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Article
MYTHS AND REALITY OF IMPLEMENTING THREE-DIMENSIONAL TECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION

Author: Rawaa Abdulla Al-Safy
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2019 Volume: 23 Issue: 5 Pages: 71-94
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Due to the increased demand for more sustainable building environments, and the excessive need in building field to meet the designer’s requirements such as irregular,complex shaped structures, the utilization of three-dimensional technology (3D printing or additive manufacturing (AM)) by engineers in construction sector is increased globally. The key-advantages of use 3D printing method over traditional building methods are: low labor cost, less waste materials, freedom in design, faster construction, no need for formwork and reduce the risk and safety issues in construction sites. In theory, the printing is based on using 3D computer-aided-design (CAD) to materialize the whole building structure by just pressing a button in the 3D printer that brought to the construction site while the reality is not like that. This paper presents most recent developed innovative methodology used for 3D printing, possible printed building materials and the existed 3D printed structures in reality towards spotting the light on the most high-tech applications in construction and the possibility to adopt such technology in Iraq to overcome the challenges in design with faster building methods towards develop the country in construction sector.


Article
On a New Kind of Collection of Subsets Noted by

Author: Hassan H. Ebrahim
Journal: Ibn Al-Haitham Journal For Pure And Applied Science مجلة ابن الهيثم للعلوم الصرفة والتطبيقية ISSN: P16094042/ E25213407 Year: 2019 Volume: 32 Issue: 2 Pages: 62-70
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The objective of this paper is, first, study a new collection of sets such as –field and we discuss the properties of this collection. Second, introduce a new concepts related to the –field such as measure on –field, outer measure on –field and we obtain some important results deals with these concepts. Third, introduce the concept of null-additive on –field as a generalization of the concept of measure on –field. Furthermore, we establish new concept related to - field noted by weakly null-additive on –field as a generalizations of the concepts of measure on and null-additive. Finally, we introduce the restriction of a set function on –field and many of its properties and characterizations are given.Keywords: –field, measure on –field, monotone measure, null-additive.

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