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Article
Building a 3D Petrophysical Model for Mishrif Formation in Nasiriyah Oil Field, Southern Iraq

Authors: Murtadha Doghiam Abdullah --- Medhat E. Nasser --- Abdullah A.AL-Yasseri
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2019 Volume: 60 Issue: 1 Pages: 115-126
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

A 3D geological model for Mishrif Reservoir in Nasiriyah oil field had beeninvented "designed" "built". Twenty Five wells namely have been selected lying inNasiriyah Governorate in order to build Structural and petrophysical (porosity andwater saturation) models represented by a 3D static geological model in threedirections .Structural model showed that Nasiriyah oil field represents anticlinal foldits length about 30 km and the width about 10 km, its axis extends toward NW–SEwith structural closure about 65 km . After making zones for Mishrif reservoir,which was divided into 5 zones i.e. (MA zone, UmB 1zone,MmB1 zone ,L.mB1zone and mB2zone) .Layers were built for each zone depending on petrophysicalproperties. MA(1 layer) ,UmB1(6 layer) ,MmB1 (8 layer) LmB1(6 layer) andmB2(5 layer) Petrophysical models (porosity and water saturation) had beenconstructed for each zone of Mishrif reservoir using random function simulationalgorithm. According to data analyses and the results from modelling, the MB1zoneis a good reservoir unit regarding its good petrophysical properties (high porosityand low water saturation) with high presence of oil in economic quantities


Article
Building a 3D Petrophysical Model for Mishrif Formation in Nasiriyah Oil Field, Southern Iraq

Authors: Murtadha Doghiam Abdullah --- Medhat E. Nasser --- Abdullah A.AL-Yasseri
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2019 Volume: 60 Issue: 1 Pages: 115-126
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

A 3D geological model for Mishrif Reservoir in Nasiriyah oil field had beeninvented "designed" "built". Twenty Five wells namely have been selected lying inNasiriyah Governorate in order to build Structural and petrophysical (porosity andwater saturation) models represented by a 3D static geological model in threedirections .Structural model showed that Nasiriyah oil field represents anticlinal foldits length about 30 km and the width about 10 km, its axis extends toward NW–SEwith structural closure about 65 km . After making zones for Mishrif reservoir,which was divided into 5 zones i.e. (MA zone, UmB 1zone,MmB1 zone ,L.mB1zone and mB2zone) .Layers were built for each zone depending on petrophysicalproperties. MA(1 layer) ,UmB1(6 layer) ,MmB1 (8 layer) LmB1(6 layer) andmB2(5 layer) Petrophysical models (porosity and water saturation) had beenconstructed for each zone of Mishrif reservoir using random function simulationalgorithm. According to data analyses and the results from modelling, the MB1zoneis a good reservoir unit regarding its good petrophysical properties (high porosityand low water saturation) with high presence of oil in economic quantities


Article
The Role of Chemistry of the Oil-Field Water in the Distribution of Reservoir Pressures: A Case Study of Mishrif Reservoir in the Southern Oil-Fields, Iraq

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Abstract

Mishrif Formation is the main reservoir in oil-fields (North Rumaila, South Rumaila, Majnoon, Zubair and West Qurna) which located at Basrah southern Iraq. The Inductively coupled plasma-Mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) was used for the water chemistry analysis and Scanning Electron Microprobe (SEM) for the purpose of mineralogy diagnosis. A weak acidic water of salinity six-time greater than seawater plays a role in generating the formation pressure and controlling the fluid flow. The potentiometric subsurface maps were modeled and the direction of super-pressure sites that are of a great importance in the oil exploration were marked to pay attention during future drilling.


Article
Calculating heterogeneity of Majnoon Field/Hartha reservoir using Dykstra Parsons method
حساب عدم تجانسية حقل مجنون مكمن الهارثة باستخدام طريقة دايكسترا بارسنز

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Abstract

One of the principle concepts for understanding the hydrocarbon field is the heterogeneity scale; this becomes particularly challenging in supergiant oil fields with medium to low lateral connectivity in carbonate reservoir rocks. The main objective of this study is to quantify the value of the heterogeneity for any well, and propagate it to the full reservoir. This is quite useful specifically prior conducting detailed water flooding or full field development studies and work, in order to be prepared for a proper design and exploitation requirements, which fits with the level of heterogeneity of this formation.The main tool used for these purposes is the application of the famous Lorenz coefficient method, in conjunction with the Dykstra Parsons technique for calculating the degree of heterogeneity for any well. The starting point for this kind of complicated studies needs to start from the basics. In order to understand the big picture and be able to plan properly for the scope to be delivered. Utilizing analytical tools like the ones mentioned above becomes quite necessary, if not crucial, to the success of full field modelling and choosing an optimum water flood pattern and design.This work covers the methodology for quantifying and calculating the level of heterogeneity in a given reservoir.The Dykstra-Parsons Coefficient or the variation of Dykstra Parsons (VDP) is commonly used in calculating permeability variation. The method of calculating begins by sorting the property of interest and make the other property fixed value (to calculate permeability you have to make porosity a fixed value for all calculations) and make permeability in order of decreasing magnitude.For each of the values calculate the percentage of values greater or the ‘cumulative probability’, so that the probability of X is P(x≤X). Then plot the original permeability values on a log probability graph with the cumulative probability values. The slope value and the intercept of the line of the best fit, for all data are used to calculate the 50th and 84th probability values or by variation layering system to calculate the variation of P10, P50 and P90, which are used to find VDP.This methodology has been tested successfully in the stated super giant oil field, in which the reservoir is a carbonate rock formation. The reservoir is areally extensive reservoir and not of a great thickness. The importance of this step is to conclude a utilizing heterogeneity calculation method before conducting any detailed reservoir simulation study. It can save a lot of time and effort by providing guidance to the path, which needs to be followed, and sheds light on the critical elements to be looked after. This also can help to uncover many insights on the reservoir itself, hence allowing the engineer to plan for the necessary voidage replacement and water injection rates to sustain the reservoir pressure and pattern development based on the magnitude of heterogeneity those results from this procedure.The suggested method, in combination with geological and petrophysical information available, can be applied to majority of the reservoirs. This combination is paramount to ensure optimum time and planning is followed for each reservoir development study that involves for example water flooding.

أحد اهم المفاهيم الأساسية لاي حقل هيدروكربوني هو مقياس عدم التجانسية، هذا المقياس تزداد أهميته في الحقول العملاقة. هدف هذه الدراسة الأساسي كان حساب قيمة عدم التجانسية لاي بئر وتعميم هذه القيمة على المكمن ككل. هذه الطريقة مفيدة تحديدا قبل البدء باي دراسة حقن مائي او دراسة تطويرية للحقول لغرض تحضير ما يستلزم لتلك الدراسة مقدما.الطرق المستخدمة عادة هي طريقة (معامل لورنز) مع طريقة (دايكسترا بارسنز) لحساب درجة عدم التجانسية لاي بئر، وفي هذه الدراسة تم استخدام الطريقة الثانية. حيث يغطي هذا البحث الطريقة المستخدمة لحساب درجة عدم التجانس للمكمن محط الدراسة.معامل دايكسترا بارسنز يستخدم عادة لقياس درجة التباين في الخاصية، تبدأ الطريقة بترتيب الخاصية المعنية بطريقة تنازلية، ولكل قيمة من قيم هذه الخاصية يتم حساب الاحتمالية التراكمية ثم رسم القيمة الاصلية لتلك الخاصية على ورق خاص بالاحتمالية. الميل الناتج من الرسم وقيمه القاطع لأفضل خط مستقيم يستخدم لحساب قيمه الاحتمالية 50 و84.الطريقة المقترحة هي عبارة عن دمج الخصائص الجيولوجية والبتروفيزياوية المتوفرة هذه الطريقة تم استعمالها واختبارها بنجاح في حالة المكمن العملاق، لتكوين صخري كاربوني، الحقل عملاق مساحيا وذو سمك معتدل. اهمية هذه الخطوة كان لأخذ نظرة شاملة عن الحقل قبل البدء بدراسة مكمنية شاملة. حفاظا على الوقت والجهد إضافة الى تسليط الضوء على العناصر الحرجة التي يجب الاهتمام بها. كما ان هذه الطريقة وضحت لكثير من خصائص المكمن مما يسمح للمهندس المسؤول ان يضع بنظر الاعتبار كميات المياه المحقونة للحفاظ على الضغط بناءا على درجة عدم تجانس المكمن.


Article
Evaluation of Petrophysical Characteristics of Carbonate Mishrif Reservoir in Ahdeb oil Field, Central Iraq

Authors: Madhat E. Nasser --- Buraq Adnan Al-Baldawi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2019 Volume: 60 Issue: 2 Pages: 321-329
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Ahdeb oil field is located in the central block of Mesopotamia plain in Iraq. It has three domes AD-1, AD-2, and AD-4.The current study represents characterization of carbonate Mishrif reservoir (Cenomanian-Early Turonian) in three wells (AD-A,AD-B,AD-C) at southern dome of Ahdeb oil field. Petrophysical properties were calculated using available well logs data such as neutron, density, sonic, gamma ray, resistivity and self-potential logs. These logs are digitized and then environmental corrections and interpretations were carried out using Techlog software. Petrophysical parameters such as shale volume, porosity, water saturation, hydrocarbon saturation, bulk water volume, etc. were determined and interpreted and illustrated in computer processing interpretation (CPI).Mishrif Formation was divided into five units according to reservoir properties (MI-1,MI-2,MI-3,MI-4 and MI-5). These units differ from each other’s by reservoir properties. The unit MI-4 is the best reservoir unit in Mishrif Formation that has good petrophysical properties such as high porosity and low water saturation. The MI-4 unit represents the principle oil bearing unit in Mishrif Formation.The other units of Mishrif Formation are characterized by high water saturation with variations of effective porosity that indicated of these units are free oil shows.


Article
Facies Analysis and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Zubair Formation in the Kifl oil field, Central of Iraq

Author: Aiad Ali Hussien Al-Zaidy
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2019 Volume: 60 Issue: 2 Pages: 341-352
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The Zubair Formation is the most significant sandstone reservoir in Iraq which deposited during the Barremian. The study area is located in the central part of Iraq at the Kifl oil field, in the northern part of the Mesopotamian Zone. The petrographic study showed that quartz mineral is the main component of the sandstone in Zubair Formation with very low percentage of feldspar and rare rock fragments to classified as quartz arenite sandtone. There are five lithologic changes (lithofacies) that have characterized the studied succession: - well sorted quartz arenite, poorly sorted quartz arenite, poorly sorted graywacke, sandy shale, and shale. These lithofacieses were deposited in the deltaic environments as three associated facies [delta plane, delta front and distributary channel]. The different lithofacies contributed to division of the Zubair Formation into three distinct rock units, which had been used in interpreting and distributing the suggested environments. The lower part of Zubair Formation is characterized by wide spread mud - dominated delta plain associated facies. The presence of the delta plain facies overlaying the unconformity surface (SB1) refer to the transgressive system tract (TST). This stage ended with occurrence of the channel fill deposit to mark a high-stand system tract (HST). This stage has ended with the delta plain facies again to mark a high-stand system tract (HST). The fluctuation point between the TST and HST is represented by a maximum flooding surface.The middle part of Zubair Formation is characterized by moderate to well sorted quartz arenite sandstone with bands of the shale overlaying the sand body. This succession was deposited in the delta front environment with steps of sea level stillstand during the high stand stage. The HST in this part ended with sea level rise (TST) to mark the upper part of the Zubair Formation with appeared the delta front facies.While the upper part is represented by alternative of delta front and delta plain facies as four cycles. The sea level rise was marked the end of this stage when deposition the upper part of Zubair Formation, and the beginning of deposition the Shuaiba Formation as shallow marine carbonate.


Article
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE DETECTION USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES IN THE AREA AROUND AL-AHDEB OIL FIELD, WASIT GOVERNORATE, IRAQ
كشف التغييرات البيئية باستخدام تقنيات التحسس النائي ونظم المعلومات الجغرافية في المناطق المحيطة بحقل الاحدب النفطي، محافظة واسط، العراق

Authors: Reyam A. Hassan ريام عبد الكريم حسن --- Ayser Al-Shamma أيسر محمد الشماع
Journal: Iraqi Bulletin of Geology and Mining مجلة الجيولوجيا والتعدين العراقية ISSN: 18114539 Year: 2019 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 123-133
Publisher: Ministry of Industry and Minerals وزارة الصناعة والمعادن

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Abstract

Remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) are used in this study to detect environmental changes in the vicinity of Al-Ahdeb oil field, southwest of Kut City, Wasit Governorate. Different image indices, such as Normalized Differences Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Differences Soil Index (NDSoI), and Normalized Differences Salinity Index (NDSI) are used. Two LANDSAT images with acquired data of September 2007 and 2016 are used to detect the environmental changes and to detect the effect of Al-Ahdeb oil field before and after construction and industrial operation. The results of change detection show there is a high decrease in the vegetation cover during the year 2016 compared with 2007, where the area of vegetation cover has decreased from (165.85 Km2) in 2007 to (119.62 Km2) in 2016. The change detection results from NDSI show that the saline soil in (2016) is higher than those in (2007). The NDSI derived from Landsat TM (2007) image confirms that there is significant increase of salinity in the study area, where the calculated area of the salinity in 2007 is (5.65 Km2) while in 2016 it is (21.951 Km2). Change detection, using NDSoI, show that the land in the study area is going toward desertification and soil degradation. The decrease in the vegetation cover, which in turn led to soil erosion in addition to water shortage and the pollution by the waste of the oil field, could be the main reasons of the desertification in the area.

تستخدم الدراسة الحالية تقنيات الاستشعار عن بعد ونظام المعلومات الجغرافية (GIS) للكشف عن التغير البيئي في المنطقة الواقعة جنوب غرب مدينة الكوت، محافظة واسط. من أجل تحديد التغيرات البيئية في منطقة الدراسة تم في هذا البحث استخدام عدة مؤشرات مثل: مؤشر الغطاء النباتي (NDVI) ومؤشر الملوحة (NDSI)، ومؤشر التربة (NDSoI). تم استخدام صورتين فضائيتين ملتقطتين في ايلول 2007 وايلول 2016 للكشف عن التغييرات البيئية في منطقة الدراسة. تم اختيار هذتين الفترتين للكشف عن تأثير حقل الاحدب النفطي قبل وبعد انشائه. تظهر النتائج عن وجود انخفاض كبير في الغطاء النباتي خلال عام 2016 من عام 2007، حيث انخفضت مساحة الغطاء النباتي من (165.85 كم2) في عام 2007 إلى (119.62 كم2) في عام 2016. تظهر نتائج الكشف عن مؤشر الملوحة أن التربة المالحة في عام (2016) أعلى من تلك الموجودة في (2007)، اكد مؤشر الملوحة الناتج من بيانات Landsat TM لسنة 2007 زيادة آثار الملوحة في منطقة الدراسة، حيث بلغت المساحة المحسوبة للملوحة في عام 2007 (5.65 كم2) وفي عام 2016 (21.951 كم2). تبين نتائج الكشف عن التغيير باستخدام مؤشر التربة أن منطقة الدراسة ستعاني مستقبلا من التصحر وتدهور التربة. ان تناقص الغطاء النباتي أدى إلى تآكل التربة، بالإضافة إلى نقص المياه، يمكن أن يكون التلوث الناتج عن حقل النفط هو السبب الرئيسي للتصحر.


Article
Geological Model of the Tight Reservoir (Sadi Reservoir-Southern of Iraq)
الموديل البتروفيزيائي لمكمن قليل النفاذية (مكمن السعديجنوب العراق)

Authors: Ahmed A. Ramadhan --- Samaher A. Lazim --- Ameer Kadhum Noori
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2019 Volume: 25 Issue: 6 Pages: 30-43
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

A3D geological model was constructed for Al-Sadi reservoir/ Halfaya Oil Field which is discovered in 1976 and located 35 km from Amara city, southern of Iraq towards the Iraqi/ Iranian borders.Petrel 2014 was used to build the geological model. This model was created depending on the available information about the reservoir under study such as 2D seismic map, top and bottom of wells, geological data & well log analysis (CPI). However, the reservoir was sub-divided into 132x117x80 grid cells in the X, Y&Z directions respectively, in order to well represent the entire Al-Sadi reservoir.Well log interpretation (CPI) and core data for the existing 6 wells were the basis of the petrophysical model (Porosity, Water saturation, & Permeability) that were distributed for all the created grids and then upscaled.

تم إنشاء نموذج جيولوجي ثلاثي الأبعاد لمكمن السعدي / حقل حلفايا النفطي والذي تم اكتشافه عام 1976، ويقع على بعد 35 كم من مركز مدينة العمارة جنوب العراق باتجاه الحدود العراقية الإيرانية.تم استخدام برنامج بيترل 2014 لبناء النموذج الجيولوجي. تم إنشاء هذا النموذج اعتمادًا على المعلومات المتوفرة حول المكمن قيدالدراسة مثل الخريطة الزلزالية ثنائية الأبعاد، أعلى وأسفل الآبار، والبيانات الجيولوجية وتحليل سجل الآبار (CPI).ومع ذلك، تم تقسيم المكمن إلى 132 × 117 × 80 خلية في اتجاهاتXوYوZعلى التوالي، من أجل تمثيل كامل لمكمن السعدي. كان تفسيرالآبار (CPI) وبيانات النماذج للآبار الستة الموجودة أساسيا في التوزيع البتروفيزيائي (المسامية، تشبع الماء، والنفاذية) التي وزعت على جميع الشبكات المنشأة.


Article
Structural geology and petrophysics analysis to Injection wells of Mishrif Formation in Shuaiba Dome – Zubair Oil Field
تحليل الجيولوجيا التركيبية والبتروفيزياء لأبار حـقن تكـوين المشــرف – قبة الشعيبــة في حقل الزبــيـر

Authors: Hussain Sakban Dawood حسين صكبان داود --- Aymen Adil Lazim ايمن عادل لازم
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2019 Issue: 24 Pages: E59-E74
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

Mishrif formation is the one of the most important reservoir in Southern – Iraq and the injection water important to support the reservoir pressure. The current study combined the interpretations of PLT, structural geology and petro-physics to understand the distribution of the injection rate for nine injection wells to the Mishrif Formation in Shuaiba Dome (or culmination) - Zubair Oil Field. PLT analysis calculated injection rate for Mishrif Formation, structural analysis included geometric and genetic analysis, whereas petrophysics analysis used open hole logs interpretation and core data for the injection wells to determine the petro-physics characteristics (especially the distribution of porosity and permeability). The current study concluded that the injection rate, porosity and permeability of Mishrif Formation distributed unequally across it. This variation is almost regular, whereas the Upper Mishrif more than Lower Mishrif, while Middle Mishrif get the least value. The thickness of Lower Mishrif more than Upper Mishrif. This may affected by a folding mechanism due to tectonic activity (reactivated basement faults and Hormuz salt structures).

يعتبر تكوين المشرف من اهم المكامن النفطية لحقل الزبيــر - جنوبي العراق، حيث تستخدم تقنية حقن المياه لدعم الضغط المكمني فيه لغرض زيادة الأنتاج. ربطت الدراسة الحالية بين نتائج تفاسير تحليلات الجيولوجيا التركيبية، والبتروفيزياء، ومجسات فحص الأنتاج لفهم توزيع كمية الحقن لـ 9 ابار ضمن قبة (او ذروة) الشعيبة وعلاقتها بالصورة التركيبية والصفات البتروفيزيائية لتكوين المشرف في قبة الشعيبة في حقل الزبير. تضمن التحليل التركيبي كلا من التحليل الهندسي والتحليل المنشأي، بينما استخدم التحليل البتروفيزيائي مجسات الأبار المفتوحه وبيانات اللباب لتحديد المواصفات البتروفيزيائية (بالأخص توزيع المسامية والنفاذية)، وتم تحديد نسب كمية المياه المحقونة في طبقات تكوين المشرف بواسطة مجسات الأنتاج. استنتجت الدراسة الحالية بأن سماكة طبقة المشرف الأسفل اكبر من سماكة طبقة المشرف الأعلى وربما يعزى ذلك الى دور ميكانيكة الطي بالثني، والتي ربما جائت نتيجة لدور القوى التكتونية المسؤولة عن تشكل قبة الشعيبة في حقل الزبير وهي: اعادة تنشيط فوالق القاعده ودور املاح هرمز. وبالتالي فأن توزيع كلاً من المسامية والنفاذية ونسب حقن المياه توزعت بصورة غير متساوية حول تكوين المشرف. وان هذا الأختلاف او التغايير (للمسامية والنفاذية ونسب الحقن) متوزع بصورة منتظمة، بحيث ان المشرف الأعلى يمتلك القيم الأعلى قياسا بالمشرف الأسفل، بينما اقل القيم تكون للمشرف الأوسط.

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