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Article
Hypomagnesemia in Iraqi Diabetic Patients and Healthy Controls: An Exploratory study

Author: Lewai S. Abdulaziz لؤي عبد العزيز
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2010 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 71-78
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus has been suggested to be the most common metabolic disorder associated with magnesium deficiency, and because available data suggest that adverse outcomes are associated with hypomagnesemia, it is prudent that routine surveillance for hypomagnesemia be done and the condition be treated whenever possible.AIM OF THE STUDY:To explore the serum Mg concentrations of diabetic patients and healthy controls in our locality.MEHTODS: One hundred and forty four diabetic patients (22 with type I and 122 with type II diabetes mellitus) recruited from the outpatient diabetes clinic at the Specialized Center For Endocrine Diseases-Baghdad (62 patients), National Diabetes Center-Al Mustansiria University (20 patients), and from private endocrinologic practice clinics in Baghdad (62 patients), during the period from 1st October 2005 to 30th April 2006. Ninety non-diabetic healthy controls matched for age and sex were participated in this study. Exclusion criteria for both groups included diarrhea and loop diuretics. None were taking Mg supplements. Level of Mg and Albumin were determined spectrophotometerically in the same serum samples.RESULTS:Mean serum Mg concentrations of the diabetics was significantly lower than in controls (p<0.001). Serum albumin was not a significant predictor of serum Mg neither among diabetic patients (r = 0.005) nor control subjects (r = 0.139). In 88.9% of the diabetic patients and 11.1% of the control subjects serum Mg concentrations were below the normal reference range of 0.70 mmol/L. The prevalence is increased when hypomagnesemia is defined by a reference limit of 0.75 mmol/L (98.6% and 28.9 % for diabetics and controls, respectively), a further higher prevalence among controls (91.1 %) was noted when 0.80 mmol/L is adopted as the lower normal limit. All diabetics (100%) and controls (100%) were identified as hypomagnesemic with a lower reference limit of 0.90 mmol/L.CONCLUSION:The tremendous hot climate of ours, can be suggested as an influential cause for increased Mg losses, and may provide a coherent explanation for the exceedingly high prevalence of hypomagnesemia observed in diabetic and control subjects participated in this study. Which therefore may suggest an inevitable requirement for magnesium supplementation to avert hypomagnesemia, not only among diabetics, but as well for controls, particularly through the hot summer episode

Keywords

Hypomagnesemia --- Albumin --- Diabetes --- Iraqi.


Article
Chronic Kidney Diseases in Iraqi Children

Author: Jinan Soaod Orabi Hassan
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2007 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 240-251
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) causes substantial morbidity in virtually every major organ system of the body. Moreover; CRI is inevitably progresses to end stage renal disease.OBJECTIVE:To find out the frequency of chronic renal failure in pediatric age group and their risk factors.METHODS:One hundred ten infants, children and adolescents with chronic renal failure age between 1 mo.-17 yr. visiting Al-Karama Teaching Hospital in nephrology, urology, dialysis and transplant units for the period from1st May 2004 until 30th April 2006 were included in this study. Patient's notes were reviewed for: Age, sex, age at first presentation, age at referral to pediatric nephrologists , medical and social history including mode of their RRT, then the cause of their renal failure. Every patient was clinically examined and blood pressure. Measurement was taken, followed by taking anthropometric measurements which includes body weight (Kg) and height (cm) in addition to assessment of sexual maturity rate stages lastly we record laboratory investigation which include blood urea, S. creatinine, Hb. level , S. Ca+2, S.Ph., and GFR in addition to any investigations regarding original renal disease.RESULTS:In this study we found that males are more affected than females in a ratio of 3.2/1. The mean age at their 1st presentation were 3.5 ± 3.7 yrs. while their mean age when they referred to pediatric nephrologists were 5.2 ± 4.4 yrs. Below 5 yrs. constituting 44.5% and age group between 6-10 yrs constituting 29.1% while in age group above 10 yrs were 26.4%. Mean value of GFR in this study was 14.2 ± 7.5 ml/min/ 1.73m2, 36.4% patients were in ESRD. Obstructive uropathy as a cause of CRF were in 34.5% of total patients, followed by glomerular diseases that involves 21.8% and congenital anomalies of urinary system in 20.9% of our patients in this study. About 80% of our patients were found to be anemic with Hb concentration ≤ 10 g/dl and 48.1% of patient having hypocalcemia with S. Ca+2 level <9.5 mg/dl and hyperphosphatemia with S.Ph. >5.5 mg/dl found in 32.7% of patients.This study shows a significant relationship between hypocalemia and hyperphosphatemia and anemia with progression of renal insufficiency to ESRD. About 45.5% and 53.6% were below 3rd centile for Wt. and Ht. respectively and more than 50% had delayed puberty on SMR staging of Tanner and those patient's with growth retardation are significantly increased in number as the disease progressed to ESRD.Hypertension considered in patient with BP > 95th percentile according to task force table for age and sex and wt. and Ht. percentile and accordingly our study show that about 45.5% of patients were HTN. Mode of RRT is mainly conservative and intermittent peritoneal dialysis in 41.8% and 40% of our patients respectively. While only one patient was on APD and 11 patients were on HD and 8 patients received lived related & unrelated renal transplant.CONCLUSION:The obstructive uropathy is the commonest cause for CRF especially in children <5 yrs. Most of our patients were of delayed referral to pediatric nephrology and they are poorly managed, severely affected and growth retarded. We have limited diagnostic resources & options regarding pediatric dialysis programs & renal transplant.


Article
A chemical content study (sodium,potassium,calcium & phosphorus) of the ovarian follicular fluids of Iraqi she-camels during the year's seasons
دراسة المحتوى الكيميائي (الصوديوم و البوتاسيوم و الكالسيوم والفسفور) في سوائل الجر يبات المبيضية للنوق العراقية خلال فصول السنة

Author: D.H.J.AL-Delemi ضياء حسين جاسم الدليمي
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences مجلة القادسية لعلوم الطب البيطري ISSN: 18185746 23134429 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 52-58
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

A chemical content study (sodium,potassium,calcium & phosphorus) of the ovarian follicular fluids of Iraqi she-camels during the year's seasonsD.H.J.AL-DelemiColl.of Vete.Med./ Univ.of AL-QadisyiaAbstractThe present study was carried out to understand the chemical comprise of the ovarian follicular growth & maturation in Iraqi she-camels by determination the levels of some minerals,like Sodium, Potassium, Calcium & Phosphorus in ovarian follicular fluids of different size during the year's seasons. The ovaries without pathological changes of (80) sexually mature & non-pregnant she-camels butchered in AL-Dewaniya & AL-Najaf slaughter houses were collected , during the period (October 2004 – October 2005) , in the percentage of (one–two visits) per a week.The macroscopically healthy follicles were grouped into four size groups according to their diameter:1(2-5 mm),2 (>5-10 mm),3(>10-15 mm) & 4 (>15-25 mm), follicular fluids were aspirated by using disposable syringes , and mixed the fluids of the follicles which have the same size that collected in the same day , then kept in tubes under (-20°C) until chemical assay.The results of study have shown that the concentration of Sodium decreased significantly in small follicles & increase with the increased size of the follicle,but there was no significant differences between the last three sizes & the highest concentration of Sodium were noticed in Autumn , on the other hand the concentration of the Potassium, Calcium & Phosphorus increased significantly in the fluids of the small size follicles & decreased in the larger follicles, also the highest concentration of Potassium , Calcium were noticed in autumn , and Spring for Phosphorus .

دراسة المحتوى الكيميائي (الصوديوم و البوتاسيوم و الكالسيوم والفسفور) في سوائل الجر يبات المبيضية للنوق العراقية خلال فصول السنةضياء حسين جاسم الدليميكلية الطب البيطري / جامعة القادسيةالخلاصةأجريت الدراسة لفهم الاحتياجات الكيميائية لنمو الجريب ألمبيضي ونضجه في النوق العراقية وذلك من خلال تحديد مستويات بعض المعادن مثل الصوديوم , البوتاسيوم , الكالسيوم و الفسفور في سوائل الجريبات المبيضية ذات الإحجام المختلفة خلال فصول السنة . جمعت مبايض خالية من أي تغير مرضي عياني لـ (80) ناقة بالغة جنسيا وغير حاملة ذبحت في مجزرة محافظة الديوانية ومجزرة محافظة النجف وبمعدل زيارة – زيارتين لكل مجزرة في الأسبوع ولمدة سنة كاملة ابتداء" من تشرين الأول 2004 ولغاية تشرين الأول 2005 , صنفت الجريبات السليمة مظهريا إلى أربعة فئات حجميه حسب القطر هي:1 (2-5 ملم) , 2 (>5-10 ملم) , 3 (>10-15 ملم) و 4 (>15-25 ملم),سحبت السوائل الجريبية بواسطة محاقن نبيذه ثم خلطت سوائل الجريبات ذات الحجم الواحد التي جمعت في نفس اليوم ووضعت في أنابيب محكمة الغلق تحت درجة حرارة (- 20°م) لحين وقت التحليل الكيميائي.أوضحت نتائج الدراسة إن تركيز الصوديوم ينخفض في الجريبات ذات الحجم الصغير وبشكل معنوي ثم يرتفع مع الزيادة في الحجم ألا إن الفروق لم تكن معنوية بين الإحجام الثلاثة الأخيرة , كما إن أعلى تركيز رصد خلال فصل الخريف , وبالعكس ارتفعت تراكيز البوتاسيوم والكالسيوم والفسفور معنويا في سوائل الجريبات ذات الإحجام الصغيرة وانخفضت في الإحجام الكبيرة , كما سجل أعلى تركيز للبوتاسيوم والكالسيوم في فصل الخريف وللفسفور في فصل الربيع .

Keywords

Iraqi-She Camel


Article
Building the capacity of a measure of creativity in the Iraqi environment
بناء مقياس للقدرات الأبداعية في البيئة العراقية ((دراسة تطبيقية في أحدى منظمات البحث العلمي ))

Author: سندس رضيوي خوين
Journal: Al-Rafidain University College For Sciences مجلة كلية الرافدين الجامعة للعلوم ISSN: 16816870 Year: 2009 Issue: 25 Pages: 109-132
Publisher: Rafidain University College كلية الرافدين الجامعة

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Abstract

This research concerns with model constructing of innovation ability measurement that has originated from the national environment with the intention of getting more real and accepted results in the scope of personnel ability measurement and taking advantage of these abilities.The questionnaire has been used in this research where it is distributed on (40) personnel who have high academic certifications. The principal and designed (proposed) measurement have been applied on the same model , in order to test the dependent assumptions, and the results have been calculated and compared with each others.The research has ended up by a number of conclusions and recommendation. The most important conclusion is that new (proposed) measurement results are not complying with the principal one (Ettlie & O'Keefe, 1982). This means that every individual has an innovation seed that has been irrigated by his surrounding circumstances. Whenever these circumstances be healthy, it will help in the appearance of the early age, clear, and useful innovation ability.

يهدف البحث لبناء مقياس لقياس القدرة الإبداعية نابع من ظروف البيئة المحلية، بهدف الحصول على نتائج تكون اكثر واقعية وقبولا في مجال قياس قدرات الافراد والاستفادة من هذه القدرات.وقد تم استخدام استمارة الاستبانة والموزعة على (40) منتسب من حملة الشهادات الاكاديمية العليا، ولغرض اختبار الفرضيات المعتمدة في البحث طبق المقياس الاصلي والمقياس المصمم (المقترح) على نفس العينة وتم احتساب النتائج والمقارنة بينهما.واختتم البحث بجملة من الاستنتاجات والتوصيات، ومن أهم الاستنتاجات أن نتائج المقياس الجديد (المقترح) غير متفقة مع نتائج المقياس الاصلي (Ettlie & O'Keefe, 1992)، وهذا يعني ان لدى كل فرد بذرة إبداعية ترويها الظروف المحيطة بالفرد، فكلما كانت هذه الظروف صحية ساعدت في ظهور القدرة الإبداعية بعمر مبكر وبشكل واضح ومفيد.


Article
Renal Involvement in 25 Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

Authors: Nizar Abdulateef Jassim --- Ziad Shafeek Al-Rawi --- Ali Abdumajeed Diab --- Ali Nazar Mohammed
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-6
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Renal involvement is considered a poor prognostic factor and not frequently a cause of death in patients with scleroderma. Renal involvement can be divided into scleroderma renal crisis and non-renal crisis abnormalities.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the frequency of renal involvement in 25 Iraqi patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc).METHODS:Twenty five patients with SSc (21 female and 4 male) were included in a case-controlled study. All patients fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria for SSc. All patients were of diffuse type. Other types of SSc were excluded. All patients underwent measurement of blood pressure and investigations had been done for them which included: hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC) count, platelet count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), blood urea (BU), serum creatinine (SCr), general urine examination (GUE), and rheumatoid factor (RF). Same investigations were done for 25 healthy person (considered as control group).RESULT:All patients (100%) had Raynaud’s phenomenon, 23 patients (29%) had dysphagia, 21 patients (84%) had arthralgia, 10 patients (40%) had telangiectasia and 2 patients (8%) had subcutaneous calcification. Three patients (12%) had moderate hypertension. Fourteen patients (56%) had anemia, 2 patients (8%) had leukocytosis, 6 patients (24%) had elevated ESR, 1 patient (4%) had elevated BU, 1 patient (4%) had albuminuria and 4 patients (16%) had positive RF. Platelet count and SCr were normal in all patients. Only 1 patient (4%) had renal involvement in form of combination of azotemia, albuminuria and hypertension.CONCLUSION:Renal involvement in systemic sclerosis among Iraqi patients is rare.

Keywords

renal --- iraqi --- systemic sclerosis.


Article
Frequency of Genodermatoses Among Iraqi Patients

Authors: Haider R. Al-Hamami --- Adil A. Noaimi --- Makram M.Al-Waiz --- Abdulkaleq S. Al-Kabraty
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 62-67
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Genodermatoses are hereditary skin disorders or anomalies which can be grouped into three categories: chromosomal, single gene and multifactorial. Most genodermatoses show single gene or Mendelian inheritance (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X-linked recessive genes).OBJECTIVE:To asses the frequency of genodermatoses among Iraqi patients in outpatients Dermatology and Venereology comparison with other countries.PATIENTS AND METHODS:This case series descriptive epidemiological study included eighty three patients (57males and 26 females) with genodermatoses. They consulted the out patient clinic/ Department of Dermatology and Venereology Baghdad Teaching Hospital fromApril 2005 through April 2006. Their ages ranged from 2months-60 years (Median 10 years),With various genetic diseases.Full history, dermatological and clinical examinations were done to establish the clinical diagnosis of genodermatoses regarding all demographic points related to these disorders.RESULTS:The frequency of genodermatoses among outpatient attendant in Dermatology and Venereology Department was 83/ 20000 (0.42%).This study had shown that the most common genodermatoses were; ichthyosis: 21 (25.3 %) patients and epidermolysis bullosa which contain 16 (19.3 %) patients when taken together they constituted 37 (44.6%) patients of the total, neurofibromatosis 8 (9.6 %), hereditary palmoplantar keratoderma 6 (7.2%), darier's disease 5 (6 %) and xeroderma pigmentosa 4 (4.8 %).Positive family history of the same disease was obtained in; 8 (38.1 %) patients with ichthyosis, 4 (66.6 %) in hereditary palmoplantar keratoderma, 2 (12.5 %) in epidermolysis bullosa and all patients with Hailey-Hailey disease had positive family history of the same condition.Consanguinity was positive in; 13 (61.9 %) patients of ichthyosis, 12 (75 %) epidermolysis bullosa, 2 (33.3 %) hereditary palmoplantar keratoderma and (100 %) patients with xeroderma pigmentosaCONCLUSION:Genodermatoses are frequently encountered among Iraqi dermatological outpatients and more common in families with positive consanguinity and were comparable to other countries


Article
The Frequency Of Chlamydial Urethritis Among ِA Group Of Iraqi Male Patients

Authors: Mahdei Y. mohammed --- Sabeeh Al-Mashhadani --- Makram M. Al-Waiz د.مكرم مكي الواعظ
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2007 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 354-359
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

AbstractBackground & Objective: The most important and potentially dangerous pathogen involved in non-gonococcal urethritis is Chlamydia trachomatis, so this study is conducted to evaluate the frequency of chlamydial urethritis among group of Iraqi male patients.Methods: The study design is a descriptive cross sectional study, including fifty two male patients complaining from urethral discharge, they were seen in the department of Dermatology and Venereology at Baghdad Teaching Hospital .Their ages ranged from 16-49 years (mean±SD 29.28Y±8.5).They were investigated using enzyme linked fluorescent assay to a direct urethral swabs for detection of chlamydial antigen.Results: Twenty one (40.38%) male patients were chlamydial antigen positive. Six of them (11.5%) had mixed infection (chlamydial and gonococcal urethritis).Chlamydial urethritis were most frequent at the third decade of life, those constitute of eight Patients (15.38%). Urethral discharge and dysuria were the most frequent symptoms which were noticed in all patients, frequency of micturation were seen in thirteen patients. Twenty patients were heterosexual and only one was homosexual; eight patients were practicing sex with single partner, the remainder practiced sex with multiple partners.Conclusion: Chlamydia is one of the common causes of urethritis among sexually active Iraqi male patients, enzyme linked fluorescent assay technique is simple reliable test in the diagnosis of this disease.Key words: Iraqi, chlamydial, urethritis

Keywords

Iraqi --- chlamydial --- urethritis


Article
New record of moth fly species; Psychodaalternata Say, 1824 (Diptera:Psychodidae: Psychodinae) fromIraq
تسجيل جديد لذبابة العث النوع PsychodaalternataSay, 1824 (رتبة تنائية الاجنحة: عائلة ذباب العث: عويلة ذباب العث) من العراق.

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Abstract

PsychodaalternataSay, 1824 (Diptera : Psychodidae : Psychodinae) is newly recoded for fauna of Iraq . Shortly description and the important diagnostic characters are figured.

اضيفت ذبابة العث النوع Psychodaalternata Say, 1824 (رتبة تنائية الاجنحة: عائلة ذباب العث: عويلة ذباب العث) كتسجيل جديد للفونا الحشرية العراقية. حيث شملت هذه الدراسة على وصف مختصر لاهم الصفات التشخيصية لهذه الذبابة مصحوبة بالصور


Article
The Influence of English Words on Iraqi Dialect

Author: Hasanein Hasan Shaheed
Journal: journal of Human Sciences مجلة العلوم الانسانية ISSN: 19922876/25239899 Year: 2013 Volume: 1 Issue: 16 Pages: 437-446
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

This research discusses problems faced by speakers of Iraqi dialect. They are using many words from foreign languages especially from English language, so these words became part which can not skip them from their language. This study focuses on new generations such as children, young and even adults. Therefore; speakers of these words (English words) in Iraq do not know that they are using English words and not Arabic words. The main problem here is that they don't know the Arabic meanings of these English words. Iraqi speaker when he/she talks one or two simple sentences uses English words instead of Arabic words and this is called (Code Shifting or Code Switching) this is a process to use foreign words instead of words in mother tongue (for bilingual speakers), but in Iraq this process is used for one or two words only, not for a full sentence, and sometime is added to English word rules from standard Arabic grammar which make the word as an Arabic word.


Article
Assessment Of Water Quality Of East Hammar Marsh Using WQI, Basra-Iraq
تقييم نوعية مياه هور شرق الحمار باستخدام دليل نوعية المياه WQI

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Abstract

The Canadian Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) was applied to assess the water quality of three (3) sampling stations in East Hammar marsh during (Nov.2012) to (Oct.2013). The historical studies before/after restoration were used during the evaluation process.Water temperature, Salinity, Transparency, pH, Dissolved oxygen, Reactive Nitrate and Phosphate were selected to calculate the index.The results revealed that the WQI ranged between (28.2 – 49.6) and (40.7 – 62.7) depending on the historical studies before/after drainage respectively, classified as (poor) to (marginal). The study revealed that the water quality of the east Hammar marsh was better than its quality after three years of restoration.

تم تطبيق دليل نوعية المياه النموذج الكندي (CCME WQI) كوسيلة لتقييم نوعية المياه لثلاث (3) محطات في هور شرق الحمار خلال الفترة من تشرين الثاني 2012 لغاية تشرين الاول 2013. تم اعتماد الدراسات التاريخية قبل اجراء عملية تجفيف اجزاء من الاهوار و بعد الغمر في عملية التقييم.تم اختيار سبع متغيرات لحساب الدليل و هي درجة حرارة الماء و الملوحة و الشفافية و الاس الهيدروجيني و الاوكسجين المذاب و النترات الفعالة و الفوسفات الفعالة.أظهرت النتائج تباينا في قيم الدليل بين المحطات حيث تراوحت بين (28,2 الى 49,6) و (40,7 الى 62,7) اعتمادا على الدراسات التاريخية قبل و بعــــــــد التجفيف على التوالي، و تصنف بين (فقير) و (هامشي). يستنتج من الدراسة الحالية ان مياه هور شرق الحمار بمستوى افضل من نوعيته المسجلة بعد مضي ثلاث سنوات من اعادة الاغمار.

Keywords

Iraqi Marshes --- Restoration --- WQI

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