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Article
Improving the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Fireclay Refractory Bricks by Added Bauxite
تحسين الخواص الفيزيائية والميكانيكية لطابوق الحراري بإضافة البوكسايت

Authors: Sarmad Imad سرمد عماد ابراهيم --- Nahedh Mahmud Ali ناهض محمود علي --- Tamara Wahid Abood تمارة وحيد عبود
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2019 Volume: 25 Issue: 4 Pages: 18-28
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In this study, the investigation of Local natural Iraqi rocks kaolin with the addition of different proportions of bauxite and its effect on the physical and mechanical properties of the produced refractories was conducted. Kaolin/bauxite mixture was milled and classified into various size fractions, the kaolin (less than 105 μm) and the bauxite (less than 70μm). The specimens were mixed from kaolin and bauxite in ranges B1 (95+5)%, B2 (90+10)%, B3(85+15)%, and B4 (80+20)% respectively. The green specimens were shaped by the semi-dry method using a hydraulic press and a molding pressure of 7 MPa with the addition of (9-12) %wt. of PVA ratio. After molding and drying, the specimens were fired at (1100, 1200 and 1300) °C. Physical properties (density, porosity, water absorption) and mechanical properties (indirect tensile strength and hardness) were measured for all the prepared samples. The results showed that the porosity was increased and the density was decreased, such increase and decrease affected on to the mechanical properties for refractory. The highest values of indirect tensile strength and hardness were obtained at 20% Bauxite at 1300 °C (0.85386 MPa, 1411Kg / mm²) respectively.

في هذا البحث تم فحص الكاولين كالصخور العراقية الطبيعية المحلية مع إضافة نسب مختلفة من البوكسايت و دراسة تأثيرها على الخواص الفيزيائية والميكانيكية للحراريات المنتجة ،تم طحن خليط الكاؤلين / البوكسايت بحجوم حبيبية معينه ,الكاؤلين (أقل من 105 ماكرون) والبوكسايت (أقل من70) ماكرون . تم خلط العينات بنسب وزنيه معينه كالأتي B1 (95 + 5)٪وB2 (90 + 10)٪وB3 (85 + 15)٪ و B4 (80 + 20)٪ على التوالي. وشكلت العينات بالطريقة شبه الجافة باستخدام المكبس الهيدروليكي بضغط 7 ميكا باسكال بإضافة محلول بوليمري بنسب وزنيه من(9-12)% من وزن العينة وتم تجفيف العينات لمده 9ساعات وتلبيد العينات بدرجات حرارية معينة (1100,1200,1300) ºم . تم فحص الخواص الفيزيائية (الكثافة والمسامية وامتصاص الماء) والخصائص الميكانيكية (مقاومة الشد غير المباشرة والصلادة) لجميع العينات. وأظهرت النتائج زيادة المسامية الظاهرية ونقص الكثافة الحجمية يؤثر على خصائص الميكانيكية للحراريات. وتم حصول على اعلى قيم مقاومة الشد غير مباشرة والصلادة في العينة الحاوية على 20% بوكسايت عند درجة حرارة تلبيد 1300مº(0.85386 MPa, 1411Kg/mm²) على التوالي .


Article
A Comprehensive Survey on Orthodontic Retention Protocols Among Iraqi Orthodontists

Author: Hayder J. Attar
Journal: Journal of Oral and Dental Research مجلة طب الفم والاسنان ISSN: 23106417 Year: 2019 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-6
Publisher: Iraqi Association for Oral Research الجمعية العراقية لبحوث طب الفم

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Abstract

Background Little research has been conducted to evaluate protocols and trends in orthodontic retention. The objective is to identify the general retention protocols used among orthodontists in the Iraq. Materials and methods the study was conducted via an electronic survey (Survey Monkey® software facility) with branching logic on certain questions. The survey questionnaire was sent to 172 orthodontist members of the Iraqi Association of Orthodontists. Results Vacuum formed retainers were the most frequently used retainer type for the maxillary (61%) and mandibular arch (60%); followed by Hawley retainers (34%) in the maxillary and (30%) in mandibular arch; while fixed retainer was much less frequently used in maxillary arch(9%) and in the mandibular arch(19%). the orthodontists recommended an average of 22 hours a day (SD = 1.5) for retainers should be worn During the retention phase (duration average 9.2 months). The orthodontist responses revealed the patient compliance to the vacuum formed retainers about (43%) and (46%) for the maxillary and mandibular arch respectively; and for the Hawley retainers about (25%) and (40%) in maxillary and mandibular arch respectively, for the fixed retainers was reported as (25%) in the maxillary arch and (7%) in mandibular arch, (77%) of patient compliance to their retention protocol at the first six month after debonding that decrease to (46%) and (9.8%) after one and three years following active treatment respectively. Conclusion Vacuum Formed Retainers were the most common retainer choice in the maxilla and mandible with full-time wear which the orthodontist believed the more patient compliance followed by Hawley retainers then fixed retention.


Article
The Drunk is not Drunk: Sabah Atwan’s Al Mahata (The Train Station)

Author: Majid Hameed Niama
Journal: Al-Adab Journal مجلة الآداب ISSN: 1994473X Year: 2019 Volume: 1 Issue: 128 extension Pages: 69-82
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The role of the drunk in Al Mahata is vital to the structural design of the comedy where many ample powerful themes are highlighted. Atwan magnificently and professionally draws the character of the drunk to appear very convincing. Also, he masterfully manifests different stages of drunkenness where each stage explores an area. To achieve this goal, he maintains a rhythmic and smooth development for each stage without any recognizable drawbacks. The paper aims to examine the comedy that is created by using a drunk character. Also, it attempts to address the facts/ realities that require further investigations: The Drunk’s relation with other characters; ills/ good in society, the Drunk’s own concerns and issues and the way this character sees the world. Indeed, the approach that The Drunk physicalises and vocalises his character with has won the audience applause for three times throughout the performance. Accordingly, his excellent performance adds to and elevates the whole performance. Finally, it is very safe to argue that the drunk in Al Mahata is subtle.


Article
Effect of season on embryo production in Iraqi local black goat
تأثير الموسم على إنتاج الاجنة مختبريا في الماعز العراقي المحلي الأسود

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of season on embryo production in Iraqi local black goat. 599 female genital system of Iraqi local black goat were collected from AL-Fallujah abattoir, AL-Anbar province during the period from July 2010 to the 1st July 2011. The oocytes were collected via aspiration and slicing. Only good and fair quality oocytes were selected for in vitro maturation. Fresh semen was used from two Bucks of proven fertility for fertilization. TALP, MEM, and TCM-199 culture media were used of in-vitro maturation (IVM) and in-vitro fertilization (IFV). It has been shown that high recovery and maturation rate 87.3% and 45.6% respectively were observed at breeding season as compared with recovery rate 72.5% and maturation rate 35.2% respectively in non-breeding season. There was a significant difference (P˂0.05) in recovery rate and maturation rate between different season. It has been found that fertilization rate was 60.05% in breeding season. While it has 33.9% in non-breeding season. There was a significant difference in fertilization rate (P˂0.05) between breeding and non-breeding season. Blastocyst obtained during breeding season was 56.41%, while it was 43.24% in non-breeding season. There was a significant difference (P˂0.05) between different season. It was concluded that there is an effect of season on oocyte recovery.

إن الهدف من الدراسة ملاحظة تأثير الموسم على إنتاج الأجنة في الماعز العراقي المحلي الأسود. تم جمع 599 جهاز تناسلي لإناث الماعز المحلي الأسود في مجزرة الفلوجة، محافظة الأنبار خلال الفترة من تموز 2010 إلى تموز 2011. تم جمع البيوض بواسطة الشفط والتقطيع، ان نوعية البيوض الجيدة والمقبولة فقط يتم اختيارها لغرض الإنضاج المختبري. استخدم سائل منوي طازج من ذكر ذو خصوبة عالية. استخدمت الأوساط الزرعية TCM-199, TALP, MEM لغرض الإنضاج والإخصاب المختبري. لوحظ وجود نسبة استحصال عالية في نسبة الإنضاج والإخصاب 87,3 و 45,6% في الموسم التناسلي على التوالي عند مقارنتها مع 72,5 و 35,2% في غير موسم التناسل. لوحظ وجود تأثير معنوي بين مختلف المواسم، كما وجد أن نسبة الإخصاب كانت 60,05% في الموسم التناسلي بينما كانت 33,09% في خارج الموسم التناسلي. كانت نسبة الحصول على الاريمه في الموسم التناسلي 56,14% وكانت في خارج الموسم التناسلي 43,24%. لوحظ وجود فرق معنوي بين الموسم التناسلي والغير التناسلي في الحصول على الأريمه. نستنتج من الدراسة ان الموسم له تأثير على الإخصاب المختبري في إناث الماعز المحلي الأسود.

Keywords

Iraqi black goat --- Season --- Invitro --- Embryo --- Production


Article
Estimation of the relationship between the time delay of mastectomy and the stage of breast cancer among a group of infected Iraqi females

Authors: Safana Abdul Sattar --- Nawar AlMallah --- WiqarShahid Kadhim --- Anas K Awn
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2019 Volume: 60 Issue: 1 Pages: 12-17
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study assesses the delay of mastectomy"time from the first consultation of a doctor to the time of mastectomy"and its relationship with the stage of the disease among Iraqi women with breast cancer.A study was carried out on (113) women who were referred to the Outpatient Clinic of the Oncology Teaching Hospital and the Iraqi National Cancer Research Center, University of Baghdad, for the period from 2012 to 2016.Patients' age range between (40-49) years comprised (60.2%) of cases, and showed advanced tumor stage (62.96%)of stage III.It was found that infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most common type of breast cancer that found in (77%) of cases.Mostly there was no delay of mastectomy for more than one month delay in (36.3%) of patients, while other patient's delay periods of mastectomy were distributed as : 1-3 months delay in (20.3%), 4-6 months delay in (14.2%),7-9 months delay in (8.8%), 9-12 months delay in (0.8%) and 12 months delay in(8.8%) of the patients. The percentage of the residual patients which had delay longer than one year, (2-9 years delay), was (10.6%) patients. Most patients (73%) were of stage III while others (17.6%) were of stage I, and (7.4%) were of stage II. Statically, correlation coefficient between the delay of mastectomy and the stages of the disease was significant with stage III.Results showed that (short time delay) was associated with higher stage of the disease,(79%) of patients were of stage III, while (53% ) of patients with long time delay had stage III . It seemed to be that long time delay correlated with lower stages at the time of identification which goes with most of the published papers.Results showed that the time delay of mastectomy seems not to be a serious problem in Iraq during the period of the current study. Only few studies are carried out in this field especially in the city of Baghdad, therefore, Further studies are required to explore the factors that are associated with different types of delay.Keywords: D

Keywords

elay --- mastectomy --- stage --- Breast Cancer --- Iraqi female.


Article
Role of Financial Stability in Achieving Sustainable Economic Development with reference to the Iraq Experience for the Period (2010-2016

Authors: Saod Aziz Al-Durai --- Ahmed Sabeeh Atiya
Journal: Al Kut Journal of Economics Administrative Sciences مجلة الكوت للعلوم الاقتصادية والادارية ISSN: 1999558X Year: 2019 Volume: 1 Issue: 31 Pages: 116-133
Publisher: Wassit University جامعة واسط

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Abstract

Abstract: In view of the search for a variety of sources in order to finance comprehensive economic development, as natural resources are destined to disappear, and for the continuous development and fair distribution of wealth for the generations to come, financial stability and successive periods of time have become a fundamental and strategic objective. In the context of economic policies, the purpose of financial stability may go beyond the simple concept, which is intended not to occur financial crises, As the new concept represents a further dimension in achieving the efficiency and distribution of economic resources as well as efficiency in lending and borrowing, investment and saving operations, providing liquidity, accumulation of wealth, fixing prices and reducing the impact of financial crises if they occurred. In view of Iraq's experience, it was found that the Iraqi financial sector did not affect the process Sustainable economic development but not very limited, This is attributed to the total dependence on oil imports and the weak contribution of financial projects in economic activity, as well as the decline in the number of banks and their branches and financial institutions, as well as low turnout on the banking sector of consumers, and the dominance of government banks on the financial sector in addition to the absence of private banks or lack of role in The economic activity .


Article
The vow of Iraqi heritage
النذور في التراث العراقي

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The vow is a religious belief, within the customs, traditions and rituals of all the heavenly religions, a tradition which, since prehistoric times, offered vows and vows to the goddess. Later vows evolved after the heavenly religions descended and vows became pure to God Almighty and were distributed at the thresholds, shrines, shrines, And the vow is a term and a language is a positive Malis duty to the self donation, and when Muslims called vow and collect vows either in Christ called the Buthouh and collect Bawiat is a Chaldean word, meaning the meaning of demand and supplication and prayer and vows offered on religious occasions and certain days and only The customs and traditions of religion and depends on the desire of the vow and its economic level may be a sacrifice or several sacrifices, and may be kilo of sweets or bread or incense and remains vowel pending until the request and there are three terms we speak about vows and importance and vows and talk about the personality recipes Khadr Elias model Vows that Submit it.

النذر هو اعتقاد ديني، ضمن عادات وتقاليد وطقوس جميع الأديان السماوية وهو تقليد كان منذ ماقبل التاريخ حيث كانت تقدم القرابين والنذور إلى الإلهة ثم تطورت النذور فيما بعد وذلك بعد إن نزلت الأديان السماوية وأصبحت النذور خالصة لله تعالى وتقدم وتوزع في العتبات والمزارات والمقامات وفي الجوامع والكنائس والنذر اصطلاحا ولغة هو إيجاب ماليس بواجب على النفس تبرعا ، وعند المسلمين تسمى نذر وجمعها نذور إما عند المسيح فيسمى باعوثة وجمعها بواعيث وهي كلمة كلدانية ، أرامية معناها الطلب والتضرع والابتهال والنذور التي تقدم في مناسبات دينية وأيام معينة وحسب العادات والتقاليد الدينيه وتتوقف على رغبة الناذر ومستواه الاقتصادي فقد تكون ذبيحة أو عدة ذبائح ، وقد تكون كيلوا من الحلويات أو الخبز أو بخور ويبقى النذر معلق حتى تحقيق الطلب وهناك ثلاثة مباحث نتكلم فيها عن النذور وأهميتها وأنواع النذور ونتكلم عن شخصية وصفات خضر الياس نموذج والنذور التي تقدم له .


Article
Role of Iraqi press combating corruption Iraqi newspaper analysis study for the duration of the day (1/1/2014 - 30/6/2014)
دورُ الصحافةِ العراقيةِ في مكافحةِ الفسادِ (دراسةٌ تحليليةٌ لصحيفةِ النهارِ العراقيةِ للمدة من 1/1/2014 إلى 30/6/2014(

Authors: Dr.Marwa Abdel-Ilah Abbas م.د. مروة عبد الاله عباس --- Dr.Duraid Shadhan Mahmood م.د. دريد شدهان محمود
Journal: Mustansiriyah Journal of Arts مجلة آداب المستنصرية ISSN: 02581086 Year: 2019 Volume: 43 Issue: 85 Pages: 190-218
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Corruption is a negative phenomenon swept all the world at the moment in all its forms, political, economic, financial, legal and administrative, cultural and moral, and even corruption leaves negative effects on the demolition of the main infrastructures of communities, spreading corruption in society as a result of the corruption, whether senior politicians or corruption of young staff employed in public and private institutions alike, here goes the role of public media and press combating corruption in all its forms by exposing corruption and immorality, and brought to trial Just take the necessary, as well as the key role played by the press in educating and guiding citizens to the gravity of the phenomenon of corruption womdi negative impact on citizen's life and decay of society. And research into three main themes: theme I represent:-systematic framework and includes search, relevance (problem, and his goals that aspires to search, the second axis contained (the reality of Iraqi press combating corruption), whereas the second requirement ensures the (role Iraqi press combating corruption in Iraq after 2003) third axis contained on the practical side of b (analytical study of Iraq from Nahar (1/1/2014-30/6/2014), researchers found by weak results in reducing the role of the Iraqi press combating corruption in Iraq.

يعد الفساد ظاهرة من الظواهر الاجتماعية السلبية التي اجتاحت جميع دول العالم وخاصة المجتمعات العربية، وتُعد أسلوب من الأساليب الخاطئة التي يتبعها فرد من أفراد المجتمع من أجل تحقيق مكاسب ومصالح شخصية على حساب الآخرين، وبمعنى آخر هي خروج عن القانون والعرف السائد في المجتمع الذي يعيش فيه الأفراد الفاسدين، واستغلال للمناصب الرفيعة وذات السلطة والسيادة في الحصول على موارد مادية سواء أكان هذا الاستغلال لصالح فرد أو لصالح جماعة وهذا يعود إلى غياب القوانين والعقوبات الرادعة لمثل هؤلاء الأفراد.ويتخذ الفساد اشكالًا عدة تتمثل بـ(السياسي، والاقتصادي، والمالي، والاداري، والثقافي، والقانوني، والاخلاقي)، ويتفشى الفساد في المجتمع نتيجة فساد الموظفين انفسهم سواء أكانوا كبار المسؤولين السياسيين أو فساد الموظفين الصغار العاملين في المؤسسات العامة والخاصة على حد سواء ويترك الفساد أثاره السلبية على المجتمع من خلال تهديمه للبنى التحتية الرئيسة داخله وخارجه، ومن هنا ينطلق دور وسائل الاعلام عامة والصحافة خاصة بمكافحة الفساد بجميع اشكاله من خلال فضح حالات الفساد والمفسدين وتقديمهم للمحاكمة العادلة لاتخاذ ما يلزم بحقهم، فضلًا عن دورها في توعية وإرشاد المواطنين بخطورة ظاهرة الفساد ومدى تأثيرها السلبي على المجتمع.وقسم البحث على ثلاث محاور رئيسة: تمثل المحور الاول: بالاطار المنهجي وتضمن (مشكلة البحث، واهميته، واهدافه التي يطمح إليها البحث، أما المحور الثاني فقد ركز على دور الصحافة العراقية في مكافحة الفساد في العراق بعد عام 2003)، أما المحور الثالث فقد تضمن الجانب العملي للبحث المتمثل بـ(الدراسة التحليلية لجريدة النهار العراقية للمدة من (1/1/2014-30/6/2014)، وتوصل الباحثان عن طريق النتائج إلى ضعف دور الصحافة العراقية في الحدّ من مكافحة الفساد في العراق بكافة أشكاله.


Article
Efficacy, Safety and Predictors of Response to Rituximab in Treatment of Iraqi Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Sarah Tareq Abdulazeez --- Sami Salman --- Faiq I. Gorial
Journal: Al- Anbar Medical Journal مجلة الأنبار الطبية ISSN: PISSN: 27066207 / EISSN: 26643154 Year: 2019 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 16-21
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

Background: Rituximab (RTX) is an anti-CD20 chimeric monoclonal antibody which effectivelydepletes B cells and is used for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA).Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of RTX and to evaluate the predictors of responseto RTX in the treatment of Iraqi patients with active RA.Materials and methods: An open-labeled single group study that was conducted over 13 monthsin 65 patients with RA diagnosed according to a 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR)criteria. All patients were given 4 doses RTX by intravenous infusion over 6 months 1gm/dose.Each patient was followed at each visit of disease activity, including the Clinical Disease ActivityIndex (CDAI) and functional class (F Class). Also, we assess 9 different patients’ characteristics(age, gender, disease duration, the presence of RF, presence of ACPA, smoking status, previous useof TNF-blocker, the use of methotrexate and BMI) as predictors to RTX.Results: Data analysis showed significant improvement in CDAI (P value=0.005) and functionaldisability (P-value =0.001), and ESR (P-value =0.005) with RTX use over 6 months. The analysisalso showed that smoking has a negative correlation with response to treatment (p-value = 0.005).A better response was seen in RF-positive group. The other variables had no effects on the responseto treatment. The patients who switched from TNF-blocker were (29), and the patients who startedon RTX were 36 (either due to positive Purified Protein Derivative of a tuberculin test (PPD) orunavailability of TNF-blocker), results showed same RTX efficacy in both groups.Conclusion: RTX is effective both clinically (CDAI and F Class) and laboratory (ESR). It ismore effective in patients who are not smokers, and in those who are seropositive for RF. RTX isrelatively safe with few side effects, tolerable by most patients. The most common side effect is atransfusion reaction in the form of a sore throat.


Article
Iraqi scientists from a book alwafi bialwafayat ALSIFADY T:764AH/1349AD
عالمات عراقيات من كتاب الوافي بالوفيات للصفدي (ت764هـ / 1349م)

Author: DR.Nihad neamah Majeed م.د.نهاد نعمة مجيد
Journal: journal of arabian sciences heritage مجلة التراث العلمي العربي ISSN: 22215808 Year: 2019 Volume: 3 Issue: 42 Pages: 301-344
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Many scholars have contributed to the suppression of intellectual civilization throughout the different Islamic eras with historical literature dealing with various events and news, scientists and notables. The scholar, Salah al-Din Khalil ibn Ibik al-Safadi (d. 746 AH / 1349 AD) is one of the pens that highlighted the cultural, cultural, economic, social, political and even military situations through the translations he has dealt with. Leaders, especially scholars, over long periods of time not only mentioned their names, but monitored their orientations and scientific trips to various Islamic regions, and their specialization in several sciences, most of them in mathematics, engineering, geography, Hadith, jurisprudence, grammar, literature and poetry. Perhaps what distinguishes Al-Wafi by Safadi's death is that he did not overlook the mention of women in his translations, although somewhat few, and this is due to the few women who have distinguished scientific contributions compared to the number of men at the time. Baghdad, Basra, Kufa, Andalusia and other Islamic lands. Iraqi women were not absent from participating in the scientific process of Islamic civilization.The research will shed light on Iraqi women scientists, find out their names, births, deaths, and their scientific biography, including memorizing the Holy Quran, the Hadith, poetry, writing, copying books, and editing caliphate messages.

لقد اسهم الكثير من العلماء في رفد الحضارة الفكرية عبر مختلف العصور الاسلامية بمؤلفات تاريخية تناولت مختلف الاحداث والإخبار ، والعلماء والأعيان .يٌعد العلامة ، صلاح الدين خليل بن ايبك الصفدي (ت746هـ / 1349م) من الاقلام التي سلطت الضوء على الثقافية ، و الاوضاع الثقافية والاقتصادية والاجتماعية والسياسية وحتى العسكرية من خلال التراجم التي تناولها ، وكتابه (الوافي بالوفيات) هو من اشهر مؤلفاته ، وفيه ترجمة واسعة للخلفاء والقادة وخاصة العلماء وعلى فترات زمنية طويلة ليس فقط ذكر اسمائهم ، انما رصد توجهاتهم ورحلاتهم العلمية الى مختلف الامصار الاسلامية ، وتخصصهم بعلوم عدة ، اكثرها في علوم الرياضيات و الهندسة والجغرافية و الحديث والفقه والنحو والادب والشعر . ولعل ما يميز كتاب الوافي بالوفيات للصفدي انه لم يغفل عن ذكر المرأة في تراجمه وان كانت قليلة نوعا ما ، وهذا يعود لقلة النساء اللاتي لهن اسهامات علمية متميزة مقارنة بعدد الرجال انذاك ، وذكر الصفدي النسوة من جميع الامصار الاسلامية كافة ، سواء كمصر، وبلاد الشام او ، بغداد، والبصرة ، والكوفة، والأندلس، وغيرها من الامصار الاسلامية . ولم تكن المرأة العراقية غائبة عن المشاركة في المسيرة العلمية للحضارة الاسلامية فقد كانت الى جانب اخواتها العربيات ممن حملن مشاعل النور والمعرفة في كل زمان ومكان وفي كل التخصصات العلمية .

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