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Article
THE FREQUENCY OF FLT3 MUTATION IN FIFTY FIVE IRAQI ADULT PATIENTS WITH ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA

Authors: Maysaa AR Dhahi ميساء عبد الرزاق ضاحي --- Subh S. Al-Mudallel صبح سالم المدلل --- Ethar K Dhahir ايثار كاظم ظاهر
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2012 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 140 -147
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background: Mutations within the FLT3 gene, which code for the class-III-receptor kinase FLT3, ranked within the most frequent recurrent known genetic markers in acute myelocytic leukemia (AML). Internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations in the juxtamembrane domain of FLT3 gene occur in 20-25% of AML.Objectives: This study designed to detect the frequency of FLT3-ITD mutation in adult AML patients, and to correlate the prevalence of this mutation with the clinical presentation of the patients and their response to induction therapy.Methods: The study comprised 55 AML patients and 33 healthy controls. For each patient, complete blood picture, blood film, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy was done. FLT3-ITD mutation was detected by conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction technology. Complete hematological remission achievement after induction chemotherapy was assessed by clinical examination and full laboratory investigations.Results: Out of 55 AML patients 8 (14.54%) had FLT3-ITD mutation and all of them presented as de novo AML. Moreover, 6 (75%) out of 8 mutated patients were newly diagnosed whereas 2 out of 8 were in relapse and were not on any therapy. The mean age of patients who had the mutation was lower than those without the mutation; also the majority of patients with mutation were male. The mean WBC count in mutated patients was not significantly higher than non-mutated patients. Higher bone marrow blast cell percent was found in mutated patients. FLT3-ITD mutation was mostly detected in M3 (37.5%) followed by M2 (25%), and lastly in M1 and M4 subtypes (12.5% for both subtypes) of FAB classification. Four out of 8 mutated patients failed to response to induction therapy although they were with good compliance to drug and 1/8 died throughout the induction therapy.Conclusion: Since FLT3-ITD mutation was associated with higher WBC count, significantly higher bone marrow blast cell percent and low rate of response to induction therapy; therefore it had been considered one of poor prognostic factor. It is a factor in defining risk stratification of AML patients.Keywords: AML, FLT3-ITD mutation, conventional PCR, FAB sub-types


Article
DETECTION OF NUCLEOPHOSMIN (NPM-1) AND FLT3-ITD MUTATIONS IN 30 IRAQI PEDIATRIC ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA PATIENTS

Author: Subh S AL-Mudallal صبح سالم المدلل
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 40-49
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background:Mutation within the FLT 3 and NPM 1 genes ranked within the most frequent recurrent known genetic markers in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and show apparently opposite prognostic significance.Objective:To detect the frequency of FLT3-ITD and NPM-1 mutations in Iraqi pediatric AML patients using conventional polymerized chain reaction (PCR), and to relate their prevalence with the clinical presentation and the response to induction therapy.Methods:A prospective study of 30 children presented with AML and 16 children who were age and gender matched served as negative control for the mutation. AML cases were classified according to FAB classification. WBC count, platelet count and hematocrit were measured at diagnosis and after 30 days. Molecular analysis was done on peripheral blood or bone marrow aspirate samples by conventional PCR technology.Results:FLT 3-ITD mutation was detected in 3/30 (10%) patients, whereas NPM1 mutation was detected in 4/30 (13.33%) patients. Both mutations were detected in older age patients and predominantly in male. No significant correlation between each mutation and various hematological parameters, however WBC count was significantly higher in FLT-ITD unmutated patients. FLT3-ITD mutation was detected in M3 and M3 variant whereas NPM-1 mutation was detected in M2 and M3v. The three patients having FLT-3-ITD mutation (100%) did not achieved complete hematological remission, whereas 3/24 (12.5%) patients without the mutation did not achieve remission. On the other hand 2 out of 4 (50%) patients with NPM-1 mutation had not achieved complete hematological remission and 4/22 (18.18%) patients without mutation did not achieve remission. Finally regarding the interrelation between the two mutations, the two children who had NPM1 mutation and no FLT3-ITD mutation had achieved complete remission on induction therapy whereas the three children who had FLT3-ITD mutation with or without NPM1 mutation did not achieved complete remission.Conclusion:Prevalence of FLT3-ITD and NPM-1 mutations in Iraqi pediatric AML patients is comparable to that recorded worldwide and both mutations were observed in older age children and mainly in male. FLT3-ITD mutation unlike NPM-1 mutation associate with poor response to induction therapy and the adverse effect of FLT3-ITD mutation overcome the favorable effect of NPM-1 mutation when they exist together.Keywords:Pediatric AML, Flt3-ITD mutation, NPM1 mutation, PCR


Article
ANALYSIS OF N-RAS GENE MUTATIONS AND P21N-RAS PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN IRAQI PATIENTS WITH IN AML

Authors: Nahidh K. Alwan ناهض كامل علوان --- Raad J. Musa رعد جابر موسى --- Ban A. Abdul-Majeed بان عباس عبد المجيد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 329-339
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background:N-RAS mutations are the most commonly detected molecular abnormalities in hematologic malignancies, especially in those of myeloid origin.Objective:Current study aimed to determine the frequency of N-RAS mutation and its correlation with P21N-RAS protein expression in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in Iraq.Methods:Peripheral blood, bone marrow aspirate and biopsy samples were taken from 58 newly diagnosed AML patients (57 de novo and 1 therapy related AML) and 30 individuals with reactive bone marrow conditions were selected as a control group. Samples screened for N-RAS gene mutations using nested PCR followed by mutation sensitive digestion analysis (MSDA), and immunohistochemical analysis of P21N-RAS protein expression by using anti N-RAS monoclonal antibody.Results:N-RAS mutations at the time of diagnosis were found in 10/58 (17.24%) and P21N-RAS expression found in 5/58 (8.62%) patients with AML. There was a significant difference (P = 0.001) in P21N-RAS expression between mutant and wild type N-RAS patients with AML. No N-RAS mutations or P21N-RAS expression detected in the control group individuals.Conclusion:It can be suggested that there is activation of RAS-signaling cascade in AML patients, this is may support their role in molecular pathogenesis of acute leukemia. Also, there was a significant difference between N-RAS gene status and P21N-RAS protein expression in patients with AML.Keyword:AML, N-RAS Mutation, MSDA, P21N-RAS expression, Digital analysis.


Article
Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels in Iraqi Patients with Newly Diagnosed Acute Leukemia

Authors: Abass F. Hasson --- Najlaa B. Alawadi --- Saba S. Mallouh
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2015 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 8-16
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Acute leukemia is an aggressive disorder which need a new therapeutic approaches to improve the response to treatment. Angiogenesis seems to be important both for leukemogenesis and susceptibility to intensive chemotherapy, and antiangiogenic strategies may therefore be considered for the treatment of acute leukemia.This study aim to assess serum VEGF levels in Iraqi patients with a newly diagnosed acute leukemias and to find the relation between VEGF levels and other hematological parameters. This case-control study included 96 subjects who attended Marjan Teaching Hospital in Babil/Iraq during the period from Nov 2013 to Aug 2014.They divided into two groups; patient group included 48 patients newly diagnosed with acute leukemia (32 of them had AML and 16 had ALL) and control group included 48 normal volunteers. Complete blood count and serum VEGF (ELISA) were done for all while bone marrow examination was done for patients only. Mean serum VEGF was significantly higher in patients than controls (643.8 ±121.1 ng/dl vs. 203.4 ±51.8 ng/dl respectively and P-value < 0.001) and a higher levels were found in patients with ALL compared to AML and in males compared to females. No statistically significant age differences were found between patients and controls, while majority of patients (61.9%) and controls (63.4%) were males. Mean PCV was significantly lower in patients than controls (P-value < 0.01), Mean WBC count was significantly higher in patients than controls (P-value < 0.01) and mean platelets count was significantly lower in patients than controls (P-value < 0.01).This study concluded that serum VEGF in patients with acute leukemia was high compared to controls and a significant correlation was found between serum VEGF levels and both PCV and gender.


Article
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Fruit Juice of Annona Muricata L (Soursop) During Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats

Authors: Mustafa Taha Mohammed --- Sarah Isam Abbas
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 118-123
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVE:The study included knowledge The chemical components of the Soursop juice and determine whether Soursop prevents ischemia-reperfusion induced brain injuries in rats.METHODS:The chemical components of the prepared fruit extract were detectedits components of glycosides, proteins....etc and we were Determination of trace element and the estimation of the biochemical parameters: Blood samples were harvested from the rats,. Serum IL-10,Adiponectin and oxidative stress levels of Malondialdehyde ( MDA) and Glutathione ( GSH )were estimated.RESULTS: The results showed that the extract contain : glycosides, proteins, saponins, tannins, various phenolic compounds alkaloids , flavonoids, steroids and vitamine C . The results also showed that there were high concentrations of B, Fe , Zn respectively and low concentrations of Mn, Cu, pb,Cd respectively ,very low concentrations Ni ,Co , Se . The levels of oxidative enzymes and Inflammatory cytokines in group 3 were significantly lower than those in the group 2.Our results suggest that soursop treatment protects the rat brain against ischemia-reperfusion induced brain injuries.CONCLUSION: The present study confirm that the fruit extracts of Soursop (Annona Muricata L.) posses in vivo anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity because of its content (glycosides , tannins , saponins ,proteins ,various phenolic compounds ,alkaloids , flavonoids, steroids and vitamine C )


Article
Experience with treatment of fifty eight Iraqi patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia
الخبرة في معالجة ثمانية وخمسون مريضا عراقيا بالغاً مصابين بسرطان الدم النقياني الحاد

Author: Khudhair A. AL-Khalissi خضير عباس الخالصي
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2013 Volume: 55 Issue: 4 Pages: 290-295
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Adults with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) have the lowest survival rate of all leukemias. Complete remission (CR) rate after induction therapy is about 55-85%, however 30% of patients fail to achieve remission and they remain alive only for about a year. Consolidation chemotherapy results in 5-year overall survival (OS) of about 30%.Objectives: To study characteristics of adult patients with AML who attended Baghdad Teaching Hospital, their response to induction therapy and then to consolidation therapy, and their 5-year (OS) and disease free survival (DFS).Patients and methods: Sixty seven patients with AML (excluding M3) were admitted to the haematology ward /seventh floor/Medical city teaching hospital during 2008 with follow up till the end of 2012. Fifty eight patients included in the study, 47 patients (≤ 60-year) received 3+7 induction regimen. Nine (> 60 year) received attenuated courses of subcutaneous cytosar, or 2+5 regimen (according to presence or absence of co-morbidities). Those who attained CR were consolidated mainly with Modified MiDAC.Results: Eleven patients who received attenuated induction therapy had a median survival of 6-8 months and none of them achieved CR. Twenty six (55.5%) out of 47 patients who received 3+7 induction regimen had CR with treatment related mortality( TRM) of 34%, while OS and DFS were 30% and 34% respectively.Conclusion and recommendation: Early referral to the hospital is essential to avoid high early mortality. OS and DFS in our study is comparable to other studies in spite of shortage of antibiotics and cytotoxic therapy.Key words: AML, induction, consolidation, OS, DFS.

الخلفية : سرطان الدم النقياني الحاد عند البالغين يعتبر من الأمراض التي لا يعمر فيها المريض طويلا وان نسبة الشفاء لمدة خمس سنوات هي حوالي 30%.الغرض من البحث : دراسة خصائص المرضى المصابين المراجعين الى مستشفى بغداد التعليمي واستجابتهم للعلاج ونسبة المرضى الذي يتعافون لمدة خمس سنوات.طريقة اجراء البحث : تم ادخال 67 مريضاً الى الطابق السابع في مستشفى بغداد التعليمي خلال سنة 2008 وبعد استلامهم للعلاج تمت متابعتهم لغاية نهاية 2012. تم استبعاد 9 مرضى من الدراسة بسبب وفاتهم خلال اسبوعين وكان عدد المرضى المشمولين بالبحث هو 58 من ضمنهم 47 مريضا بعمر 60 سنة أو أقل واستلموا العلاج (7+3). أما المرضى الذين كانت أعمارهم فوق الستين سنة فتمت معالجتهم بـ(5+2) أو دواء السايتوسار تحت الجلد ثم اعطي العلاج (المايداك المحور)لمن اكتسبوا حالة الهدوء لغرض تثبيت الشفاءالنتائج : كان معدل بقاء المرضى الذين كانت أعمارهم أكثر من ستين سنة هي 6 – 8 شهور ولم يكتسب أيا منهم الشفاء أما نسبة البقاء لمدة 5 سنوات بالنسبة للمرضى الذين كانت أعمارهم 60 سنة أو أقل فقد كانت 30%.الاستنتاج والتوصيات : الاحالة السريعة الى المستشفى عند التشخيص أو الاشتباه بالمرض ضرورية جدا لتلافي الوفاة المبكرة وقد كانت نسبة الشفاء لمدة 5 سنوات مقاربة للدراسات المنشورة الاخرى.مفتاح الكلمات : سرطان الدم النقياني الحاد، العلاج، تثبيت العلاج، نسبة الشفاء لمدة خمس سنوات


Article
Role of Interleukin-1α and Interleukin-8 in Myocardial Infarction
دور (IL_8) و (αIL- 1) في احتشاء العضلة القلبية

Author: Mosadak.I. Shakib مصدق ابراهيم شكيب
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2013 Volume: 26 Issue: 1 Pages: 75-77
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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AbstractObjective: To study the effect of interleukin-1α and interleukin-8 in tissue injury during ischaemia and reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction patients.Methods: Concentrations of (IL-1α) and (IL-8) for 25 patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: All 25 patients with acute Myocardial Infarction had a significant rise in serum (IL-1α) and ( IL-8) concentrations (33.62333±12.82255) (117.46±109.75) compared to normal subjects (14.032467±1.798464) (8.951± 5.7) respectively.Conclusion: It is clear that (IL-1α) and (IL-8) results have a role in the development of tissue injury in acute myocardial infarction.Key Words: Acute Myocardial Infarction (AML), Interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8).

الخلاصة:الهدف: لتحديد هل ان (IL-8) و (αIL- 1) (كلاهما منشط قوي للكريات الدموية البيضاء المتعادلة) لهما دور في تلف الانسجة خلال Ischaemia وعوده الحياة في تلك الانسجة في المرضى المصابين باحتشاء العضلة القلبية الحاد (AMI).طريقة العمل: تم قياس التراكيز (IL-8) و (αIL- 1) لـ 25 مريض مصاب باحتشاء العضلة القلبية الحاد بطريقة (ELISA).النتائج: اظهرت النتائج زيادة احصائية ملحوظه لتراكيز (IL-8) و (αIL- 1) في مصول مرضى احتشاء العضلة القلبية الحاد مقارنة بالاشخاص الطبيعيين.الاستنتاج: هذه النتائج تشير الى ان (IL-8) و (αIL- 1) مهمة في تطور تقدم مراحل احتشاء العضلة القلبية في مرضى احتشاء العضلة القلبية الحاد.الكلمات المفتاحية: احتشاء العضلة القلبية الحاد (AMI)، (αInterleukin-1) (αIL-1) و (Interleukin-8) (IL-8) Mobile: 07703921469


Article
Analysis of Factors Affecting the Anti-Money Laundering using the Managerial factors” Moderate Variable” in Iraq

Authors: Sarmad Muwfaq Khazaal --- Lamyaa Salah Al-Den M. F. Al-Salyhy --- Hasson Mohammed Ali AL-Haddad
Journal: Journal of Baghdad College of Economic sciences University مجلة كلية بغداد للعلوم الاقتصادية الجامعة ISSN: 2072778X Year: 2018 Volume: 2018 Issue: 7 Pages: 267-300
Publisher: Baghdad College of Economic Sciences كلية بغداد للعلوم الاقتصادية

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Research aims to diagnose the impact of ML dimensions in the availability and the uses of its components, also for the diagnosis of the elements of (available resources, managerial processes) which prevent the influence of this phenomenon, and poll the reality of anti- ML measures available and the use of its components (reasons of circulation, functions indicators, supervisory role, obstacles). Role of combat MLS and the dimensions of (placement, layering and integration) as legitimacy attempt to steal money in order to reveal in illegal money. The study sample included (57) relevant people from academic disciplines, management leadership, and monitors compliance in banks.The results showed that there are widespread dramatic ML in Iraq, which found to be of 85%, and that the main sources to ML are smuggling of oil, projects phantom reconstruction, gangs of kidnapping and extortion, also observed that the elements (reasons of circulation, supervisory role), have occupies the first place in reducing the effectiveness of the Anti-ML level, and then came (function indicators, obstacles). After that (placement) has achieved first class in facilitating ML, and then came (confused, merger), then the impact of managerial factors affect in the Anti-ML. Also the role of the resources available has played as moderate in the role of the Anti-ML.Research recommends that financial institutions be able to exchange information with other countries, in order to know their customers, identify controls on the basis of the degree of risk, and the bank must verify the "identity of the customer," if necessary, to monitor transactions for any suspicious activity. Often called the name of the "know your customer, and the training of bank staff on the Anti-ML, and record-keeping and the development of instructions and reporting suspicious activities. The adoption of modern IT, which helps monitors compliance with the Anti-ML for the detection and reporting of such crimes

يهدف البحث على تشخيص طبيعة البيئة الداخلية للعوامل الأدارية (الموارد المتاحة، والعمليات الإدارية) وعوامل البيئية الخارجية المحيطة بالنظام الإداري.واستطلاع واقع عناصر Anti-ML (أسباب الأنتشار، والمؤشرات الدالة، الدور الرقابي، المعوقات).وتشخيص دور المكافحة على MLS بأبعادها (التوظيف ، الخلط، الاندماج) في محاولة أضفاء الشرعية على ML ، واستطلاع مدى تأثيرات مراقبة الامتثال، وتأثير (IT) الحديثة على Anti- ML، في الحد من التأثير السلبي على الاقتصاد العراقي. شملت الدراسة عينة (57) شخصاً من التخصصات الأكاديمية ذات الصلة، والقيادات الإدارية، ومراقبي الامتثال في البنوك.أظهرت النتائج هناك انتشارا دراماتيكيا ML في العراق ، وكانت نسبته 85٪، وان المصادر الرئيسية في ML هو تهريب النفط ، والمشاريع الوهمية لأعادة الإعمار، وعصابات الخطف والابتزاز، وأظهرت النتائج أن العناصر (أسباب الأنتشار، الدور الرقابي) أحتلت المرتبة الأولى في مستوى الحد من فعالية Anti-ML ، وجاء بعدها (المؤشرات الدالة ، والمعوقات). كما حقق بعد (التوظيف) الدرجة الأولى في تسهيل عملية ML، وجاء بعدها (الخلط ، الاندماج)، وهناك تأثير للعوامل الإدارية في Anti-ML ، أذ لعبت الموارد المتاحة دور المتغير المُعدْل في دور Anti-ML.يوصي البحث أن تكون المؤسسات المالية قادرة على تبادل المعلومات مع تلك المؤسسات في الدول الأخرى في التعرف على عملائها، وتحديد الضوابط على أساس درجة المخاطر، ويجب على البنك التحقق من "هوية العميل" ، في رصد المعاملات عن أي نشاط مشبوه. وغالبا ما يطلق على هذا اسم "اعرف عميلك”، وتدريب موظفي البنك على Anti-ML ، وحفظ السجلات ووضع التعليمات والإبلاغ عن الأنشطة المشبوهة. واعتماد IT الحديثة الذي تساعد مراقبي الامتثال على Anti-ML من أجل الكشف والإبلاغ عن تلك الجرائم.

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