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Article
Correlation of HER-2 Status with Estrogen, Progesterone Receptors and Histological Grading in 122 Invasive Breast Carcinomas
ارتباط حالة HER-2 مع هرمون الاستروجين ، مستقبلات البروجسترون والدرجات النسيجية في 122 سرطان الثدى الغازي

Author: Salah A. Ali
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2009 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-7
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and Objectives: Many laboratory & clinical studies have suggested that there are important inverse relationships between expression of HER-2 oncoprotein and hormonal receptors(ER,PR),the prognosis & treatment are also greatly depend on hormonal receptor of neoplastic cells to define these relationships using standard immunohistochemistry for HER-2,ER and PR studies were performed in addition to routine histopahtological grading of carcinoma of the breast.Methods: Between January 2006 and December 2008 at histopathology lab of Rezgary hospital & private lab, (122) women who were operated on for diagnostic excisional biopsies of the breast cancers to allow analysis of routinely resected tissue. Quantitative expression of HER-2,ER and PR was measured on the resected samples of the breast cancers with cutoff points HER-2,ER and PR positivity were 10.6%,5.5%,5% respectively in addition to routine study of histopathology for grading of cancers according to Nottingham modified Bloom & Richardson criteria.Results: Immunohistochemical analysis for ER, PR, and HER-2 were performed. ER and PR expression were decreased significantly in HER-2 positive tumors compared with HER- 2 negative tumors (ER,15.57%,vs 41.8% vs. and PR, 13.11% vs. 37.70%;). Even among HER-2+ tumors, the rate of ER or PR expression in high-grade tumors was significantly decreased compared with intermediate grade tumors. HER-2 was positive in 73.3% of grade 2 and 66.6% of grade 3 ductal carcinomas and 6.89 in grade 1 ductal carcinomas. HER-2 expression essentially in grades 2 and 3 ductal carcinomas, very few cases in grade 1 and correlated inversely with ER or PR expression. Although ER or PR expression is decreased in HER-2+ tumors, a substantial proportion of them still express ER or PR.Conclusions: The results of this study are consistent with the indication of inverse relationships between HER-2 and ER,PR increased ER and PR levels in low grade neoplastic tissue ,the low grade neoplasms responding to hormonal therapy while high grade responding to hormonal therapy while high grage responding to herceptin

Keywords

HER-2 --- ER --- PR --- breast cancers


Article
Bond Strength of Resin Composite to Laser Treated Dentin Using Different Adhesive Systems (An in vitro study)

Authors: Zena A. Ahmed --- Makdad N. Chakmakchi
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2015 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 405-411
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the effect of three different adhesive systems on shear bond strength of composite resin to Er,Cr:YSGG lased dentin. Materials and methods: Twenty one sound third molars were used. Occlusal third of crowns was cut using minitom machine to expose flat dentin surface. Laser irradiation was performed on a circular test area demarcated on each dentin surface. Samples randomly assigned to three groups (n=7) according to the adhesive systems that used which were: total etch adhesive (Adper single bond, 3M ESPE), two step self etch adhesive (Clearfil SE bond, Kurary), and all in one adhesive (Adper easy one, 3M ESPE). Adhesives were applied to the lased dentin surface according to manufacture instruction. Composite rod was applied over the bonded area and cured. Samples were stored in distilled water at 370for 24 hours. The evaluation of shear bond strength was employed by the use of universal testing machine. Results: Statistical analysis of data by analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and Duncanes multiple range test revealed no significant difference in the shear bond strength between the adhesive systems (P≤ 0.05). Conclusions: The results show that all the tested adhesive systems have relatively the same effect on the shear bond strength of composite resin to lased dentin surface.

Keywords

Dentin --- Er --- Cr:YSGG laser --- adhesive system.


Article
Effect of phenolic compound extract of Artemisia herba alba on the Ultra- structural and BCl2 expression
تأثير مستخلص الفينولية مجمع شيح هربا ألبا على التعبير التركيبية وBCl2

Authors: Ahmed H.AL-Azam احمد العزام --- Nahi Y. Yaseen ناهي ياسين --- Jinan M. AL-Zahid جنان الزاهد
Journal: Al-Kufa University Journal for Biology مجلة جامعة الكوفة لعلوم الحياة ISSN: 20738854 23116544 Year: 2015 Volume: 7 Issue: 3 Pages: 75-81
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

The results of the IHC showed there was positive expression for bcl2 in the control group with high score (++) high and this expression will decrease with the increase of the dose of the PC extract in the treated group .And the results of the ultrastructural examination by using TEM showed there was increase in the N/C ratio, well developed ER, increase number of variably sized mitochondria in the control group while the treated group revealed there was many vacuoles in the cytoplasm , plasma membrane blebbing and formation the apoptotic bodies. From our study we concluded that there was clear effect on the ultrastructural after using PC as anti- tumor.

وأظهرت نتائج IHC كان هناك تعبير إيجابي لbcl2 في السيطرة على المجموعة مع درجة عالية (++) مرتفعة وهذا التعبير ستنخفض مع زيادة جرعة من مستخلص الكمبيوتر في المجموعة المعالجة. ونتائج التركيبية وأظهر الفحص باستخدام تيم كان هناك زيادة في ن نسبة / C، ER متطورة، وزيادة عدد الميتوكوندريا الحجم بنسب مختلفة في المجموعة الضابطة في حين كشفت المجموعة التي تلقت العلاج هناك العديد من الفجوات في السيتوبلازم، blebbing غشاء البلازما وتشكيل الهيئات أفكارك . من دراستنا استنتجنا أن هناك تأثير واضح على التركيبية بعد استخدام الكمبيوتر كما المضادة للورم.

Keywords

IHC --- bcl2 --- the N/C --- ratio ER --- IHC --- bcl2 --- the N/C --- ratio ER


Article
Breast Cancer Subtypes among Iraqi Patients: Identified by Their ER PR and HER2 Status
تحدديد النوع الفرعي لسرطان الثدي عند المرضي العراقيين باستخدام معلمات الأورام ER, PR, HER2

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Abstract

Background: Breast cancer ranks the first among the Iraqi population since three decades and is currently forming a major public health problem being the second cause of death women. Novel management of breast cancer depends upon precise evaluation of their molecular subtypes; identified by Hormone (Estrogen and Progesterone) receptors and HER2 contents of the primary tumor.Objective: To assess the rates of the different molecular breast cancer subtypes in the examined tissue specimens belonging to females diagnosed with breast cancer in Iraq; correlating the findings with those reported in the literature at the regional and global levels.Patients and Methods: This retrospective study documented the findings of tissue biopsy examination belonging to 686 female patients diagnosed with breast cancer. Formalin fixed paraffin-embedded blocks were utilized to assess the availability of Estrogen receptors (ER), Progesterone receptors (PR) and HER2 expressions through semi quantitative immuno-histochemical staining technique. Breast carcinomas were classified into four main molecular subtypes: Luminal A: ER/PR(+) / HER2(-), Luminal B/Triple Positive: ER/PR(+) / HER2(+), Non-Luminal HER-2 enriched: ER/PR(-) / HER2(+) and Non-Luminal/Triple Negative: ER/PR(-) and HER2(-). Other phenotypes included: ER(+)/PR(-) / HER2(+), ER(-)/PR(+) / HER2 (+), ER (+)/PR (-) / HER2 (-) and ER (-)/PR (+) / HER2 (-).Results: Out of the exanimated cases of breast carcinomas, the registered rates of positive ER, PR and HER2 tumor contents in this study were 67.8%, 65.3% and 29.4% respectively. The main identified phenotype was the Luminal A in 309 cases (45%). That was followed by the Triple Negative in 107 cases (15.6%) and Triple Positive/Luminal B (96 cases, 14%), while 71 cases (10.3%) were HER2 enriched. The corresponding rates of the (E+/P-/H+), (E-/P+/H+), (E+/P-/H-) and (E-/P+/H-) subtypes were 3.1%, 2.0%., 5.7% and 4.2% respectively. Differences in in the expressions of these IHC molecular markers are illustrated among different countries.Conclusions: Due to the displayed variations in the socio-demographic characteristics and biological risk factors among patients in different populations, it is mandatory to identify the molecular marker subtypes of breast cancer expressions in order to assess the impact of management and response to therapy. The routine documentation of their patterns in the cancer registry reports and published research ensures the validity and reliability of the presented clinical data.Keywords: Breast, Cancer, Subtypes, ER, PR, HER2, Iraqi Patients.

الخلاصةالخلفية: سرطان الثدي يحتل المرتبة الأولى بين السكان العراقيين منذ ثلاثة عقود، ويشكل حاليا مشكلة صحية رئيسية حيث يعتبر السبب الثاني للوفاة عند النساء. تعتمد أسس العلاج الجديدة لسرطان الثدي على التقييم الدقيق لأنواعها الفرعية الجزيئية و التي تحددها مستويات مستقبلات هرمون (الاستروجين والبروجسترون) ومحتويات HER2 في الورم الرئيسي.الهدف من الدراسة: تقييم معدلات مختلف الأنواع الفرعية لسرطان الثدي الجزيئي في عينات الأنسجة التي تم فحصها والتي تخص الإناث المصابات بسرطان الثدي في العراق؛ وربط النتائج مع تلك المسجلة على الصعيدين الإقليمي والعالميالمرضى والطرق: وثقت هذه الدراسة بأثر رجعي نتائج فحص خزعة الأنسجة التي تنتمي إلى 686 مريضة مشخصة بسرطان الثدي. واستخدمت لتقييم توافر مستقبلات الاستروجين (ER)، مستقبلات البروجسترون (PR) والتعبيرات HER2 من خلال تقنية الطيخ المناعي شبه الكمي. تم تصنيف سرطان الثدي إلى أربعة أنواع فرعية جزيئية رئيسية: Luminal A: ER/PR(+) / HER2(-), Luminal B/Triple Positive: ER/PR(+) / HER2(+), Non-Luminal HER-2 enriched: ER/PR(-) / HER2(+) and Non-Luminal/Triple Negative: ER/PR(-) and HER2(-). و انواع اخرى ER(+)/PR(-) / HER2(+), ER(-)/PR(+) / HER2 (+), ER (+)/PR (-) / HER2 (-) and ER (-)/PR (+) / HER2 (-).النتائج: من بين حالات سرطان الثدي المهددة، كانت المعدلات المسجلة لمحتوى الأورام الموجبة ER, PR و HER2 في هذه الدراسة 67.8٪ و 65.3٪ و 29.4٪ على التوالي. وكان النمط الظاهري المحدد الرئيسي اللمعية A في 309 حالات (45٪). وأعقب ذلك السلبي الثلاثي في 107 حالات (15.6٪) وثلاثية إيجابية / لومينال B (96 حالة، 14٪)، في حين أن 71 حالة (10.3٪) كانت HER2 المخصب. وكانت المعدلات المقابلة من (E + / P- / H +)، (E / P + / H +)، (E + / P- / H-) و (E / P + / H-) فرعية 3.1٪، 2.0٪. ، و 5.7٪ و 4.2٪ على التوالي. وتظهر الاختلافات في التعبير عن هذه العلامات الجزيئية بين مختلف البلدان.الاستنتاجات والتوصيات: نظرا للاختلافات المعروضة في الخصائص الاجتماعية الديموغرافية وعوامل الخطر البيولوجية بين المرضى في مختلف السكان، فمن الضروري تحديد الأنواع الفرعية الجزيئية من تعبيرات سرطان الثدي من أجل تقييم تأثير الاستجابة للعلاج . ان التوثيق الروتيني لأنماط سرطان الثدي في تقارير سجل السرطان والبحوث المنشورة يضمن صحة ودقة البيانات السريرية ذات العلاقة.مفتاح الكلمات: سرطان الثدي ، الانواع الفرعية ، ER, PR, HER2 ، المرضى العراقيين.


Article
Calculations of Long Pulsed Lasers for Lithotripsy

Author: Murooj N. Mohammad Ali
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2011 Volume: 29 Issue: 1 Pages: 72-81
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Urinary stone fragmentation with long pulsed Ho:YAG laser (wave lengthequal 2.1 μm) and Er:YAG laser (wave length equal 2.94 μm) investigated in thispaper.Fragmentation efficiency of these two lasers is measured by using various energysettings. Laser induced crater depth and ablation volume for both lasers wereexamined and compared using mathematical model. Theoretical results werecompared with experimental results obtained by Hyun Wook Kang.The study shows that the theoretical results and experimental results arecomparable, and the crater depth when using Er:YAG laser was more than that onHo:YAG laser.


Article
The Influence of Er: YAG Laser, Alumi-num oxide and diamond bur on surface treatment of Aged Composite Resin to Repair Restoration

Author: Nadia H Hasan
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 257-265
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Er: YAG Laser, the sand blasted with aluminum oxide and wearing with diamond bur as a surface treatment to the bond strength of repaired composite resin after aged. Materials and Methods: Sixty Teflon mold (4mm×2mm), of Tetric® Ceram prepared. The specimens were randomly separated into six groups and undergo the following surface treatments: G1 no treatment (control), G2-G4 treated with a different amount of laser energy (40, 60, 80 mJ Er: YAG laser respectively) under a 2Hz frequency, G5 wearing with diamond bur, and G6 sandblasted with 50μm aluminum oxide. All 6 groups divided into two subgroups,1st control,2ed etched with 37% phosphoric acid. Bonding material was applied and the second split of Teflon mold (4mm×1mm) placed onto the prepared specimen, filled with Tetric N-Ceram. The shear test was done using the Uni-versal testing machine. Results: Significant differences of all variables, laser 60,40mj surface treatment displayed superior shear strength (45.24, 45.03 MPa respectively), aluminum oxide showed low shear value (32.48 MPa). Phosphoric acid showed the highest shear value (40.47 MPa) in compare to the control one (31.62 MPa). Conclusions: Using of Er:YAG laser improve the shear value of repaired composite in comparing with a diamond bur and aluminum oxide. Conditioning aged composite surface with a phosphoric acid enhancing its adhesive result.


Article
A study of the prevalence of Estrogen & Progesterone Receptor markers positivity in female breast cancer cases in Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital

Author: Maitham M. Al-Khateeb
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 58-65
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Breast cancer accounts for 26% of all new cases of cancer among women and is the leading cause of death in those aged between 20-59 years, Estrogen and Progesterone receptors play an important role in the development and prognosis of breast cancer, their measurement by immunohistochemical assay is vital in the hormonal management of breast cancer. Aims: To estimate the prevalence of Estrogen and Progesterone receptors positivity in female breast cancer cells in Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital. Patients & methods: A prospective study for breast cancer cases in females in Al- Yarmouk Teaching Hospital for the period from 1st of July 2009 to 31st of December 2010 , By using immunohistochemical study in the Histopathological department of Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital , the results were correlated with age of the patients, tumor size, grade and tumor histopathological type. Results: Total No. of patients studied were fifty. During the study, the age frequency was higher in the postmenopausal group (54%); the Estrogen Receptor (ER) +ve highest content (55.55%) was observed in that group, the Progesteron (PR) +ve highest level (52.17%) was observed in a premenopausal group (46%),Receptor positivity in Tumor size of the favorable type means equal to or less than 5 cm present in (92%) of the cases in which ER+ve level (58.69%) is the highest in that type, while the PR+ve level was (50%) in the unfavorable type means size above 5 cm which represent (8%) of the total cases. Regarding the relation with Tumor Grade the frequency of Receptors positivity in grade II (56%) more than grade I (24%) then grade III (20%), The highest ER+ve level (75%) was observed in grade I while PR+ve highest level (42.85%) in grade II, In studying the histopathological types the most prevalent type is infiltrative duct carcinoma (I.D.C) (62%) which have the highest ER+ve level (64.51%) while PR+ve level (42.10%) was high in infiltrative lobular carcinoma (I.L.C) type. Conclusions: Breast cancer in this hospital has the same pattern of age incidence worldwide and histopathological type but of the more favorable type with lower Grade of malignancy. This reflects a changing trend towards less aggressive pattern. The variability of ER & PR positive contents in this study needs further studies to compare our results with because the Iraqi cancer registry lacks data on hormonal receptor contents of breast cancer cases.


Article
Acceleration of canine movement by laser assisted flapless corticotomy [An innovative approach in clinical orthodontics

Authors: Lina H. Salman --- Fakhri Abid Ali فخري عبد علي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 3 Pages: 133-137
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Corticotomy-assisted orthodontic treatment is done to induce a state of increased tissue turnover andtransient osteopenia, which is followed by a faster rate of orthodontic tooth movement. It considered as an adjuncttreatment option for orthodontic treatment of adults. The aim of this Study was to elucidate the effectiveness of anew surgical approach for acceleration of maxillary canine retraction in human with laser assisted flaplesscorticotomy and evaluate its effect on vitality of pulp and gingival sulcus depth.Materials and methods: the sample comprised of 15 Iraqi patients (9 females and 6 males; mean age 21.7), whowere required extraction for their maxillary first premolars followed by retraction of the canines as part of theirorthodontic treatment plan. The study was designed as a split-mouth study. Decortications were done in the secondstage of orthodontic treatment using Er:YAG laser to perform series of holes mesially and distally to the canine at theside with more space between the canine and second premolar without reflecting a surgical flap. The net caninemovements and molar anchorage loss were calculated after six weeks. Vitality test, radiographical assessment andgingival sulcus depth were investigated.Results and Conclusions: The canines on the laser corticotomy side showed statisticaly higher mean value ofretraction than their controls during six weeks period. Pulp vitality response and post surgery gingival sulcus depthshowed no significant difference between the pre-laser and post-laser surgery. Based on the result of our study,flapless laser assisted corticotomy can be considered for acceleration of orthodontic tooth movement in humans

یؤدي نزع قشرة العظم الجراحي ل دعم المعالج ھ التقویمی ھ للاس نان ال ى حال ھ م ن زی ادة مع دل الانت اج النس یجي و نقص ان العظ م المؤق ت. ال ذي یتبع ھ ازدی اد س ریع ف ي مع دل الحرك ةالتقویمیھ للاسنان.وتعتبر كخیار مساعد للعلاج التقویمي للبالغین.الھدف من الدراسھ : لتقییم فعالیھ تدخل جراحي جدید من نوعھ لتس ریع حرك ھ الن اب العل وي ف ي الانس ان بواس طھ تقش یر العظ م جراحی ا ب دون رف ع س دیلھ جراحی ھ وباس تخدام اللی زروتقییم تاثیرھا على حیویھ لب السن و عمق اخدود اللثھ المحیط بالسن.المواد والطرق: تكونت عینة الدراسھ من 15 مریض عراقي ( 9 اناث , 6 ذكور, معدل العمر 21.7 ) الذین كان القلع الجراح ي للاس نان الض احكھ العلوی ھ الاول ى م ع س حب لاح قلانیاب الفك العلوي جزئا من الخطھ التقویمیھ لعلاجھم. تمت عملیة نزع قشرة العظ م ف ي المرحل ھ الثانی ھ م ن الع لاج التق ویمي باس تعمال اللی زر لعم ل سلس لة م ن الثق وب للجھ ھ الدانی ھوالقاصیھ للناب والضاحك الثاني العلویین في جھة الفك التي تكون فیھا المسافھ بین الناب والضاحك الثاني اكبر بینما ابقی ت الجھ ة الثانی ة م ن الف ك كعنص ر ثاب ت للمقارن ھ.ت م احتس ابحصیلة حركھ الناب وفقدان المقاومھ للطواحن بعد ستة اسابیع وتم التحري عن حیویة لب الاسنان , التقییم بواسطة الاشعة السینیھ واحتساب عم ق اخ دود اللث ھ المح یط بالس ن ف ي ھ ذهالدراسة .النتائج: احصائیا اظھرت الجھة المقشره باللیزر قیم معدل عالیھ للسحب مقارنةبالجھة غیر الجراحیھ خ لال فت رة س تة اس ابیع. ك ذلك لا یوج د ف رق ف ي فق دان مقاوم ة الط واحن م ا ب ینالجانبین. لم یكن ھناك فرق كبیر بین عمق اخدود اللثھ وقیم الاستجابھ الحیویھ للب السن قبل وبعد الجراحھ اللیزریھ.الاستنتاج: استنادا لنتائج دراستنا ھذه تبین ان التقشیر الجراحي للعظم بدون رفع سدیلھ جراحیھ وباستخدام اللیزر یمكن اعتباره وسیلة لتسریع الحركة التقویمیھ للاسنان في الانسان.


Article
Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resin Bonded to Enamel Etched with Er; Cr : YSGG Laser: A Comparative in vitro Study

Author: Qasim Abdulkareem Mohammad
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Pages: 610 -622
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Eighty sound bovine incisors have been selected for this study, and divided into eight groups (N=10). The labial enamel of group 1 was conventionally etched by 37% phosphoric acid, group 2 roughened with diamond bur then acid etched, group 3, 5, and 7 etched by Er;Cr:YSG Glaser with a power of 1W, 2W and 3W respectively, groups 4, 6 and 8 same as groups 3, 5 and 7 but followed by acid etching. After that self-etching bonding agent applied and cured then a composite core made and loaded till failure. One-way AVOVA test showed significant differences between groups (p<0.05). Duncan multiple range post-hoc test showed that the SBS mean value for group 3 was (5.8±1.2 MPa), and the group 4 (9.7±1.6) which was significantly higher than group 3, but both of them were significantly lower than other groups. There were no significant differences among group 5 (15.6±1.2), group 7 (16±1.1) and group 1 (17.1±2.6). No significant differences were found among group 2 (21.2±1.9), group 6 (21.3±2.2) and group 8 (22.6±1.5), and these three groups were significantly more retentive than all other groups in this study. Conclusions: 1W laser etching produced the least SBS. 2W and 3W laser etching can substitute acid etching, but they give better results as good as bur roughened+acid etching if they followed by acid etching.


Article
In Vitro Comparative Assessment of Composite Nanoleakage Using Various Dentine Surface Treatments

Authors: Mohammed H. Abbood محمد عبود --- Raghad A. Al-Hashimi رغد الهاشمي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 4 Pages: 49-55
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The treatment of dental tissues proceeding to adhesive procedures is a crucial step in the bonding protocol and decides the clinical success ofrestorations. This study was conducted in vitro, with the aim of evaluating thenanoleakage on the interface between the adhesive system and the dentine treated by five surface modalities using scanning electron microscopy and energydispersiveX-ray spectrometry.Materials and methods: Twenty five extracted premolars teeth were selected in the study. Standardized class V cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces then the teeth divided into five main groups of (5 teeth in each group n=10) according to the type of dentine surface treatment that was used: Group (A): dentine was conditioning with Er, Cr: YSGG laser. Group (B): dentine was conditioning with (Er, Cr: YSGG laser + acid). Group (C): dentine was conditioning with (acid + Er, Cr: YSGG laser). Group (D): dentine was conditioning with acid etch. Group (E): dentine was conditioning with acid + 10% sodium hypochlorite. For All the teeth SBMP adhesive were used and restored with Z250 composite restoration then all specimens were subjected to thermocycling 500 cycles, at 5° to 55 °C. The teeth were soaked in silver nitrate suspension. Then the teeth sectioned bucco-lingually across the centre of the restorations. The specimens were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and the amount of nanoleakage was measured by EDX spectro-analysis to identify the existence of metallic silver particles.Results: Data were analysed statistically by one way ANOVA test and (LSD) Tests. The results showed that there were statistically highly significant differences among all groups of the present study.The resultshowed that the acid and laser (group III) exhibited the lowest mean value of nanoleakage at around (6.14 %), whereas the highest mean value of nanoleakage (12.83 %) was determined by the only acid (group IV).Conclusions: Treating the acid etched dentine with Er: Cr: YSGG laser showed promising results as it exhibits lowest amount of nanoleakage of the adhesive bonding system

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