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Article
Reducing the Pollutants from Municipal Wastewater by Chlorella Vulgaris Microalgae
خفض الملوثات من مياه فضلات البلدية بأستخدام الطحالب المجهرية Chlorella vulgaris

Authors: Massara Mustafa Hammad مسرة مصطفى حماد --- Khalid W. Hameed خالد وليد حميد --- Hussein A. Sabti حسين علي سبتي
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2019 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 97-108
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In the present work, the pollutants of the municipal wastewater are reduced using Chlorella vulgaris microalgae. The pollutants that were treated are: Total organic carbon (TOC), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), Nitrate (NO3), and Phosphate (PO4). Firstly, the treatment was achieved at atmospheric conditions (Temperature = 25oC), pH 7 with time (1 – 48 h). To study the effect of other microorganisms on the reduction of pollutants, sterilized wastewater and unsterilized wastewater were used for two types of packing (cylindrical plastic and cubic polystyrene) as well as algae's broth (without packing), where the microalgae are grown on the packing then transported to the wastewater for treatment. The results showed that the other microorganism in unsterilized wastewater can slightly contribute in the treatment. Packing of cylindrical plastic is more effective than the cubic polystyrene, and microalgae's broth gives better results than the two types of packing. The treatment in the first hours was performed quickly while in the last hours, it was very slow. Then, the following parameters in the range of (temperature: 20 – 35o) pH (5 – 8), volume ratio of wastewater to microalgae's broth (1 – 2.5) were studied for sterilized wastewater and constant treatment time equal to 48 h. The results showed that the maximum reduction of pollutants are: TOC = 92.3%, NO3 = 65.2%, PO4 = 93.2% at T = 35oC, pH 8, and (wastewater/algae broth) ratio = 1, and COD = 85.6% at T = 30oC, pH 7, and (wastewater/ algae broth) ratio = 1. The temperature and pH have little effect on the reduction of pollutants compared with the wastewater/algae broth ratio. The adsorption isotherm for pollutant was also studied for three types of isotherm; linear, Freundlich, and Langmuir. The results showed that the treated pollutants are the Langmiur adsorption isotherm.

في هذا البحث تم خفض ملوثات مياه صرف البلدية باستخدام الطحالب المجهرية Chlorella vulgaris. الملوثات التي تم معالجتها هي: مجموع المركبات الكربونية (TOC)، الطلب على الأوكسجين الكيميائي (COD)، النترات (NO3)، والفوسفات (PO4). اُنجزت المعالجة انجزت في الظروف الجوية الأعتيادية (درجة الحرارة = 25 درجة مئوية) ، درجة الحموضة 7 مع الوقت (1- 48 ساعة). لدراسة تأثير الكائنات الحية الدقيقة الأخرى على الحد من الملوثات ، تم استخدام مياه الصرف الصحي المعقم ومياه الصرف غير المعقمة لنوعين من الحشوات (بلاستيك أسطواني الشكل وبوليستيرين مكعبة الشكل) وكذلك مرق الطحالب (بدون حشوة) ، حيث تنمى الطحالب على الحشوات ثم تنقل إلى مياه الصرف الصحي للمعالجة. وأظهرت النتائج أن الكائنات الحية الدقيقة الأخرى في مياه الصرف غير المعقمة من الممكن أن تساهم بصورة قليلة في المعالجة. تبين أن الحشوات البلاستيكية اسطوانية الشكل أكثر فعالية من البوليستيرين المكعب ، كما أن حساء الطحالب يعطي نتائج أفضل من الطحالب المزروعة على الحشوات لكلا النوعين أعلاه. كانت المعالجة في الساعات الأولى سريعة بينما كانت المعالجة للساعات الأخيرة بطيئة للغاية. بعد ذلك تم دراسة المؤثرات الأتية في نطاق (درجة الحرارة: 20– 35 هم) درجة الحموضة (5 - 8) ، ونسبة الحجم من مياه الصرف الصحي إلى مرق الطحالب (1 - 2.5) حيث استخدم مياه صرف معقمة وعند زمن معالجة يساوي 48 ساعة. أظهرت النتائج أن الحد الأقصى لخفض الملوثات هو: = TOC 92.3٪، NO3 = 65.2 ٪ ، PO4 = 93.2٪ عند درجة حرارة = 35 هم، درجة حموضة 8 ، ونسبة (مياه الصرف الصحي/ مرق الطحالب) = 1، وCOD = 85.6 ٪ عند درجة حرارة = 30 هم، درجة حموضة 7 ، ونسبة (مياه الصرف الصحي/ مرق الطحالب) = 1. درجة الحرارة ودرجة الحموضة لها تأثير قليل على خفض الملوثات مقارنة مع نسبة مياه الصرف الصحي/ مرق الطحالب. كذلك تمت دراسة علاقة الأمتزاز للملوثات لثلاثة أنواع من الأمتزاز؛ Linear، Freundlich و Langmuir. وأظهرت النتائج أن جميع الملوثات التي تم علاجها تتبع علاقة Langmuir الامتزازية.


Article
Rituximab for the Treatment of Pemphigus and Pemphigoid: A Case Series of Ten Patients

Author: Safaa S. Alwaash, Khalid H. Al‑Shibly1
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2019 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 224-228
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background: Autoimmune bullous skin disorders are rare but potentially fatal disorders of the skin and mucous membranes. These diseasesmay require long‑term treatment with systemic corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive drugs, which can lead to serious adverse events.Rituximab has proved to be effective form of therapy for pemphigus and pemphigoid. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate theeffectiveness of a full coarse treatment with rituximab for cases of pemphigus and pemphigoid. Materials and Methods: A case series studyinvolved ten cases of pemphigus and pemphigoid consulted the Dermatology Department of Merjan Teaching Hospital, Babylon, and treatedwith a full course of rituximab. Results: A complete remission (CR) has been achieved in the vast majority of cases, whereas the side effectswere trivial and rare. Conclusions: Rituximab has proved to be effective form of therapy for pemphigus. A CR has been achieved in the vastmajority of cases, whereas the side effects were trivial and rare.

Keywords

Pemphigoid --- pemphigus --- rituximab --- treatment


Article
Reduction of Wear Effect for Copper- Silicon Alloy by Laser Treatment
تقليل تأثير البلى لسبيكة النحاس- سليكون بواسطة المعاملة بالليزر

Author: Sajid H.Alwan ساجد علوان
Journal: Al-Nisour Journal for Medical Sciences مجلة النسور للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 26640562 26640554 Year: 2019 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 22-29
Publisher: Al-Nisour University College كلية النسور الجامعة

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Abstract

Copper- silicon alloy was prepared by CNC machining into disc shapes with diameter 18mm and thickness of 3mm using CNC machine to obtain more accuracy dimensions .Grinding and polishing process were carried out for all samples, and conducted to Nd-YAG laser treatment. Laser conditions involved laser fluency of 500mJ, wavelength of 1064nm, and different number of laser pulses (20, 40 and 60 pulses). The samples were subjected to wear system measurements before and after laser treatment to calculate the wear rate with different situations. The results revealed that the wear rate was reduced by 15% after laser treatment.

تم تحضير سبيكة النحاس – سيليكون بواسطة التشغيل بمكائن CNC على شكل قرص بقطر 18 ملم وبسمك 3 ملم . استعمال مكائن CNC لغرض الحصول على دقة ابعاد اكبر . عمليات التنعيم والتلميع اجريتلكل النماذج وتم تعريضها الى المعاملة بليزر Nd-YAG . عوامل الليزر كانت بطاقة 500mJ وبطول موجي 1064nm وبعدد مختلف من النبضات الليزرية ( 20 ، 40 ، 60 نبضة ) . تم فحص البلى بواسطة نظومة قياس البلى قبل وبعد المعاملة لغرض حساب معدل البلى . اظهرت النتائج ان معدل البلى انخفض بمقدار 15% بعد المعاملة الليزرية


Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Kinetic Study of poly(vinyl acetate)-g-Chitosan and its Use in Removal of Cadmium (II) ions from Water

Authors: Ali Jasim Hammood --- Salam A. H. Al-Ameri --- Zyad H. Jawad Al-Qaisi
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2019 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-11
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

The grafted vinyl acetate copolymerization lying on chitosan in weak acidic aqueous solution was examined via using K2S2O8 as initiator. FTIR spectra, DSC, DTG and TGA were used for graft polymer characterizing. The monomer to chitosan ratio was tested and the optimal grafting conditions were affixed. the highest grafting percentage PG of production polymers have been applied to remove Cd(II) ions from water samples through adsorption experiments at pH=7. The amounts of adsorbed metal ion on the polymers was estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The temperature effect on Cd(II) adsorption was studied too. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms as well as kinetic study equations were employed to fit the experimental data. The results of the adsorption equilibrium for Cd(II) fitted well to Langmuir isotherm and the removal percentage at 30°C after 5 min is 76.65 % and the thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption are ΔH= 96.87 kJ/mol ΔS= 339.19 J/mol K and ΔG= -5.11, -11.13 and -11.78 kJ/mol in different temperatures. The kinetic study of these adsorption isotherms showed that all these isotherms correlates well with the second order equation.


Article
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY TO DEVELOP ALUMINUM CORROSION RESISTANCE IN ACIDIC SOLUTION BY DIFFERENT RATIOS OF ADDITIVE ELEMENTS

Author: Awatif Mustafa Ali
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2019 Volume: 23 Issue: 3 Pages: 158-165
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

In this work the corrosion behavior of aluminum alloy includes copper with different ratio is investigated by immersing the specimens in acidic solution (HCL& H_(2 ) 〖SO〗_4) with concentration (5%,10%) then put in furnace at three temperature degree(40,60.80)C^0 and holding for (30)minutes the results showed that increased in (Cu) at alloy contain leads to increase in weight losses while when fixed cupper ratio and increased (Ni) at alloy contain the weight losses decrease .corrosion rate of studied alloy increase in(HCL) solution more than(H_(2 ) 〖SO〗_4) .


Article
Intralesional pentostam versus intralesional metronidazole in treating cutaneous leishmaniasis: A comparison study

Authors: Ban Anton Bahnan --- Sherzad Abdulahad Shabu --- Sarmad Abdulrahman Sleman
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2019 Volume: 23 Issue: 2 Pages: 266-272
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objectives: Cutaneous leishmaniasis can be classified into two different syndromes; New World and Old World. The later is acquired in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, or Europe. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of intralesional pentostam with intralesional metronidazole in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods: An analytical observational study was carried out in the Dermatology Consultancy Department of Erbil Teaching Hospital in Erbil city from April to October 2017. A convenience sampling method was used to recruit 50 study participants who were diagnosed with having cutaneous leishmaniasis. A questionnaire was designed for data collection, and the size with the degree of in duration of the cutaneous lesions was measured. Patients received three injections of either intralesional pentostam or intralesional metronidazole on a two-weekly basis. Results: The mean ± SD age of the participants was 32.38 ± 15.05 years. Most of the participants were male (72%). The mean diameter difference ± SD after receiving three intralesional injections on a two-weekly basis was 0.7692 ± 0.62017 cm for pentostam, compared to 0.4211 ± 0.62413 cm for metronidazole (P = 0.070).The mean difference in lesion's induration ± SD was 0.9091 ± 0.83121 for pentostam, compared to 0.6875 ± 0.70415 for metronidazole (P = 0.128).Conclusion: Intralesional injection with metronidazole has shown some degree of cure in terms of decrease in the size and induration of the lesions. Although statistically insignificant, intralesional injection of metronidazole was less effective than intralesional injection of pentostam. Further studies are needed with a larger sample size to better understand the effectiveness of metronidazole in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.


Article
Treatment of Simulated Carwash Wastewater by Electrocoagulation with Sonic Energy
معالجة مياه الصرف الصحي المحاكاة لغسيل السيارات بواسطة التخثر الكهربائي مع طاقة الموجات الفوق الصوتية

Authors: Israa Moulood --- Basma Abbas Abdul-Majeed
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2019 Volume: 25 Issue: 9 Pages: 30-40
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Oily carwash wastewater is a high organic and chemical wastewater. This paper targeted to investigate a treatment to decrease the water consumption and contaminants in car-washing stations. Electrocoagulation combined with ultrasonic energy (Sono-Electrocoagulation) was suggested so that the carwash wastewater is treated to be reused. The effect of both the voltage and time of treatment on the removal of COD, turbidity, conductivity, and total dissolved solids (TDS) were studied at constant initial pH 7 and electrode distance 2 cm. The results showed the best results of removal COD, turbidity, TDS, and reduce electrical conductivity is when the voltage was 30 V and a treatment time of 90 minutes.

مياه الصرف الصحي الزيتية لغسيل السيارات هي نوع من مياه الصرف الصحي ذات محتوى عضوي و كيميائي عالي. الهدف الاساسي لهذا البحث هو معالجة هذه المياه و اعادة استهلاكها و كذلك تقليل التلوث في محطات غسيل السيارات. اقترحت طريقه التخثر الكهربائي باستخدام الموجات فوق الصوتية لمعالجة هذه المياه. تاثير الفولتية و الزمن على ازالة COD, العكورة , الموصلية و TDS درست عند اس هيدروجيني 7 و مسافة بين الاقطاب 2 سم. افضل النتائج التي اعطت افضل ازالة هي عند فولتية 30 فولت و زمن معالجة 90 دقيقة.


Article
Damage to the accused and his psychological treatment in Sharia and law
الضرر الذي يلحق بالمتهم وعلاجه النفسي في الشريعة والقانون

Author: Ehsan A. Hussien إحسان علو حسين
Journal: Anbar University Journal of Islamic Sciences مجلة جامعة الأنبار للعلوم الإسلامية ISSN: 20716028/27068722 Year: 2019 Volume: 11 Issue: 41 Pages: 289-320
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

The nature of psychological harm is an immaterial nature that does not affect money or the body, but affects emotion, honor, moral values and social status. Therefore, jurisprudence has long hesitated to accept the idea of compensation for psychological damage. This type of damage affects the so-called social aspect of moral, literary or psychological edema, usually to be associated with physical damage, or affects the emotion or feeling of pain caused by the self and sorrows. Hence, he attributes the emotional aspect of moral and psychological edema, so that he alone is not accompanied by material damage, and has inflicted on other things of a financial nature, such as religious belief or moral ideas. Human dignity is based on the principle of human equality. The Prophet (PBUH) says: (O people, except that your Lord is one, and if your father is one, is there no virtue for an Arab over Ajami, nor for Ajami over an Arab, nor red on black, nor black on red, except piety).

إنّ طبيعة الضرر النفسي هي طبيعة غير مادية لا تمس المال أو الجسم، وإنّما تمس العاطفة والشرف والقيم المعنوية والمكانة الاجتماعية، لذلك تردد الفقه طويلاً في قبول فكرة تعويض الضرر النفسي؛ وذلك لأن الضرر النفسي لا يمس أموال الناس المتضررين، بل يصيب حقاً أو مصلحة غير مالية. وهذا النوع من الضرر يلحق بما يسمى بالجانب الاجتماعي للذمة المعنوية أو الأدبية أو النفسية، ليكون في العادة مقترنا بأضرار مادية، أو يلحق بالعاطفة أو الشعور بالآلام التي يحدثها في النفس والأحزان، ومن ثم ينعت بالجانب العاطفي للذمة المعنوية والنفسية، ليقوم وحده غير مصحوب بأضرار مادية، ويكون قد لحق أمورا أخرى غير ذات طبيعة مالية، كالعقيدة الدينية، أو الأفكار الخلقية. وتستند كرامة الإنسان على مبدأ المساواة بين البشر، قال نبينا محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم: (يا أيها الناس، ألا إن ربكم واحد، وإن أباكم واحد، ألا لا فضل لعربي على عجمي، ولا لعجمي على عربي، ولا أحمر على أسود، ولا أسود على أحمر، إلا بالتقوى)


Article
Shortage Sanitation Services in the Outskirts of Baghdad and its Environmental Impacts

Authors: Alaa R.H. Al-Obaidi --- Sara D.A. Zangana --- Saja H.S. Al-Sudany
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2019 Volume: 37 Issue: 1 Part (c) special Pages: 1-5
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Abstract- This study focuses on evaluation of the reality of wastewater services inthe areas of outskirts of Baghdad which the responsibility of their implementationrests on the province of Baghdad and the ministry of construction and housing andgeneral municipalities/ the General Directorate of Sewerage GDS, and to suggestthe possibility to improve these services in light of the plans developed by theconcerned authorities and the proportion of disability in the services suffered bythose areas. The study concluded that the completion of the stopped project becauseof the financial crisis will raise the proportion of serves population toapproximately 71.4%, and the construction of new projects will raise theproportion to approximately 100%


Article
Surgically Treated Isolated Posterior Wall Fractures of Acetabulum: A Short Term Outcome Study

Author: Ali Bakir Al-Hilli, Mohammed Hatem Salal**, Mohammed Kadhim Hamad
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2019 Volume: 18 Issue: 3 Pages: 188-196
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:Isolated posterior wall fractures are common injuries of the acetabulum, anatomical reduction andstable fixation are the goals of operative treatment when indicated, outcomes of surgical treatmentdepend on many patient`s and fracture`s factors.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the functional and radiological outcomes of surgically treated isolated posterior wallfractures of acetabulum and the effect of patient`s and fracture`s variables on the outcomes in a shortterm follow up.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Prospective study on twenty patient who met the inclusion criteria treated surgically for isolatedposterior wall fractures of acetabulum at Baghdad Medical City Directorate from July 2014 toDecember 2016 with at least one year follow up. All patients were evaluated clinically withModified Merle d`Aubigne score and Harris hip score, and radiologically with Matta`s radiologicaloutcome grading. The effect of gender, BMI, associated dislocation, timing of reduction ofdislocation, timing of surgery, and quality of reduction on the outcomes were evaluated.RESULTS:The mean final Modified Merle d`Aubigne score was 15.65 (range, 8 to 18) with excellent and goodresults in 16 patient (80%), fair and poor results in 4 patients (20%). The mean final Harris hip scorewas 89.2 (range, 65 to 100), with excellent and good results in 16 patient (80%), fair and poorresults in 4 patients (20%).The final radiological outcome results were excellent and good in 17patient (85%), fair and poor in 3 patients (15%). The functional and radiological outcomes weresignificantly affected by the quality of fracture reduction ( p=<0.0001, p=0.0009) respectively. Inaddition, the functional outcome was significantly affected by the presence of dislocation (p=0.019),delay in reduction of dislocation (p=0.0026), and delay in surgery more than 2 weeks (p=<0.0001).However, gender, and BMI did not show clear effects on the functional outcome ( p=0.938,p=0.172) respectively.CONCLUSION:Satisfactory outcomes can be obtained with open reduction and internal fixation of isolated posteriorwall fractures of acetabulum in short term follow up. Anatomical reduction strictly correlated to bothfunctional and radiological outcomes with favorable results. Early reduction of hip dislocationwithin 12 hours and early surgery within two weeks had favorable functional outcome while thepresence of hip dislocation adversely affects the functional outcome. However differences in genderand body mass index did not clearly affected the functional outcome.

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