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Article
Suitability of Ground Water in Southwest Kirkuk for Human Consumptions

Authors: Rodhan A. Salih --- Abdulrazaq K. Abdulwahd --- Fadya A. Sulaiman
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2019 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 101-109
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Groundwater is one of the important sources of providing the human with water for drinking and other purposes. In Iraq, most of the agricultural land far from surface water sources, which forced these farmers to use groundwater wells as a source to cover the needs of the water and uses for different household. Furthermore, in some areas of Iraq, the available surface water that is suitable for human consumption is insufficient. Hence, the ground water is the viable solution to provide drinking water.The aim of this study is to show the extent validity of the ground water for various human uses.Twenty wells were chosen at different location in the southwest of Kirkuk city. Physical and chemical tests were carried for each water samples which include nitrite- nitrogen, phosphate, total hardness as CaCo3, total dissolved solids, chloride, PH, and turbidity. The results were evaluated and compared accordingly with World Health Organization (WHO) specifications. The results showed that the ground water in the study areas not suitable for drinking because of the contamination with Nitrite – nitrogen, phosphate and high contents of total hardness and TDS.


Article
Detcetion Of Bacterial Contamination Of Drinking Water In The Right Side Of Mosul City By Multiple Tubes Fermentation Technique

Authors: Musaab O. Hamad Al- Ballo --- Adeba Y. Sharif AL-Nua'aman
Journal: JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE مجلة التربية والعلم ISSN: 1812125X Year: 2019 Volume: 28 Issue: 2 Pages: 167-184
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This study aimed to investigate bacterial contamination of drinking water in the right side of Mosul city using multiple tubes fermentation technique, depending on total coliform count as an indicator, this study takes seven months started from December, 2017 to June, 2018. Three hundered fifteen smples were collected from water purification plants and 12 quarters in the right side of Mosul city include (Msherfa, 17-Tamoz, Al-refaee, Tal- alromman, Al-moa'alemen, Al-shohada'a, Nabls, Al-resala, Al-a'amel, Al-tayaran, Wadi hajar and Al-mansour). The results showed contaminate of water in purification plants during April and May only while the contamination wase in all study months of the water reaching consumers with a rate reaching 40.5% of total samples and the highest was in Al-refaee quarter (71.4%) whereas the lowest reached 14.3% in Nabls quarter, the results also showed variations in the contamination during the study monthes, it's highest in May as it reached 83.3% whereas the lowest was in January as it reached 16.7%. The results of chlorine concentration test showed that the residual chlorine was less than the accepted levels in some quarters formed a ratio reached 32.1%, while it was higher than the accepted level at a ratio of 2.4%, whereas the residual chlorine in 65.5% from total samples was within the accepted level. In this study we isolate and identificate some of the contaminating bacteria such as Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes , Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii and Salmonella typhi , Escherichia coli forming the higher rate 40.8% whereas the lower was Citrobacter freundii 4.1% . Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also isolated in this study at 14.3% of the total isolated bacteria.


Article
Effect of Different Levels of Saline Irrigation Water and Potassium application on Some Chemical Properties of Three Varieties of Turfgrasses

Authors: Tezhraw M. Amin --- Dalshad R. Azeez --- Ala'a H. A.-Q. Al-Bakkar
Journal: Journal Of Kirkuk University For Agricultural Sciences مجلة جامعة كركوك للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 22210482 Year: 2019 Volume: 2018 المؤتمر الدولي الزراعي الثالث Issue: عدد خاص Pages: 38-47
Publisher: Kirkuk University جامعة كركوك

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Abstract

This study was conducted at the Research Station and Agricultural Experimentation – College of Agriculture - Kirkuk University during the agricultural season 2018 on three varieties of turfgrass, one of which is winter turfgrass (Tall fescue) and two of which are summer turfgrass (Argentina Bahiagrass and Bermudagrass), irrigated by four different levels of irrigation water (1.7, 5, 10, and 15 dS/m) and two levels of Potassium (K2SO4) fertilizer (zero and recommended) , in order to determine the effect of different varieties and application of potassium fertilization on turfgrass tolerance to irrigation water salinity. Results showed the difference of the three varieties in their ability to tolerate salinity, where Tall fescue surpassed the other two. It was also found that increasing the salinity levels of irrigation water resulted in increasing the content of the leaves of proline and sodium. No significant effect was observed on leaf content of chlorophyll. Potassium fertilization resulted in a negligible increase in leaf content of proline, sodium, potassium and chlorophyll.

اجريت هذه الدراسة في محطة البحوث والتجارب الزراعية - كلية الزراعة – جامعة كركوك خلال الموسم الزراعي 2018 على ثلاثة اصناف من المسطحات الخضراء احداها شتوية (Tall fescue) واثنان منها صيفية (ِArgentina Bahiagrass و Bermudagrass), استخدم في سقيها اربعة مستويات مختلفة من مياه الري (1.7 و 5 و 10 و15 دسيسمنزم) و مستويين من السماد البوتاسي K2So4 ( صفر و الموصى بها) وذلك بهدف معرفة تاثير اختلاف الاصناف واضافة التسميد البوتاسي في تحمل المسطحات الخضراء لملوحة مياه الري. اظهرت النتائج اختلاف الاصناف الثلاثة في قدرة تحملها للملوحة وتفوق الصنف Tall fescue على الصنفين الاخرين.كما تبين ان زيادة مستوى ملوحة مياه الري ادت الى زيادة محتوى الاوراق من البرولين والصوديوم ولم يلاحظ تاثير معنوي في محتوى الاوراق من الكلوروفيل .كما ادى التسميد بالبوتاسيوم الى زيادة غير معنوية في محتوى الاوراق من البرولين والصوديوم والبوتاسيوم والكلوروفيل.


Article
Determination of wastewater pollution in Karbala governorate for the year 2016
مُحددات تلوث مياه الصرف الصحي في مُحافظة كربلاء لسنة 2016

Author: أ. م. د. نجلة عجيل محمد
Journal: journal of the college of basic education مجلة كلية التربية الاساسية ISSN: 18157467 Year: 2019 Volume: 25 Issue: 103 / انساني Pages: 900-930
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The study dealt with a comparative study of some of the determinants of pollution of the incoming water and the treatment and evaluation of the efficiency of three wastewater treatment plants (Al-Nafhan, Muharram Aisha, the Residential Complex) in Karbala Governorate (2016). By analyzing the results of the characteristics of the indicators, we found their differences during the study period, Where water received and treated together recorded values within the permissible environmental determinants of indicators total salts (TDS), and acid function index (PH)(BOD), COD and TSS (except for the treated water of the two plants) were recorded with a value below the limits Environmentally permissible, And Al-Nafhan station recorded the highest wastewater treatment value for the indicators (BOD), (C.O.D), (TDS)} and Muharram Aishah station for the index (T.S.S). While the three stations together recorded a negative value of the treatment of the indicator (PH).

تناول البحث دراسة مقارنة لبعض مُحددات التلوث للمياه الواردة والمُعالجة وتقييم كفاءة ثلاث محطات لمياه الصرف الصحي (المنفهان، محرم عيشة، المُجمع السكني) في مُحافظة كربلاء لسنة (2016). من خلال تحليل نتائج خصائص المؤشرات وجدنا تباينها خلال مُدة الدراسة، حيث سجلت المياه الواردة والمُعالجة معاً قيماً ضمن المُحددات البيئية المسموح بها للمؤشرات { مجموع الاملاح الكلية (TDS)، و ومؤشر الدالة الحامضية (PH) }، في حين سجلت المؤشرات قيمة أعلى من المُحددات البيئية المسموح بها { مُتطلب الأوكسجين (البيوكيميائي)(B.O.D 5 ) و الأوكسجين الكيميائي المستهلك (C.O.D) و المواد الصلبة العالقة (T.S.S) عدا المياه المُعالجة لمحطتي (المنفهان، محرم عيشة) فقد سجلت قيمة ضمن الحدود البيئية المسموح بيئياً، وسجلت محطة المنفهان أعلى قيمة مُعالجة لمياه الصرف الصحي للمؤشرات {B.O.D 5)، ) C.O.D) ، (TDS) }، ومحطة محرم عيشة للمؤشر (T.S.S)، في حين سجلت المحطات الثلاثة معاً قيمة سالبة لمُعالجة المؤشر (PH).


Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Kinetic Study of poly(vinyl acetate)-g-Chitosan and its Use in Removal of Cadmium (II) ions from Water

Authors: Ali Jasim Hammood --- Salam A. H. Al-Ameri --- Zyad H. Jawad Al-Qaisi
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2019 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-11
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

The grafted vinyl acetate copolymerization lying on chitosan in weak acidic aqueous solution was examined via using K2S2O8 as initiator. FTIR spectra, DSC, DTG and TGA were used for graft polymer characterizing. The monomer to chitosan ratio was tested and the optimal grafting conditions were affixed. the highest grafting percentage PG of production polymers have been applied to remove Cd(II) ions from water samples through adsorption experiments at pH=7. The amounts of adsorbed metal ion on the polymers was estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The temperature effect on Cd(II) adsorption was studied too. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms as well as kinetic study equations were employed to fit the experimental data. The results of the adsorption equilibrium for Cd(II) fitted well to Langmuir isotherm and the removal percentage at 30°C after 5 min is 76.65 % and the thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption are ΔH= 96.87 kJ/mol ΔS= 339.19 J/mol K and ΔG= -5.11, -11.13 and -11.78 kJ/mol in different temperatures. The kinetic study of these adsorption isotherms showed that all these isotherms correlates well with the second order equation.


Article
Conventional Water Treatment of Domestic Groundwater Supplies

Author: Hussein Hamid Emran Al-Husseini
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2019 Volume: 27 Issue: 1 Pages: 354-365
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The important of ground water is increasing in the future as a source of fresh waters; in addition, many countries contain a number of water treatment plants to treat surface water. Using conventional treatment plant in the cities totreat ground water will decrease the cost of ground water treatment and may be help to depend on both surface and ground water supplies.This paper studied the ability of treating ground water byconventional water treatment. The quality of the ground water source is studied in the mention area during study period. The chemical quality of ground water is tested and there is within the standards of drinking water exceptiron. The conventional treatment was enhancing quality of treated water by increment of dissolved oxygen concentrations toward optimum value.Water treatment plant was effective for removal of iron from ground water of about 50%, in addition there is an effect of conventional treatment on sulfate removal (sulfate may be increase above standardsin some ground water sources). The statistical analysis of data shows there is a correlation between quality parameters of raw and treated water and between iron and sulfate of treated water in the correlation matrix. In addition, confidence test was applied on the correlation coefficients using fisher's transformation .The analysis shows, that there is a positive period(0.244, 0.941) of confidence of 95% of correlation factors of iron and sulfate.

تزداد اهمية المياه الجوفية كمصدر للمياه العذبة في العديد من الدول. بالاضافة الى ذلك تحتوي العديد من المدن على محطات لتصفية المياه السطحية. وفي حالة معالجة المياه الجوفية بالاعتماد على تلك المحطات فان كلفة المعالجة سوف تقل وسوف يساعد ذلك على الاعتماد على المياه السطحية والجوفية كمصدر لتجهيز مياه الشرب. في هذه الدراسة تم دراسة امكانية استخدام طرق المعالجة التقليدية في معالجة المياه الجوفية وتم فحص نوعية المياه الجوفية خلال فترة الدراسة. وقد وجد انها ضمن المواصفات المعتمدة باستثناء عنصر الحديد. وجد كذلك ان هناك تاثير لوحدات المعالجة في تحسين نوعية مياه الشرب بزيادة نسبة الاكسجين المذاب باتجاه القيم المثلى. كما وجد ان المحطة كانت فاعلة في ازالة بعض العناصر المهمة الموجودة في المياه الجوفية وشملت الحديد بنسبة ازالة تقارب 50 % واملاح الكبريتات (التي ممكن ان تتجاوز الحدود المسموحة في بعض انواع المياه). تم عمل تحليل احصائي للبيانات المقاسة وجد ان هناك ترابط عالي بين تراكيز العناصر في المياه الخام والمياه المعالجة. كما تبين ان هناك معامل ارتباط مرتفع بين عنصر الحديد وايون الكبريتات في مصفوفة الارتباط. بالاضافة الى ذلك تم تطبيق اختبار مجال الثقة على معاملات الارتباط باستخدام تحويل فيشر. بين الاختبار ان هناك فترة بنهايات موجبة (0.244, 0.941) بمجال ثقة 95 % لمعامل الارتباط بين عنصري الحديد والكبريتات.


Article
Geological evaluation of the most important equations of runoff calculation in water basins
تقييم جغرافي لاهم معادلات حساب الجريان السطحي في الاحواض المائية

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Abstract

The calculation of surface runoff in valleys and river basins is one of the most important factors in measuring the amount of water that can be available in this basin. It is also possible to measure the amount of runoff water in the basin and know the periods of increase or water scarcity in this quantity and thus benefit from irrigation or different water uses. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a set of mathematical equations to measure the amount of running water in the river basins or valleys to prevent the danger of flooding or benefit from this water in all human uses. Hence, a group of scientists developed a number of equations and arithmetic methods, which aim at studying the ponds and controlling them and knowing the amount of water running in them. These equations, which took into account a number of variables, including limited to limited variables, so this research was aimed at knowing these Mathematical methods and mathematical equations to measure the volume of runoff in these valleys and ponds. And compare them with each other and know the best ones for use in geographical studies.

يعد حساب الجريان السطحي في الاودية واحواض الانهار احد اهم عوامل قياس كمية المياه التي يمكن ان تتوفر في هذا الحوض، كذلك يمكن قياس كمية مياه الجريان في الحوض ومعرفة فترات الزيادة او الشحة المائية في هذه الكمية وبالتالي الاستفادة منها في عمليات الري او الاستخدامات المائية المختلفة. لذلك كان لا بد من وضع مجموعة من المعادلات الرياضية لقياس كمية المياه الجارية في الاحواض النهرية او الاودية لدريء خطر الفيضان او الافادة من هذه المياه في جميع الاستخدامات البشرية. ومن هنا فقد وضع مجموعة من العلماء عدد من المعادلات والطرق الحسابية التي تهدف الى دراسة الاحواض والسيطرة عليها ومعرفة كمية المياه الجارية فيها. وهذه المعادلات منها ما اخذ بنظر الاعتبار مجموعه من المتغيرات ومنها اقتصر على متغيرات محدودة، لذلك كان هذا البحث الذي يهدف الى معرفة هذه الطرق الحسابية والمعادلات الرياضية لقياس حجم الجريان السطحي في هذه الاودية والاحواض. ومقارنتها مع بعضها ومعرفة الاصلح منها لاستخدامه في الدراسات الجغرافية.


Article
CONDUCTIVITY BEHAVIOR FOR THE PERMEATE STREAM OF REVERSE OSMOSIS WATER IN THERMAL POWER STATION

Author: Suha Anwer Ibrahim
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2019 Volume: 23 Issue: 1 Pages: 80-92
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The study deals with the conferences of the Reverse Osmosis membrane of water treatment unit in AL-Doura thermal power station in Baghdad. The study concerned the analysis of RO water by the most convenient analytical equipments. From May 2015 to May 2016 over one year samples quality of the RO water in AL-Doura thermal power plant was accomplished .The results show that the lowest conductivity average values in the 1st quarter at day and at night. The greatest conductivity average values in the 3rd quarter at day and at night. In general the operation of reverse osmosis unit in Al-Doura thermal power station are in compliance with the restriction specifications of manufactured company design manual but in some days in hot months are not in the range


Article
KAREZES, ABANDONED AND ENDANGERED WATER RESOURCES IN SEMI-ARID REGIONS: CASE STUDY FROM SULAYMANIYAH CITY, IRAQ
الكهاريز: مصدر مائي مهمل ومتعطل، دراسة في مدينة السليمانية، العراق

Authors: Diary A. Al-Manmi دياري علي محمد امين المنمي --- Dara F. Hamamin دارا فائق حمة مين --- Ata O. Salih عطا عمر صالح
Journal: Iraqi Bulletin of Geology and Mining مجلة الجيولوجيا والتعدين العراقية ISSN: 18114539 Year: 2019 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 91-104
Publisher: Ministry of Industry and Minerals وزارة الصناعة والمعادن

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Abstract

The growing water shortage resulting from the recent drought season spanning from the last decades in Sulaymaniyah City has led to resurfacing the question of water supply. To cover for the long, hot and dry seasons and to make use of the limited precipitation in the higher elevation areas of the city, tenths of man-made subterranean aqueducts known as Karez or Qanat have been developed throughout the history of the city. This paper provides an insight into the current status of Sulaymaniyah Karezes and their deteriorating conditions regarding structure and water quality due to unsustainable urbanization and improper licensing for land use in the city. Geological aspects with particular emphasis on hydrogeological conditions that made their construction and their long-term use possible have been examined. Terminology, function, and distribution of all infiltration Karezes have been recorded and previously drawn sketches reviewed. Water samples from Karez outlets are analysed for major, minor and trace elements and the results showed that some of them are polluted and not suitable for human consumption. It also advocates that some of them in the Sulaymaniyah City shouldn’t only be protected as a great city heritage but also be refurbished and reconsidered as sustainable and eco-friendly water supply system for at least irrigation and industrial use if not drinking.

أدى النقصان المائي المتزايد والناجم عن موسم الجفاف الأخير الممتد خلال العقود الماضية في مدينة السليمانية إلى إعادة النظر في طرح مسألة إمدادات المياه. لتغطية المواسم الطويلة والحارة والجافة والاستفادة من الأمطار المحدودة في المناطق المرتفعة في المدينة، تم تطوير العشرات من القنوات تحت السطحية الاصطناعية التي عرفت باسم كهريز أو قنات خلال التاريح الطويل للمدينة. يتناول هذا البحث نظرة على الوضع الحالي للكهاريز في مدينة السليمانية وظروف تدهورها فيما يتعلق ببنيتها ونوعية المياه بسبب التمدن غير المستدام والترخيص غير المناسب لاستخدام الأراضي في المدينة. وقد تم فحص الجوانب الجيولوجية مع التركيز بشكل خاص على الظروف الهيدروجيولوجية التي جعلت بناءها واستخدامها على المدى الطويل ممكن. تم تدقيق المصطلحات والوظائف وتوزيع جميع الكهاريز وتم استعراض الاشكال المرسومة السابقة. تم تحليل نماذج المياه المأخوذة من فوهة الكهريز للعناصر الرئيسية والثانوية والنادرة وأظهرت النتائج أن معظمها ملوثة وغير مناسبة للاستهلاك البشري. وجدير بالذكر أن بعض هذه الكهاريز في السليمانية يجب حمايته ليس فقط كتراث مهم لمدينة السليمانية بل يجبً أن يتم تجديده وإعادة النظر فيه كنظام إسالة مستدامة للمياه وصديق للبيئة وعلى الأقل يمكن الاستفادة منها لأغراض الري والاستخدام الصناعي لو لم تكن لأغراض الشرب.


Article
Biochemical Significance of Ecto‑5’‑Nucleotidase, Xanthine Oxidase, and Glutathione S‑Transferase Determinations in Sera of Cigarette and Water Pipe Young Men Smokers

Author: Rana M. Hameed, Wesen Adel Mehdi1, Atheer Awad Mehde1
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2019 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 70-76
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background: Apparently, young people begin smoking for different reasons. for instance, increase the pressure of peers, family attitudesthat condone smoking, stress relief, using some drugs or it could be based on many other reasons. Currently, smoking has been involvedas a main responsible for approximately 30% of all cancer deaths in developed countries. Materials and Methods: The evaluation was toexamine the extent of adverse effects of cigarettes and water pipe (WP) smokers on biochemical characteristics in healthy young men smokers.Results: The results were shown a significant increase of the measured hematological parameters (white blood cells, hemoglobin, and plateletcounts) associated to WP smoker group. Part of kidney performance was examined under both smoking conditions, and compared to controlgroup, only blood urea levels of WP smoker group were indicated a significant increase (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the results demonstratedthat 5’‑nucleotidase and xanthine oxidase activities were higher in both smoker groups as compared to nonsmoker group, while glutathioneS‑transferase was shown a lower activity in WP smokers. Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be concluded that both types of smokinghave influenced many endogenous factors which decreased the cellular protection against free radical attacks and that were obvious throughthe variability of the measured biological factors under smoking conditions compared to nonsmoking group which easily could be result in alist of diseases usually linked to smoking.

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