavior of DSC slabs accurately.

يتناول هذا البحث التمثيل باستخدام العناصر المحددة لسلوك البلاطات الخرسانية المركبة ذات غطائين حديد عند الحمل الأقصى. في هكذا بلاطات ، تستخدم البراغي كروابط القص لنقل قوى القص بين غطائي الحديد واللب الخرساني. تستند الدراسة الحالية على تحليل العناصر المحددة باستخدام برنامج الحاسوب ANSYS إصدار 11 APDL. باستعمال طريقة العناصر المحددة ، تم تحليل عتبين مسندين إسناد بسيط ، فحصا مختبريا من قبل آخرين تحت تأثير حمل مركز وإلى حد الفشل. وقد بينت نتائج التحليل أن هذه نماذج أظهرت درجة عالية من خصائص الانثناء والقوة القصوى واللدونة. وقد لوحظ وجود تقارب بين نتائج العناصر المحددة والنتائج التجريبية للأحمال النهائية وإستجابات الانحراف. وبهذا فقد وجد بأن طريقة العناصر المحددة قادرة على التنبؤ بسلوك البلاطات الخرسانية المركبة ذات غطائين حديد بدقة.


Article
Effectiveness of Meso-Scale Approach in Modeling of Plain Concrete Beam
فعالية النمذجة المتوسطة المدى للعتبات الخرسانية غير المسلحة

Authors: Alaa H. Al-Zuhairi --- Ali I. Taj
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2018 Volume: 24 Issue: 8 Pages: 71-80
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The main aim of this research paper is investigating the effectiveness and validity of Meso-Scale Approach (MSA) as a modern technique for the modeling of plain concrete beams. Simply supported plain concrete beam was subjected to two-point loading to detect the response in flexural. Experimentally, a concrete mix was designed and prepared to produce three similar standard concrete prisms for flexural testing. The coarse aggregate used in this mix was crushed aggregate. Numerical Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was conducted on the same concrete beam using the meso-scale modeling. The numerical model was constructed to be a bi-phasic material consisting of cement mortar and coarse aggregate. The interface between the two consisting materials was assumed fully bonded interface. In the ABAQUS program, the Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM) was employed for the treatment of the discontinuity problems, which is accompanied by cracking during the fracture process of plain concrete. The behavior and response of the beam in both meso-scale numerical analysis and experimental test were found in a good agreement. Another check was added by comparing the results using thin-beam theory assuming the concrete as a homogenous linear-elastic material. The result of this comparison showed that the meso-scale model analysis lies between theoretical and experimental models.

الهدف من هذا البحث هو التحقق من فعالية وصلاحية منهج ذي مقياس متوسط المدى (Meso-Scale Approach) كتقنية حديثة لنمذجة الاعتاب الخرسانية. تم تحميل عتب خرسانية في حالة اسناد بسيطة عند نقطتين للكشف عن استجابية قوى الانحناء.تجريبيا ، تم تصميم وتحضير خلطةخرسانةلإنتاج ثلاثة أعتاب خرسانية قياسية متشابهة لاختبار الانحناء. واستعمل الركام الخشن المكسر في هذه الخلطة. اجري التحليل العددي بأستعمال طريقة العناصر المحددة (FEA) على نفس العتب الخرسانية بأستعمال النمذجة المتوسطة المدى. تم بناء النموذج العددي للخرسانة على شكل مادة ثنائية الطور تتألف من مونة السمنت والركام الخشن. التماس بين الركام الخشن ومونة السمنت افترض في حالة تماسك كامل مع بعضهما البعض. في برنامج الـ(ABAQUS) استعملت طريقة العناصر المحددة الموسعة (XFEM) لعلاج مشاكل اللاستمرارية ، والمصاحبة التشقق أثناء مرورالخرسانة مرحلة التكسير. تم الحصول على سلوك واستجابة للعتب الخرسانية في اتفاق جيد في كل من التحليل العددي على نطاق متوسط المدى والاختبار التجريبي. وقد تم إضافة فحص آخر للنتائج بمقارنتها مع النتائج النظرية للاعتاب النحيفة على افتراض ان الخرسانة مادة متجانسة ومرنة ذات تصرف خطي. أظهرت نتائج هذه المقارنات أن نتائج تحليل نموذج المقياس المتوسط المدى تتوسط بين النتائج النظرية والتجريبية.


Article
SEEPAGE AND SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS OF LEVEES SUBJECTED TO FLOODING (THEORITICAL STUDY)

Authors: Atheer Zaki Mohsin Al-Qasi --- Ayaat Majid Abbas Al-Rammahi
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 3 Pages: 106-118
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

In this study, a levee is modeled by using ANSYS 11.0 to be analyzed for seepage and slope stability. One of the main causes of levees failure is the destabilizing effect of seepage forces of the infiltrating water during floods. The existence of the analogy between seepage and heat diffusion made it possible to analyze the hydraulic problem with ANSYS/THERMAL. In addition, the slope stability is analyzed for different cases by Strength Reduction Finite Element Method. The results showed that strength reduction technology was suitable for simple homogeneous side slope stability analysis. To verify the accuracy of the analysis, the results are compared with a case that studied by finite element program SEEP/W and SLOPE/W (GEOSLOPE 2007) has been taken and modeled by ANSYS/APDL. The results showed close to them for seepage and slope stability analysis. In other hand, some parameters such as flood conditions, permeability, slopes, and soil parameters (cohesion and angle of internal friction) are taken to study there effects on the seepage and slope stability. It is found that, the steep slope for cohesion less soil in high flood level is the most critical section of levees for both static and seismic load. Moreover, hydraulic behavior of clay core in a levee section subjected to flooding is investigated with help of numerical modeling. It was observed that a clay core can ensure reduction in pore water pressures and ensure adequate slope stability to the levee section.


Article
Metal Flow Control in Producing the Non Symmetrical Parts in Deep Drawing Process

Authors: Kariem M. Younis --- Adil SH. Jaber
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 6 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 603-611
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

the quality of the cups drawn in the deep drawing process are secured by the rate of metal flow into the die cavity, efficiently control on the metal flow can reduce and eliminate a lot of defects such as wrinkling, tearing and earing especially in the square deep drawing due to the non-uniform stresses induced along die cavity. This control is obtained using a restraining force supplied by blank holder tool or draw beads or both. Therefore this research focuses on the study these parameters numerically and experimentally. Ansys software based on finite element method was used to model and analyze the influence of blank holder gap and draw bead parameters in the forming process. Appropriate number of the experiments were done to compare and verify the results obtained in the numerical simulation.


Article
Modeling of Continues Laser Welding for Ti-6Al-4V Alloys Using COMSOL Multiphysics Software

Authors: Haneen A. Salman --- Kadhim A. Hubeatir --- Mohammed M. AL-Kafaji
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 8 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 914-918
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

A model for laser welding process using finite element method, the model was used for this work using the COMSOL Multiphysics software to predict the distribution of the temperature in the joint and to show the four welding zones (the melting zone, partial melting zone, zone affected by heat, and the material base). CO2 continues (CW) Laser used in the model welding thin sheets of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The results of this simulation work have been compared with the experimental works to show good agreement.

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