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Article
Effect of planting date, plant density and spraying with organic nutrients on growth and quantitative and qualitative yield for garlic plant (Allium sativum L)

Authors: Hajar S. Jabbar --- Nawal M. Hmood --- Fatima A. Hassan
Journal: Euphrates Journal of Agriculture Science مجلة الفرات للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 38752072 Year: 2018 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 221-235
Publisher: Al-kasim University جامعة القاسم الخضراء

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Abstract

The experiment was conducted in one the fields belonging to the Directorate of Agriculture in Basra (Tomato Developing Project in Khor Al-Zubair) during the agricultural season (2015-2016) in order to study the effect of the dates and density of cultivating and spraying with seaweed extract (ALGIDEX) and the licorice root extract on the growth and yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.) and the cloves content of the elements of NP.PK.S., where the experiment included three-factor which are the interaction between three planting dates (10/25, 11/10, 25/11), two plant densities (1, 3 clove/pit), and spraying with five concentrations of organic nutrients are organic fertilizer (AlGIDEX and Ascophyllum nodosum) with two concentrations of (2, 4 ml.L-1) and licorice root extract with two concentrations (6, 8 g.L-1). In addition to the control treatment of (spraying with distilled water only), with the rate of four sprayings (two weeks between one spraying and another after completing the emergence of cultivated seedling with a month of cultivating for each date). The results showed that the second and third planting dates were significantly excelled in the leaf area (dm2), the percentage of potassium in the cloves, the weight of the head (g) and the cloves content of phosphorus, While the first planting date has excelled in the total number of heads (tons.h-1) and the percentage of nitrogen and sulfur in cloves. The cultivated plants with a density of (3 cloves/pit) were significantly excelled in leaf area (dm2), the total number of heads (ton.h-1) and the percentage of phosphorus and potassium in the cloves. The plants that were sprayed with licorice extract at a concentration of (8 g.L-1) are excelled in plant height, leafy area (dm2), the weight of the head (g), total head yield (tons.h-1), Percentage of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur in cloves, the plants that sprayed with AlGIDEX extract at a concentration of (4 ml.L-1) are also significantly excelled in plant height. Bi-interactions and triple interactions showed significant superiority in most of the studied traits.


Article
Potassium, Poultry Waste and Licorice Extract Effect on Growth , Yield and Substance of Garlic ( Allium atroviolaceum L. )
تأثير البوتاسيوم ومخلفات الدواجن ومستخلص عرق السوس في نمو وحاصل والمادة الفعالة للنبات الثوم ( Garlic )Allium atroviolaceum L.

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Abstract

A factorial experiment was conducted for the 2012-2013 on garlic ( Allium atroviolaceum L. ) at agricultural Station Tikrit University According ( RCBD ) . the experiment included twelve treatment produced by interaction between the organic fertilization with three levels (zero , 10 m 3 / acres, 20 m3 / acre ) and potassium fertilization two levels (zero , 40 kg / acre ) and spraying extract of licorice two levels (zero, 10 g / l) with three replicates , to study the effect of potassium and poultry waste and licorice extract to the growth and yield some effective compounds : The study showed1- The results showed that organic fertilization has given a significant increase in plant height ( cm ), leaf area cm2 , head diameter (mm), total yield ( 87.08 cm, 99.2 cm2 , 62.53 mm, 21.2 T / ha ), while the potassium fertilization give significant increase in , head diameter ( 58.25 mm) .2- The interaction between organic fertilizer, potassium fertilization had significant increasing in plant height, area leaf, total yield) ( 88.18 cm, 101.6 cm2 , 21.95 t / ha ..3- The tri interaction between organic fertilizer, potassium and licorce extract had significant increasing to plant height , leaf area , total yield ( 88.7 cm , 104.4 cm2 , 22.95 T/H ) while the inereaction between licorice extract and potassium had superiority in leaf area , total yield ( 116 cm2 , 23.73 t / ha ) .4- The treatment F3K2G1 had clear effect: S-allyl cystine and Y-glutomyl cystine which was more superiority to other treatment, it gave highest concentration reached ( 59.69 micrograms . ML ) ( 65,534 micrograms . ML ) compared with control . the treatment F3K2G2 highest concentration of (agoene) reached to ( 103.48 micrograms . ML ) compared with control , while the treatment F2K2G1 gave highest concentration of Di - allyl tri sulfide reached to 68.88 micrograms . Ml ) compared with F1K2G2 treatment .

أجريت التجربة على نبات الثوم Allium atroviolaceum L.)) في محطة بحوث كلية الزراعة – جامعة تكريت للموسم الزراعي 2012–2013 . وفق تصميم القطاعات العشوائية الكاملة وتضمنت التجربة اثنا عشر معاملة نتجت من التداخل بين التسميد العضوي وبثلاث مستويات ( صفر , 10م3/دونم ، 20م3/دونم) والتسميد البوتاسي بمستويين ( صفر , 40 كغم/دونم ) والرش بمستخلص عرق السوس بمستويين ( صفر , 10غم/لتر ) وبثلاث مكررات , لدراسة تأثير البوتاسيوم ومخلفات الدواجن ومستخلص عرق السوس في نمو وحاصل نبات الثوم ودراسة تأثيرهم في بعض المركبات الفعالة و أوضحت نتائج التجربة مايلي : اظهرت النتائج ان التسميد العضوي قد اعطى زيادة معنوية في صفة ( ارتفاع النبات سم , المساحة الورقية سم2, الحاصل الكلي طن /هــ ) واعطت ( 87.08 سم , 99.2 سم3, 21.2 طن/هـــ )، اما التداخل بين التسميد العضوي و التسميد البوتاسي قد اعطى زيادة معنوية في صفات ( ارتفاع النبات سم، مساحة ورقية سم2, حاصل كلي ) ( 88.18 سم , 101.6 سم2 , 21.95 طن/هــ ) , اما التداخل بين التسميد العضوي و الرش بمستخلص عرق السوس اعطى زيادة معنوي لصفات ( ارتفاع النبات سم , مساحة ورقية , حاصل كلي) ( 88.7 سم , 104.4 سم2 , 22.95 طن/هـــــــ ) بالتتابع , بينما اعطى تأثير التداخل الثلاثي بين التسميد العضوي و البوتاسي و الرش بمستخلص عرق السوس زيادة معنوية في الصفات ( ارتفاع النبات سم, مساحة ورقية, حاصل كلي طن/هـ ) ( 89.83 سم , 116 سم2 , 23.73 طن/هـــــ ) بالتتابع , اعطت المعاملة ( 20م3/دونم +40 كغم/دونم K + بدون رش مستخلص عرق سوس ) لها تأثيراً واضحاً في تركيز مركب ألـ S-allyl cystine و المركب Y-glutomyl cystine فقد تفوقت على بقية المعاملات حيث أعطت أعلى تركيز بلغ ( 59,69 ميكرو غرام . مل ) (65,534 ميكرو غرام . مل ) . في حين اعطت المعاملة ( 20م3/دونم +40 كغم/دونم K + 10 غم/لتر مستخلص عرق سوس رش ) أعلى تركيز من مركبالـ ( agoene ) بلغ ( 103,48 ميكرو غرام . مل ) قياسا بمعاملة المقارنة.

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