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Article
Suitability of Ground Water in Southwest Kirkuk for Human Consumptions

Authors: Rodhan A. Salih --- Abdulrazaq K. Abdulwahd --- Fadya A. Sulaiman
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2019 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 101-109
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Groundwater is one of the important sources of providing the human with water for drinking and other purposes. In Iraq, most of the agricultural land far from surface water sources, which forced these farmers to use groundwater wells as a source to cover the needs of the water and uses for different household. Furthermore, in some areas of Iraq, the available surface water that is suitable for human consumption is insufficient. Hence, the ground water is the viable solution to provide drinking water.The aim of this study is to show the extent validity of the ground water for various human uses.Twenty wells were chosen at different location in the southwest of Kirkuk city. Physical and chemical tests were carried for each water samples which include nitrite- nitrogen, phosphate, total hardness as CaCo3, total dissolved solids, chloride, PH, and turbidity. The results were evaluated and compared accordingly with World Health Organization (WHO) specifications. The results showed that the ground water in the study areas not suitable for drinking because of the contamination with Nitrite – nitrogen, phosphate and high contents of total hardness and TDS.


Article
Detcetion Of Bacterial Contamination Of Drinking Water In The Right Side Of Mosul City By Multiple Tubes Fermentation Technique

Authors: Musaab O. Hamad Al- Ballo --- Adeba Y. Sharif AL-Nua'aman
Journal: JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE مجلة التربية والعلم ISSN: 1812125X Year: 2019 Volume: 28 Issue: 2 Pages: 167-184
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This study aimed to investigate bacterial contamination of drinking water in the right side of Mosul city using multiple tubes fermentation technique, depending on total coliform count as an indicator, this study takes seven months started from December, 2017 to June, 2018. Three hundered fifteen smples were collected from water purification plants and 12 quarters in the right side of Mosul city include (Msherfa, 17-Tamoz, Al-refaee, Tal- alromman, Al-moa'alemen, Al-shohada'a, Nabls, Al-resala, Al-a'amel, Al-tayaran, Wadi hajar and Al-mansour). The results showed contaminate of water in purification plants during April and May only while the contamination wase in all study months of the water reaching consumers with a rate reaching 40.5% of total samples and the highest was in Al-refaee quarter (71.4%) whereas the lowest reached 14.3% in Nabls quarter, the results also showed variations in the contamination during the study monthes, it's highest in May as it reached 83.3% whereas the lowest was in January as it reached 16.7%. The results of chlorine concentration test showed that the residual chlorine was less than the accepted levels in some quarters formed a ratio reached 32.1%, while it was higher than the accepted level at a ratio of 2.4%, whereas the residual chlorine in 65.5% from total samples was within the accepted level. In this study we isolate and identificate some of the contaminating bacteria such as Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes , Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii and Salmonella typhi , Escherichia coli forming the higher rate 40.8% whereas the lower was Citrobacter freundii 4.1% . Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also isolated in this study at 14.3% of the total isolated bacteria.


Article
Influence of Mix Water Quality on Compressive Strength of Making Concrete

Authors: Sheelan Mahmoud Hama --- Ibtihal A. Mawlood --- Nahla N. Hilal
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة المدنية ISSN: 19927428 Year: 2019 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 19-22
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

The influence of concrete mixing water quality on the compressive strength of concretes was investigated in this study. During the study, the compressive strength (CS) of the concretes was determined at 7, 14, and 28 days age. This study used 8 types of water of varying qualities as concrete mixing water (water with 71 UTN impurity level, water with 250 UTN impurity level, water with 1000 UTN impurity level, well-sourced water, acidified water, and alkaline water). Potable water was used as reference water. The results indicated that the lowest CS has been obtained by using alkaline water at a concrete age of 7 days while the usage of water with 250 UTN impurity level as a concrete mixing water yielded the highest CS. in addition, the lowest CS has been obtained when using a mixing water of alkaline at a concrete age of 14 days while the highest CS resulted from using water with 71 and 250 UTN impurities levels. Furthermore, the usage of water with 71 UTN impurities level and an acidic water as a concrete water mixing gave the lowest CS at twenty eight days concrete age, while using magnetic water and water with 250 UTN impurities as concrete mixing water resulted in the highest CS. The use of water with 250 UTN impurities as concrete mixing water favored CS development at all concrete ages. These obtained results have shown a various effects of different impurities which significantly indicate that only a few water impurities affect the concrete’s CS seriously..


Article
Effect of Different Levels of Saline Irrigation Water and Potassium application on Some Chemical Properties of Three Varieties of Turfgrasses

Authors: Tezhraw M. Amin --- Dalshad R. Azeez --- Ala'a H. A.-Q. Al-Bakkar
Journal: Journal Of Kirkuk University For Agricultural Sciences مجلة جامعة كركوك للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 22210482 Year: 2019 Volume: 2018 المؤتمر الدولي الزراعي الثالث Issue: عدد خاص Pages: 38-47
Publisher: Kirkuk University جامعة كركوك

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Abstract

This study was conducted at the Research Station and Agricultural Experimentation – College of Agriculture - Kirkuk University during the agricultural season 2018 on three varieties of turfgrass, one of which is winter turfgrass (Tall fescue) and two of which are summer turfgrass (Argentina Bahiagrass and Bermudagrass), irrigated by four different levels of irrigation water (1.7, 5, 10, and 15 dS/m) and two levels of Potassium (K2SO4) fertilizer (zero and recommended) , in order to determine the effect of different varieties and application of potassium fertilization on turfgrass tolerance to irrigation water salinity. Results showed the difference of the three varieties in their ability to tolerate salinity, where Tall fescue surpassed the other two. It was also found that increasing the salinity levels of irrigation water resulted in increasing the content of the leaves of proline and sodium. No significant effect was observed on leaf content of chlorophyll. Potassium fertilization resulted in a negligible increase in leaf content of proline, sodium, potassium and chlorophyll.

اجريت هذه الدراسة في محطة البحوث والتجارب الزراعية - كلية الزراعة – جامعة كركوك خلال الموسم الزراعي 2018 على ثلاثة اصناف من المسطحات الخضراء احداها شتوية (Tall fescue) واثنان منها صيفية (ِArgentina Bahiagrass و Bermudagrass), استخدم في سقيها اربعة مستويات مختلفة من مياه الري (1.7 و 5 و 10 و15 دسيسمنزم) و مستويين من السماد البوتاسي K2So4 ( صفر و الموصى بها) وذلك بهدف معرفة تاثير اختلاف الاصناف واضافة التسميد البوتاسي في تحمل المسطحات الخضراء لملوحة مياه الري. اظهرت النتائج اختلاف الاصناف الثلاثة في قدرة تحملها للملوحة وتفوق الصنف Tall fescue على الصنفين الاخرين.كما تبين ان زيادة مستوى ملوحة مياه الري ادت الى زيادة محتوى الاوراق من البرولين والصوديوم ولم يلاحظ تاثير معنوي في محتوى الاوراق من الكلوروفيل .كما ادى التسميد بالبوتاسيوم الى زيادة غير معنوية في محتوى الاوراق من البرولين والصوديوم والبوتاسيوم والكلوروفيل.


Article
Determination of wastewater pollution in Karbala governorate for the year 2016
مُحددات تلوث مياه الصرف الصحي في مُحافظة كربلاء لسنة 2016

Author: أ. م. د. نجلة عجيل محمد
Journal: journal of the college of basic education مجلة كلية التربية الاساسية ISSN: 18157467(print) 27068536(online) Year: 2019 Volume: 25 Issue: 103 / انساني Pages: 900-930
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The study dealt with a comparative study of some of the determinants of pollution of the incoming water and the treatment and evaluation of the efficiency of three wastewater treatment plants (Al-Nafhan, Muharram Aisha, the Residential Complex) in Karbala Governorate (2016). By analyzing the results of the characteristics of the indicators, we found their differences during the study period, Where water received and treated together recorded values within the permissible environmental determinants of indicators total salts (TDS), and acid function index (PH)(BOD), COD and TSS (except for the treated water of the two plants) were recorded with a value below the limits Environmentally permissible, And Al-Nafhan station recorded the highest wastewater treatment value for the indicators (BOD), (C.O.D), (TDS)} and Muharram Aishah station for the index (T.S.S). While the three stations together recorded a negative value of the treatment of the indicator (PH).

تناول البحث دراسة مقارنة لبعض مُحددات التلوث للمياه الواردة والمُعالجة وتقييم كفاءة ثلاث محطات لمياه الصرف الصحي (المنفهان، محرم عيشة، المُجمع السكني) في مُحافظة كربلاء لسنة (2016). من خلال تحليل نتائج خصائص المؤشرات وجدنا تباينها خلال مُدة الدراسة، حيث سجلت المياه الواردة والمُعالجة معاً قيماً ضمن المُحددات البيئية المسموح بها للمؤشرات { مجموع الاملاح الكلية (TDS)، و ومؤشر الدالة الحامضية (PH) }، في حين سجلت المؤشرات قيمة أعلى من المُحددات البيئية المسموح بها { مُتطلب الأوكسجين (البيوكيميائي)(B.O.D 5 ) و الأوكسجين الكيميائي المستهلك (C.O.D) و المواد الصلبة العالقة (T.S.S) عدا المياه المُعالجة لمحطتي (المنفهان، محرم عيشة) فقد سجلت قيمة ضمن الحدود البيئية المسموح بيئياً، وسجلت محطة المنفهان أعلى قيمة مُعالجة لمياه الصرف الصحي للمؤشرات {B.O.D 5)، ) C.O.D) ، (TDS) }، ومحطة محرم عيشة للمؤشر (T.S.S)، في حين سجلت المحطات الثلاثة معاً قيمة سالبة لمُعالجة المؤشر (PH).


Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Kinetic Study of poly(vinyl acetate)-g-Chitosan and its Use in Removal of Cadmium (II) ions from Water

Authors: Ali Jasim Hammood --- Salam A. H. Al-Ameri --- Zyad H. Jawad Al-Qaisi
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2019 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-11
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

The grafted vinyl acetate copolymerization lying on chitosan in weak acidic aqueous solution was examined via using K2S2O8 as initiator. FTIR spectra, DSC, DTG and TGA were used for graft polymer characterizing. The monomer to chitosan ratio was tested and the optimal grafting conditions were affixed. the highest grafting percentage PG of production polymers have been applied to remove Cd(II) ions from water samples through adsorption experiments at pH=7. The amounts of adsorbed metal ion on the polymers was estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The temperature effect on Cd(II) adsorption was studied too. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms as well as kinetic study equations were employed to fit the experimental data. The results of the adsorption equilibrium for Cd(II) fitted well to Langmuir isotherm and the removal percentage at 30°C after 5 min is 76.65 % and the thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption are ΔH= 96.87 kJ/mol ΔS= 339.19 J/mol K and ΔG= -5.11, -11.13 and -11.78 kJ/mol in different temperatures. The kinetic study of these adsorption isotherms showed that all these isotherms correlates well with the second order equation.


Article
Euphrates River Water Quality Studies in Iraq: Critical Review

Authors: Areej H. Hussenc --- Emad A. Mohammed --- Wahran M. Saod
Journal: Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة الأنبار للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19979428 Year: 2019 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 61-66
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

The published studies about the water quality of Euphrates River in Iraq till now have been reviewed critically. The revision of the published researches depend upon several bases including the period of samples collection, the number of sampling stations, water samples collection method, the analytical techniques employed to measure and analyze the results. This critical study concluded that the need to follow a specific protocol in selection sampling sites, how the samples are collected, how samples are analyzed, and pay attention to quality assurance and quality control during sample collection, preservation and analytical procedures.

Keywords

Water Quality --- Euphrates --- River --- Review --- Iraq


Article
Applying of pollution indices as a monitoring tool for assessment of water quality in Tigris River, Baiji district, Salah alden governorate
تطبيق مؤشرات التلوث كأداة رصد لتقييم جودة المياه في نهر دجلة، قضاء بيجي، محافظة صلاح الدين

Authors: Mahmood Fadhil Abed1 محمود فاضل عبد1 --- Salwa Hadi Ahmed2 سلوى هادي أحمد2
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Pure Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 18131662 Year: 2019 Volume: 24 Issue: 5 Pages: 55-60
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

This research has investigated the quality of surface water at Baiji district of Salah Alden governorate based on 5 sampling stations for two season (September 2012 and April 2013). Water evaluation indices (i.e. heavy metal pollution index (HPI), heavy metal evaluation index (HEI) and contamination degree index (Cd)) are utilized to characterize the quality of water in term of drinking purposes. All values of HPI were lower than (15), suggesting low heavy metal pollution. The values of HEI were also less than (10), indicating low heavy metal pollution, whereas Cd values were much less than (1) for all stations, indicating low heavy metal pollution. Consequently, Tigris River water in the study area is suitable for drinking purposes in terms of heavy metal pollution.

تتحرى هذه الدراسة عن نوعية المياه السطحية في منطقة بيجي في محافظة صلاح الدين بالاعتماد على 5 محطات نمذجة لموسمين (أيلول 2012 ونيسان 2013). تم تطبيق مؤشرات تقييم التلوث (مؤشر تلوث العناصر الثقيلة، مؤشر تقييم العناصر الثقيلة ومؤشر درجة التلوث) لوصف نوعية المياه لأغراض الشرب. جميع قيم مؤشر تلوث العناصر الثقيلة كانت أقل من (15)، مما يشير إلى تلوث واطئ بالعناصر الثقيلة. إن قيم مؤشر تقييم العناصر الثقيلة كانت أيضا أقل من (10)، مما يقترح تلوث منخفض بالعناصر الثقيلة، في حين كانت قيم مؤشر درجة التلوث أقل بكثيرمن (1) ولجميع المحطات، مما يشير إلى تلوث منخفض بالعناصر الثقيلة. وبالنتيجة تعد مياه نهر دجلة في منطقة الدراسة مناسبة لأغراض الشرب من حيث التلوث بالعناصر الثقيلة.


Article
Conventional Water Treatment of Domestic Groundwater Supplies

Author: Hussein Hamid Emran Al-Husseini
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2019 Volume: 27 Issue: 1 Pages: 354-365
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The important of ground water is increasing in the future as a source of fresh waters; in addition, many countries contain a number of water treatment plants to treat surface water. Using conventional treatment plant in the cities totreat ground water will decrease the cost of ground water treatment and may be help to depend on both surface and ground water supplies.This paper studied the ability of treating ground water byconventional water treatment. The quality of the ground water source is studied in the mention area during study period. The chemical quality of ground water is tested and there is within the standards of drinking water exceptiron. The conventional treatment was enhancing quality of treated water by increment of dissolved oxygen concentrations toward optimum value.Water treatment plant was effective for removal of iron from ground water of about 50%, in addition there is an effect of conventional treatment on sulfate removal (sulfate may be increase above standardsin some ground water sources). The statistical analysis of data shows there is a correlation between quality parameters of raw and treated water and between iron and sulfate of treated water in the correlation matrix. In addition, confidence test was applied on the correlation coefficients using fisher's transformation .The analysis shows, that there is a positive period(0.244, 0.941) of confidence of 95% of correlation factors of iron and sulfate.

تزداد اهمية المياه الجوفية كمصدر للمياه العذبة في العديد من الدول. بالاضافة الى ذلك تحتوي العديد من المدن على محطات لتصفية المياه السطحية. وفي حالة معالجة المياه الجوفية بالاعتماد على تلك المحطات فان كلفة المعالجة سوف تقل وسوف يساعد ذلك على الاعتماد على المياه السطحية والجوفية كمصدر لتجهيز مياه الشرب. في هذه الدراسة تم دراسة امكانية استخدام طرق المعالجة التقليدية في معالجة المياه الجوفية وتم فحص نوعية المياه الجوفية خلال فترة الدراسة. وقد وجد انها ضمن المواصفات المعتمدة باستثناء عنصر الحديد. وجد كذلك ان هناك تاثير لوحدات المعالجة في تحسين نوعية مياه الشرب بزيادة نسبة الاكسجين المذاب باتجاه القيم المثلى. كما وجد ان المحطة كانت فاعلة في ازالة بعض العناصر المهمة الموجودة في المياه الجوفية وشملت الحديد بنسبة ازالة تقارب 50 % واملاح الكبريتات (التي ممكن ان تتجاوز الحدود المسموحة في بعض انواع المياه). تم عمل تحليل احصائي للبيانات المقاسة وجد ان هناك ترابط عالي بين تراكيز العناصر في المياه الخام والمياه المعالجة. كما تبين ان هناك معامل ارتباط مرتفع بين عنصر الحديد وايون الكبريتات في مصفوفة الارتباط. بالاضافة الى ذلك تم تطبيق اختبار مجال الثقة على معاملات الارتباط باستخدام تحويل فيشر. بين الاختبار ان هناك فترة بنهايات موجبة (0.244, 0.941) بمجال ثقة 95 % لمعامل الارتباط بين عنصري الحديد والكبريتات.


Article
STIMULATIVE RESPONSE TO QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF JOJOBA OIL BY GIBBERELLIC ACID AND BENZYL ADENINE
استجابة كمية وجودة زيت الجوجوبا للتحفيز بحمض الجبريليك والبنزيل أدينين

Author: Khattab & et al. خطاب وآخرون
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية ISSN: 00750530/24100862 Year: 2019 Volume: 50 Issue: 4 Pages: 1077-1085
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study was aimed to evaluate five clones of jojoba plant under the influence of salinity stress which was spraied by gibberellin and benzyl adenine on growth yield and oil. Two field experiments were carried out at Magharah Research and dmting Production which follow Desert Research Center, Agriculture Ministry, in North Sinai governorate, Egypt, 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 respectively, the experimemts wene consist of five clones (S-L, S-610, S- 700, S-B and S-G), (were sprayed by, GA3 200ppm, BA 200ppm and GA3+BA and control) under effect of salinity stress. The experiment was conducted as split plot design having varieties in main plot and IAA, GA3 sub plots three replicates. The jojoba plant was affected by increased GA3, BA or/and GA3+BA, and it was clear in all clones. The effect of GA3, BA or/and GA3+BA varied from one clone to another and the lowest was s-700. All studied variables were confirmed that clones of jojoba had a significant effect with GA3, BA or/and GA3+BA

تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى تقييم خمس سلالات من الجوجوبا تحت تأثير الإجهاد الملحي برش النباتات بحامض الجبريليلين وحامض بنزيل أدينين وأثر ذلك على النمو وإنتاجية الزيت. تم إجراء تجربتين حقليتين في محطة المغارة للأبحاث والإنتاج التي تتبع مركز بحوث الصحراء, وزارة الزراعة التى تقع في محافظة شمال سيناء، مصر، خلال السنتين 2015/2016 و2016/2017, لخمسة سلالات جوجوبا هى (SL، S-610 ، S - 700 ، SB و SG)، وتم رشها بتركيز (GA3 200ppm ، BA 200ppm و GA3 + BA) بالاضافة الى المقارنة تحت تأثير ملوحة مياه الرى. نفذت التجربة بتصميم الالواح المنشقة ووزعت السلالات فى الالواح الثانوية والمعاملات (IAA و GA3) فى القطع الفرعية وتم توزيعها في ثلاث مكررات. أشارت النتائج الى تأثر الجوجوبا بزيادة GA3 أو BA أو / و GA3 + BA ، وكان ذلك واضحًا في جميع السلالات. وتباينت تأثيرات GA3 أو BA أو / و GA3 + BA من سلالة لآخرى وكان أقلها استجابة السلالة s-700. وأكدت جميع الصفات التي تم دراستها أن سلالات الجوجوبا كانت متأثرة بشكل كبير بالرش بكل من GA3 أو BA أو / و GA3 + BA.

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