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Article
Estimation of Wear Depth as an Approach to Predict Tool Service Life in Cold Forming Process

Authors: Lutfi Y. Zaidan لطفي يوسف زيدان --- Akram Mahdi Abd اكرم مهدي عبد --- Mohsin A. AlShammari محسن الشمري
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2019 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 13-34
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Wear phenomenon is considered as a predominant parameter in the forming processes causing the shorten tool life which in turn increases the production costs. In this study, wear depth of tool components for multi-stages of metal shell of spark plug (MSSP) manufacturing was analyzed using Archard's model with FE simulation software. The 3D geometry models were built using SolidWorks software then the models files were exported to Simufact forming software to do the settings of preprocess and FE analysis. The cylinder compression test and ring compression test were executed to get the flow stress and frictional factor respectively. Product parts dimensions, forging loads, effective stress, relative sliding velocity and contact pressure were solved and discussed. Subsequently to verify the analysis acceptance, the actual product parts measurements which obtained by coordinate measuring machine (CMM), were compared with the simulation results. It was found that the deviations of actual MSSP geometry dimensions less than (4%). Also verification is performed to forging loads at each stage which gives a good agreement between actual and FE simulation results. Finally, the wear depth of tool components were calculated for each stage using the FE software. Based on the results of wear depth from simulation and tolerance rages of actual product parts, tool service lives were predicted to find the productivities for each tool component. The results of FE simulation were compared with the CMM measurements for known productivities tool components from actual production line, which gives a good accuracy and acceptable agreement.

Keywords

Wear --- Cold Forming


Article
Effect of Al2O3 and Fly Ash Addition on Mechanical, Wear and Corrosion Properties of Al-Mg-Si Base Alloy

Author: Waleed T. Rashid وليد تركي راشد
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2019 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 76-82
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to studding the effect of addition of alumina and fly ash with the particles size 106μm and different weight rations (2:2, 2:4, 4:2) to aluminium- magnesium-silicon alloy on microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and wear. The vortex technique was used to prepare the composite material. The microscopic structure was also examined using optical microscopy and mechanical tests (hardness, tensile strength, yield strength and elongation) and wear test. The results showed that the composite material the containing (2% fly ash and 4% alumina) had the highest tensile strength (119 Mpa), yield strength (76 Mpa) and hardness (89 kg mm2), while it has the lowest ductility (5.3%). It was also found to have the lowest wear rate (1.8* 10-6gm cm) and the highest corrosion resistance.

Keywords

fly ash --- wear --- corrosion


Article
Improving Wear Properties of 392 Al Alloy Using Centrifugal Casting
تحسين خواص البلى لسبيكة المنيوم 392 باستخدام السباكة بالطرد المركزي

Authors: Akeel Dhahir Subhi عقيل ظاهر صبحي --- Adnan Mohsen Abd عدنان محيسن عبد
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2019 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 63-70
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The microstructure and wear properties of 392 Al alloy with different Mg contents were studied using centrifugal casting. All melted alloys were heated to 800 ºC and poured into the preheated centrifugal casting mold (200-250 ºC) at different mould rotational speeds (1500, 1900 and 2300 r.p.m). It is clear from the results obtained that wear rate was dependent on the Mg content, applied load and mould rotational speed. Furthermore, wear test showed that the minimum wear rate was found in the inner layer of produced rings at mould rotational speed of 1900 r.p.m and Mg content of 5%.

تم في هذا البحث دراسة التركيب المجهري وخواص البلى لسبيكة المنيوم 392 والتي تحتوي على نسب مغنسيوم مختلفه باستخدام سباكة الطرد المركزي. اذ تم صهر جميع السبائك في درجة حراره 800 م° وصبت في قالب الطرد المركزي اللذي سخن مسبقا ضمن مدى حراري يتراوح بين 200-250 م° بسرع دورانية مختلفة (1500 ,1900 و2300) دوره/دقيقه .اوضحت النتائج ان معدل البلى والصلاده يعتمدان على محتوى المغنسيوم والحمل المسلط علاوة على السرعه الدورانيه للقالب. اضافة لذالك فان اختبار البلى اظهر ان اقل معدل للبلى لللطبقه الداخليه للحلقات المنتجه كان عند سرعة دورانية للقالب 1900 دوره/دقيقه, وعند نسبة مغنسيوم 5%.


Article
Reduction of Wear Effect for Copper- Silicon Alloy by Laser Treatment
تقليل تأثير البلى لسبيكة النحاس- سليكون بواسطة المعاملة بالليزر

Author: Sajid H.Alwan ساجد علوان
Journal: Al-Nisour Journal for Medical Sciences مجلة النسور للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 26640562 26640554 Year: 2019 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 22-29
Publisher: Al-Nisour University College كلية النسور الجامعة

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Abstract

Copper- silicon alloy was prepared by CNC machining into disc shapes with diameter 18mm and thickness of 3mm using CNC machine to obtain more accuracy dimensions .Grinding and polishing process were carried out for all samples, and conducted to Nd-YAG laser treatment. Laser conditions involved laser fluency of 500mJ, wavelength of 1064nm, and different number of laser pulses (20, 40 and 60 pulses). The samples were subjected to wear system measurements before and after laser treatment to calculate the wear rate with different situations. The results revealed that the wear rate was reduced by 15% after laser treatment.

تم تحضير سبيكة النحاس – سيليكون بواسطة التشغيل بمكائن CNC على شكل قرص بقطر 18 ملم وبسمك 3 ملم . استعمال مكائن CNC لغرض الحصول على دقة ابعاد اكبر . عمليات التنعيم والتلميع اجريتلكل النماذج وتم تعريضها الى المعاملة بليزر Nd-YAG . عوامل الليزر كانت بطاقة 500mJ وبطول موجي 1064nm وبعدد مختلف من النبضات الليزرية ( 20 ، 40 ، 60 نبضة ) . تم فحص البلى بواسطة نظومة قياس البلى قبل وبعد المعاملة لغرض حساب معدل البلى . اظهرت النتائج ان معدل البلى انخفض بمقدار 15% بعد المعاملة الليزرية


Article
PARAMETRIC RATIO OPTIMIZATION AND STATISTICAL MODELLLNG OF WEAR PERFORMANCE IN DUAL-FILLER PARTICLE REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES

Authors: Oluwaseyi A. Ajibade --- Johnson O. Agunsoye --- Sunday A. Oke
Journal: KUFA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING مجلة الكوفة الهندسية ISSN: 25230018 Year: 2019 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 140-159
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Despite the potentials of dual reinforced particulate polymer composites to produce outstanding composite with enhanced wear properties, scholars have devoted insignificant attention to them. This paper introduces five diverse epoxy composites prepared in dual reinforcement blends. Using a mixed design L16 orthogonal array, Taguchi’s parametric optimization was conducted with some ratios between the wear parameters as a novel way of revealing the influence of their interrelatedness in the optimization process while the statistical modelling of the wear responses was pursued. Analysis of variance was also conducted as well as regression analysis. With experimental tests on the DIN abrasion tester, the (10OPP,15CSP)% composite obtained an optimal parametric setting of A1B2-3C3D1E4. The (10PKSP,15CSP), (10PSp,15ESP), (10OPP,15PSP) and (5PKSP,20ESP)% composites obtained optimal parameter settings of A3B2C3D3E2, A3B1-3,C3D1E4, A3B2C2D1E4 and A3B2C4D3E3, respectively. The correlation plots between the experimental and predicted values of the wear process and determination coefficient indicate a high level of accuracy of the models in predicting the wear behaviour of the composites.

Keywords

Epoxy composites --- wear --- Taguchi --- ANOVA --- regression.


Article
OPTIMISATION OF WATER ABSORPTION PARAMETERS OF DUAL-FILLER FILLED COMPOSITES USING TAGUCHI AND MODERATED TAGUCHI TECHNIQUES

Authors: Oluwaseyi A. Ajibade --- Johnson O. Agunsoye --- Sunday A. Oke
Journal: KUFA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING مجلة الكوفة الهندسية ISSN: 25230018 Year: 2019 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 134-151
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

This work contributes two novel modified Taguchi techniques to the optimal parametric setting for minimum water absorption in epoxy composites. Taguchi method, using ASTM standards was applied with factors (initial weight, final weight, length, sample thickness and time of immersion) and four levels in the experimental design. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluates the significance and individual contributions of the parameters. The optimal parametric setting was A1B4C3D4E1 (initial weight, 2.61 g; final weight, 2.69 g; length, 62.73 mm; thickness, 3.88 mm; time, 15.65 hrs). The ANOVA identifies time and length as dominant parameters (98.98 and 1.02 % contributions, respectively). Taguchi-Pareto analysis found only factor-level from the time and length parameters economical to optimality. The Taguchi-ABC analysis revealed the individual weights and contributions of the factor-level irrespective of its initial groupings. The new Taguchi techniques highlighted the importance of time and length of sample in obtaining minimum water absorption of composites.

Keywords

Epoxy composites --- wear --- Taguchi --- ANOVA --- regression.


Article
Compression and Wear Properties of Biocompatible Commercially Pure Titanium and (Titanium-Silicon) Alloys

Authors: Emad S. Al-Hassania --- Jamal J. Dawood --- Balsam M. Al-Sabe’a
Journal: Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة الأنبار للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19979428 Year: 2019 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 54-60
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

The porous Titanium is characterized by high permeability which can assure the ingrowth of bone tissues, and consequently results in a good bonding between the metallic implant and the bone. In this work, Silicon element was added to the Commercially Pure Titanium at different weight percent of (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) to investigate its effect on the porosity percentage, mechanical properties of the resulted samples. XRD analysis stated that at (Si) content lower than (2 wt%) the alloy is single phase (α- Ti alloy), as the Silicon content increased, in addition to (αphase), (Ti5Si3) intermetallic compound developed in the alloy. Porosity measurement results showed that the porosity percentage increases with the increase in Silicon content. Wear results stated that the wear rate increases with the increase in silicon content due to the increase in porosity percentage while the hardness results stated that there is no significant effect for Ti5Si3 intermetallic compound on improving the hardness of the samples. This is attributed to its low percent and the major effect of porosity on hardness which declined the effect of Ti5Si3 by reducing the hardness of the alloy compared with the master sample. The obtained results of the (yield strength, ultimate compressive strength and Young’s modulus) were within the values that match bone’s properties. This means these materials are suitable for biomedical application


Article
Wear rate of epoxy resin reinforced with multi walls carbon nanotubes
معدل البلى لراتنج الايبوكسي المدعم بأنابيب الكربون النانوية متعددة الجدران

Authors: Ayad Qabash Hameed اياد قباش حميد --- Faik Hammad Anter فائق حماد عنتر
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء ISSN: 20704003 Year: 2019 Volume: 17 Issue: 40 Pages: 1-9
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In this study, nanocomposites have been prepared by adding multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with weight ratios (0, 2, 3, 4, 5) wt% to epoxy resin. The samples were prepared by hand lay-up method. Influence of an applied load before and after immersion in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) of normality (0.3N) for (15 days) at laboratory temperature on wear rate of Ep/MWCNTs nanocomposites was studied. The results showed that wear rate increases with increasing the applied load for the as prepared and immersed samples and after immersion. It was also found that epoxy resin reinforced with MWCNTs has wear rate less than neat epoxy. The sample (Ep + 5wt% of MWCNTs) has lower wear rate. The immersion effect in base solution led to increase in wear rate values for all samples compared to natural condition.

تم في هذا البحث تحضير عينات المتراكبات النانوية باستخدام تقنية القولبة اليدوية بإضافة نسب وزنية %(0، 2، 3، 4، 5) من أنابيب الكربون النانوية متعددة الجدران الى راتنج الإيبوكسي. حيث تمت دراسة تأثير الحمل المسلط قبل وبعد الغمر بمحلول هيدروكسيد الصوديوم ذو عيارية (0.3N) ولمدة (15) يوم على معدل البلى للمواد المتراكبة النانوية ومقارنتها بالحالة الطبيعية (قبل الغمر). بينت نتائج الدراسة ان معدل البلى يزداد مع زيادة الحمل العمودي المسلط ولجميع العينات. كما وُجد ان عينات الإيبوكسي المدعمة بأنابيب الكربون النانوية تمتلك معدل بلى اقل مقارنة بالإيبوكسي النقي. اقل قيمة لمعدل البلى سُجلت بالنسبة ل( Ep + 5wt% من MWCNTs). أدى تأثير الغمر بالمحلول القاعدي الى زيادة معدل البلى بالنسبة لجميع العينات مقارنة بالحالة الطبيعة.


Article
RICE HUSK ASH AS A NANO-FILLER TO SYNTHESIZE THERMOSETTING POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES AND EVALUATION OF ITS TRIBOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR

Authors: Salsabeel K. Burhan --- Meethaq M. Abed --- Moslih A. Salih
Journal: KUFA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING مجلة الكوفة الهندسية ISSN: 25230018 Year: 2019 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 78-91
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

This paper deals with synthesizing of nanocomposites of unsaturated polyester (UP) filled with nano silica and investigation the effect of silica content on the tribological behavior of UP and nanocomposites . Silica nanoparticles were prepared by burning rice husk ash (RHA) as an agricultural waste material. Three different percentages as 2%, 6% and 10% of nano silica were added to the unsaturated polyester and dispersed by using ultrasonic waves method. As a result of agglomeration and sedimentation of nano RHA particles, dispersing by ultrasonic waves was very effective to terminate these challenges. X-Rays diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technics were used for characterization of materials. RHA-UP nanocomposites were tested for their tribo-performance by pin-on-disc machine. XRD demonstrated that white rice husk ash consists of amorphous silica. SEM demonstrated that silica particles were distributed uniformly and well embedded within the polyester matrix. Results showed an improvement in wear resistance with relatively stable friction coefficient with the addition of 10% nano silica. Adding 2 wt% nano RHA negatively affected the wear resistance of RHA-UP nanocomposite .The best tribological performance of 10% RHA-UP nanocomposites achieved at load 10N. Incorporation of RHA with unsaturated polyester has advantages of reducing pollution, making the pollutant RHA as a valuable material to produce low cost and lightweight products with modified properties. Silica enriched RHA could prove to be cheaper anti-wear additives for producing high performance unsaturated polyester composites such as brake pads.


Article
Effect of Quenching Media Variations on the Mechanical Behavior of Martensitic Stainless Steel
تأثير اختلاف وسط التقسية على السلوك الميكانيكي لفولاذ مقاوم للصدأ مارتنسياتي

Authors: Abbas Kh. Hussein عباس خماس حسين --- Laith K. Abbas ليث قيس عباس --- Wisam N. Hasan وسام ناجي حسن
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2019 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-12
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The purpose of this study is designate quenching and tempering heat treatment by using Taguchi technique to determine optimal factors of heat treatment (austenitizing temperature, percentage of nanoparticles, type of base media, nanoparticles type and soaking time) for increasing hardness, wear rate and impact energy properties of 420 martensitic stainless steel. An (L18) orthogonal array was chosen for the design of experiment. The optimum process parameters were determined by using signal-to-noise ratio (larger is better) criterion for hardness and impact energy while (Smaller is better) criterion was for the wear rate. The importance levels of process parameters that effect on hardness, wear rate and impact energy properties were obtained by using analysis of variance which applied with the help of (Minitab18) software. The variables of quenching heat treatment were austenitizing temperature (985 C˚,1060 C˚),a soaking times (50,70 and 90 minutes) respectively, Percentage of volumetric fractions of nanoparticles with three different levels(0.01, 0.03 and 0.08 %) were prepared by dispersing nanoparticles that are (α-Al2O3,TiO2 and CuO) with base fluids (De-ionized water, salt solution and engine oil).The specimens were tempered at 700°C after quenching of nanofluids for (2 hours).The results for ( S/N) ratios showed the order of the factors in terms of the proportion of their effect on hardness, and wear rate properties as follow: Austenitizing temperature ( 1060 C˚),Type of base media (salt solution), Nanoparticles type (CuO), Percentage of nanoparticles (0.08%) and Soaking time(90min) was the least influence while for the impact energy were as follows: Type of base media (oil), Austenitizing temperature (985C˚), Percentage of nanoparticles (0.01%), Nanoparticles type (α-Al2O3) and last soaking time (50min).

الغرض من هذه الدراسة هو تصميم معاملة حرارية (اخماد ومراجعة) بوساطة استخدام تقنية تاغوتشي لتحديد العوامل المثلى للمعاملة الحرارية (درجة حرارة الاوستنايت النسبة المئوية للجسيمات النانوية و نوع وسط الأساسو نوع الجسيمات النانوية ووقت النقع) لزيادة الخواص (الصلادة,معدل البلى وطاقة الصدمة) لفولاذ مقاوم الصدأ المارتنسايتي 420. تم اختيار مصفوفة متعامدة(18L) لتصميم التجربة. عوامل العملية المثلى حددت باستخدام معيار (Signal/Noise) (الأكبر هو الأفضل) للصلادة وطاقة الصدمة بينما معيار (الأصغر هو الأفضل) كان لمعدل البلى. تم الحصول على مستويات الأهمية لعوامل العملية على خواص الصلادة,معدل البلى وطاقة الصدمة باستخدام تحليل التباين المطبق بمساعدة برنامج (منتاب18).المتغيرات للمعاملة الحرارية (اخماد) كانت درجة حرارة الأوستنايت (985 C˚، 1060C˚) ، وأوقات النقع (50،70 ، 90 دقيقة) على التوالي، النسبة المئوية للكسور الحجمية للجسيمات النانوية بثلاثة مستويات مختلفة (0،01،0.03و0.08%) تم تحضيرها من خلال تشتيت جسيمات نانوية التي هي (α-Al2O3،TiO2،CuO) بأوساط أساسية (الماء غير المتأين، محلول الملح، زيت المحرك).تم مراجعة العينات بدرجة (700(C˚ لساعتين بعد الاخماد بالموائع النانوية .أظهرت النتائج لنسب ( S/N) ترتيب العوامل من حيث نسبة تأثيرها على الخواص الصلادة ومعدل البلى على وفق النحو الاتي : درجة حرارة الاوستنايت (1060 C˚ ,(نوع وسط الاساس(محلول ملحي), نوع الجسيمات النانوية (CuO), وقت النقع(90 دقيقة) واخيرا النسبة المئوية للجسيمات النانوية (0.08%) بينما لطاقة الصدمة كانت على وفق النحو الاتي: نوع وسط الاساس(زيت المحرك), درجة حرارة الاوستنايت (985(C˚، نوع الجسيمات النانوية (α-Al2O3)، النسبة المئوية للجسيمات النانوية (01.0%) واخيرا وقت النقع (50 دقيقة).

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