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Article
Diffusion‐weighted MRI in patients with acute stroke

Author: Sahar Basim Ahmed
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 7-11
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Acute stroke is an abrupt non‐traumatic brain insult, caused byeither brain infarction (75%) or hemorrhage (25%).Aim of the Study: To compare the sensitivity of Diffusion ‐ weighted imaging(DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map in detection of acutestroke with sensitivity of conventional MRI study.Patients &methods: Thirty ‐ eight patients (24 male and 14 female with agerange between 43‐90 years) with a clinically suggestive stroke and negativeCT‐scan, all patients referred for MRI study within 4‐40 hours [mean of 17 hrs]of acute attack. brain MRI was performed for these patients. Starting withconventional MRI sequences done followed by diffusion weighted in thesame study and follow up clinically afterwards. The study was conducted ina general hospital in Baghdad from January 2012 to January 2013 .Ratios werecalculated between the apparent diffusion coefficient value of normalappearing brain in the right & left hemispheres & between apparent diffusioncoefficient value of the ischemic area & the corresponding contralateralregion .Results: With diffusion ‐ weighted images , 100% of the ischemic lesionswere detected, and with fluid‐attenuated inversion recovery, 73.7% weredetected, whereas with early T2‐weighted or T1‐weighted, only 52.6 % and21% of lesions were detected , respectively , using McNemar test we foundstatistically significant differences in sensitivity between Diffusion weightedimages and T1W (p


Article
Lapaoscopy, as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in the management of patients with nonpalpable testes
دور المنظار كاداة تشخيصية و علاجية في علاج مرضى الخصى غير المحسوسة

Author: Waseem A. Elkatib
Journal: journal of kerbala university مجلة جامعة كربلاء ISSN: 18130410 Year: 2015 Volume: 13 Issue: 4 Pages: 58-65
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

Background: So far there is much debate as to the next move to be done when nonpalpable testes (NPT) are encountered. Some advocate imaging methods as ultrasonography (US), CT, or MRI. However, none of these has demonstrated to be 100% dependable in predicting the presence or absence of a testis. On the other hand, laparoscopy can be diagnostic and therapeutic as well. Methods: 28 patients with 39 NPT were enrolled. A preoperative US and MRI were performed for all patients followed by laparoscopic exploration. Results: Of the 39 NPT, 23 (59%) were intra-abdominal. Seventeen (44%) of these were viable intra-abdominal and underwent orchidopexy, 6 (15%) were atretic and eventually excised, while 8 (20.5%) were absent or vanishing. In contrast, 8 (20.5%) testes were found to be inguinal, three (7.7%) of them were viable, and 5 (12.8%) were atrophic, and ultimately excised. US localized 17 (43.6%) of these nonpalpable testes, while laparoscopy localized 31 (79.5%) testes, with a P-value of <0.01. In comparison to laparoscopy, MRI localized only 21(53.8%) of these testes with a P-value of < 0.05. Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of US and MRI were (54.8%, 12.5%, and 46.1%), and (67.7%, 50%, and 64.1%) respectively. Seven viable intra-abdominal testes (18%) were fixed with one-stage orchidopexy, and 10 (25.6%) testes were fixed with two-stage orchidopexy. Three viable inguinal testes (7.7%) underwent inguinal orchidopexy. Totally 11 (28.2%) testes were excised (6 intra-abdominal and 5 inguinal), while eight testes (20.5%) were vanishing. Additionally 4 hernias (10.3%) were simultaneously repaired inguinally. Conclusion: Neither US nor MRI correctly localize a true NPT. In contrast, laparoscopy is safe, precise, and aids in subsequent surgical planning

المقدمة: لحد الأن هنالك الكثير من الجدل حول الخطوة القادمة التي يجب اتخاذها عندما نواجه حالة الخصية الغير محسوسة.البعض ينصح باستعمال طرق التصوير مثل التصوير بالامواج فوق الصوتية و الرنين المغناطيسي والمفراس الحلزوني. على الرغم من ذلك,ولا واحدة من هذه الطرق تبينت انها معتمدة 100% في توقع وجود او عدم وجود الخصية, من ناحية اخرى من الممكن ان يكون الناظور تشخيصي وعلاجي بنفس الوقت.الطرق:28 مريض كانت لديهم 39 خصية غير محسوسة سجلوا في هذه الدراسة.جميعهم اجري لهم التصوير بالموجات فوق الصوتية والرنين المغناطيسي, بعدها اجري لهم الناظور التشخيصي.النتائج: من 39 خصية غير ملموسة, 23(59%) كانت داخل البطن, 17(44%) منها كانت حية وخضعت لعملية تنزيل خصية, 6(15%) كانت مضمحلة وتمت ازالتها, بينما 8(20.5%) كانت غير موجودة او متلاشية. من ناحية اخرى 8(20.5%) منها كانت مغبنية, 3(7.7%) كانت حية و 5(12.8%) كانت مضمحلة وبالتالي تمت ازالتها. التصوير بالموجات فوق الصوتية حدد موقع 17(43.6%) من الخصى, بينما الناظور استطاع تحديد موقع 31(79.5%) منهاP<0.05) ( بالمقارنة بالناظور الرنين حدد موقع 21 (53.8%) من الخصى فقط P<0.05) (عموما ,الحساسية والخصوصية والدقة للسونار والرنين كانت (54.8% ,12,5% , 46.1%) و(76,7%, 50% , 64,1%) على التوالي. سبعة من الخصى الغير ملموسة (18%) تم تثبيتها بمرحلة واحدة, وعشرة (25,6%) ثبتت بمرحلتين لتنزيل الخصية , ثلاثة(7.7%) من الخصى مغبنية حية اجري لها تنزيل خصية مغبني. بصورة اجمالية 11(28.2%) من الخصى تمت ازالتها (ستة منها داخل البطن و5 مغبنية), بينما 8(20,5%) من الخصى كانت متلاشية. بالاضافة لهذا اربعة فتوق (10.3%) تم تصليحها بنفس الوقت في المنطقة المغبنية.الاستنتاج: لا التصوير بالمواج فوق الصوتية ولا الرنين المغناطيسي تمكن بصورة صحيحة من تحديد موقع الخصية الغير ملموسة, وبالمقابل, الناظور امين, دقيق, ويساعد في التخطيط الجراحي اللاحق


Article
Findings of magnetic resonance imaging of lumbosacral spine in chronic lower back pain

Authors: Jabir Hasan Obaid Al.Shami جاب حسن عبيد الشامي --- Amjaad Majeed Hameed أمجاد مجيد حميد
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal مجلة القادسية الطبية ISSN: 18170153 Year: 2015 Volume: 11 Issue: 20 Pages: 98-104
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Background :Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine is a safe and painless scan that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed pictures of the lumbar spine (the bones, disks, and other structures in the lower back), MRI of the lumbar spine can be useful in evaluating symptoms such as lower back pain, leg pain, numbness, tingling or weakness or problems with bladder and bowel control. It can also help to diagnose tumors, bleeding, swelling, developmental or structural abnormalities and infections or inflammatory conditions in the vertebrae or surrounding tissues.Aim of study :To detect the cause of chronic lower back pain in patients referring from different departments in our hospital like Orthopaedics, Rheumatology , Surgery & neurology.*Patients & method : About 50 patients selected from February 2011 to December 2011 all of them are complaining from chronic lower back pain referring from different departments. Average age from 23 to 70 year, 31 were male &19 were female, the patients were classified according to their age, sex, occupation, past history of trauma, medical disease & previous surgery.*Results Twenty sex of patients (52%) were diagnosed as a PIVD (prolapsed intervertebral discs) at the level of L4-5 & L5-S1, ten(20%) of them diagnosed as degenerative disease of the discs, five patients (10%) diagnosed as Straitening of Spine ( Muscular Spasm), 2 (4%) of them diagnosed as secondary metastases in L1& 2 vertebral bodies, 3 (6%) of them diagnosed as infected disk with gibbus deformity in lower dorsal spines & 4 (8%) had normal lumbosacral spine .*Conclusion:1.High incidence of abnormal MRI study in patients with chronic low back pain . 2.Highest percent of patients with chronic back pain had disc herniation follow by other pathology .

يعتبر الرنين المغناطيسي من الفحوصات المهمة والدفيفة لتشخيص أسباب الآم الظهر وذلك لإظهاره التفاصيل المتعلقة بالفقرات والغضاريف والعضلات المتعذرة حصولها في الأشعة السينية او المفراس الحلزوني إضافة انه امين وغير مؤذ ولا يعتمد على الأشعة ولكن باستخدام المجال المغناطيسي والموجات الرادويةهدف الدراسة: لمعرفة أسباب آلام الظهر المزمن عند المرضى المحالين من استشاريات المفاصل والكسور والجملة العصبية والجراحةالمرضى والطرق: تضمنت الدراسة اخذ عينة 50 مريض من مختلف الاستشاريات احيلو الى وحدة الرنين المغناطيسي في م. الديوانية التعليمي اعتبارا من شباط الى كانون الاول 2011يعانون من الم الظهر ومعدل عمر 15-70 سنة ,31 من الرجال 19 من النساء وصنفوا المرضى حسب العمر والجنس والمهنة والحوادث ومختلف الأمراض ا لأخرى.النتائج : اظهرت الدراسة ان 26 مريض (52%) شخصوا انزلاق غضروفي قطني بين الفقرات القطنية الرابعة والخامسة والعجزية الاولى ,10 من المرضى(20%) شخصوا من تغيرات انحطاطية في الغضروف والفقرات , 5 من المرضى (10%) شخصوا تشنج عضلي ,2 من المرضى (4%) شخصوا انتشار ثانوي من اورام اولية , 3 من المرضى (6%) التهاب فقري, 4 (8%) كانت نتائج الرنين طبعيه. الاستنتاجات : .نسبه عاليه من المرضى اللذين لديهم آلام الظهر المزمن لديهم ايجادات ايجابيه في فحص الرنين


Article
Adoption of Geometric Properties to Detect Herniated Spinal Disc of Human

Author: Sundos A. Al_Azawi
Journal: Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science مجلة علوم المستنصرية ISSN: 1814635X Year: 2017 Volume: 28 Issue: 3 Pages: 187-192
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Image analysis and processing is useful in the medical images field, especially with the use of magnetic resonance images (MRI). In this research, MRI of the human’s spine was analyzed and processed to identify and detect the herniated spinal Disc, or the probability of occurrence in the future. Lumbar and sacrum regions have been applied by the system. The system composed from three phases, the first is to identify the lumbar and sacrum regions, the second phase is the measuring of geometric properties, and finally the third phase is to detect the presence or the probability of herniated to occur in the future.


Article
Orthodontic Treatment and Temporomandibular Joint Condylar Position Relationship with Disk Displacement (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study)

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Abstract

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a complex synovial articulation between the mandibular condyle and the glenoid fossa of temporal bone. The question of whether a relationship exists between orthodontic treatment, abnormal condyle and disk position, and temporomandibular disorders has been investigated for many years. Despite the abundance of studies, the question continues to trouble orthodontists.This study conducted to assess the relationship between orthodontic treatments, abnormal condyle and disk position, with temporomandibular disorders, and to study the disk- condyle relationship in term of presence or absence of anterior disk displacement. By mean of Magnetic Resonance Imaging a cross sectional investigation for the condyles of temporomandibular joints (TMJs) and disk position was conducted to 50 TMJs of 25 patients between 19-30 years of age who had undergone orthodontic treatment (by upper and lower fixed orthodontic appliances with extraction of maxillary first premolar only for treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion), and 50 TMJs of 25 patients who had not yet received orthodontic treatment from the same class and matched age group.The results of this study showed that 30% of pre-treatment group have anterior disk displacement in comparison to 26.0% of the post treatment group. The condyle position is more concentric in post treatment group than pre-treatment, and the position of the disk is not affected by orthodontic treatment. This conclude that condyle position of the TMJ may be affected by orthodontic treatment, but the disk position is not.


Article
Cranioplasty: Comparison Between Utilizing Titanium Mesh, Prefabricated Polymethyl methacrylate and Autograft Bone.
تقويم القحف: دراسة مقارنة بين استخدام شبكة التيتانيم ومادة البولي مثيل ميثا اكريليت المعدة مسبقا والعظم ذاتي الطعم

Author: Hisham Maddah Al-Alousi هشام مداح الالوسي
Journal: Al- Anbar Medical Journal مجلة الأنبار الطبية ISSN: PISSN: 27066207 / EISSN: 26643154 Year: 2012 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 28-34
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

Background: A Cranioplasty is the term for any operation in which a defect of the skull bone is repaired. A traumatic injury is often the reason , but there are other reasons including previous tumour surgery or surgery for some forms of stroke. Aim Of Study: The aim of this study is to compare between the using of titanium mish, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and Autograft bone in cranioplasty. Material And Method: In our study 20 patients , 12 males (60%) and 8 females (40%), ages ranged for 15-45 years, were subjected to cranioplasty that were performed to achieve morphological and functional rehabilitation of the cranial vault using ;polymethylmethacrylate ,titanium mish and autograft bone. Our patients underwent elective delayed cranioplasty in Al-Ramadi Teaching Hospital during the period from December 2006 to December 2010.Results: Although the use of titanium may cause artifact on computed tomography (CT scans) ,which can limit follow –up imaging studies, but our study proved that the use of titanium is remarkable. Prefabricated PMMA prostheses are effective for cranioplasty, so reduced surgical time, reduced surgical blood loss and technical simplicity. The infection rate associated with use of prefabricated PMMA prostheses is lower than that for autograft bone flaps. All patients were highly satisfied with the cosmetic appearance ,Cranioplasty was carried out with no major complication except in two cases.Conclusion: The use of titanium mesh for cranioplasty is a good alternative in spite of the disadvantages, causing an artifact on CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) , and it's expensiveness. Prefabricated PMMA prostheses are effective for cranioplasty in respect to reduced surgical time, reduced surgical blood loss and technical simplicity. The infection rate associated with use of prefabricated PMMA prostheses is lower than that for autograft bone flaps.

تقويم القحف, هي العملية التي يتم بها معالجة العيب الحاصل بعظم الجمجمة جراحيا , وعادة ما تكون الجروح الكلومية السبب في مثل هكذا عيوب, الا انه هناك اسباب اخرى منها عمليات الاورام السرطانية السابقة , والعمليات اللازمة لبعض حالات السكتة الدماغية. الهدف من هذه الدراسة, هو المقارنة بين استخدام شبكة التيتانيم ومادة البولي مثيل- ميثا اكريليت المعدة مسبقا والعظم ذاتي الطعم في عمليات تقويم القحف. طريقة العمل: في هذه الدراسة تم معالجة عشرين مريضا, اثنا عشر من الذكور(60%),وثمانية من الاناث(40%) وبمعدل عمري ما بين 15-45 سنة, باستخدام هذه المواد الثلاثة من اجل اعادة تأهيل الجمجمة وضيفيا وشكليا. جميع هؤلاء المرضى قد خضعوا لعمليات اختيارية مؤجلة لتقويم القحف في مستشفى الرمادي التعليمي خلال الفترة من (كانون الاول 2006-كانون الاول 2010). النتائج: تم تقسيم المرضى الى ثلاثة مجاميع بالاعتماد على المادة المستخدمة لتقويم القحف. المجموعة الاولى تضمنت المرضى المعالجين باستخدام العظم ذاتي الطعم, المجموعة الثانية وتضمنت المرضى المعالجين باستخدام شبكة التيتانيوم, المجموعة الثالثة وتضمنت المرضى المعالجين باستخدام مادة البولي مثيل-ميثا اكريليت. على الرغم من الصورة المخادعة التي تكونها مادة شبكة التيتانيم عند اجراء فحص المفراس الحلزوني والتي من شأنها اعاقة متابعة المريض صوريا باستخدام المفراس الحلزوني, الا ان هذه الدراسة قد اثبتت الاستخدام الرائع للشبكة في عمليات التقويم. كما ان استخدام مادة البولي مثيل-ميثا اكريليت كان فاعلا ايضا من خلال سهولة العملية وقلة الدم المفقود خلالها, وكذلك من حيث التقليل من وقت اجراء العملية. اضف الى ذلك ان الالتهابات الخمجية المصاحبة لمثل هذه العمليات هي اقل مما هو عليه في استخدام مادة العظم ذاتي الطعم. جميع النتائج كانت مرضية للمرضى من الناحية الجمالية والوظيفية , ولم تكن هناك اية مضاعفات كبرا مصاحبة للعمليات , عدا حالتان. الاستنتاجات: ان استخدام شبكة التيتانيوم في معالجة تقويم القحف هي طريقة جيدة على الرغم من الصور المخادعة التي تسببها في فحوصات المفراس, وكونها غالية الثمن. اما بالنسبة لمادة البولي مثيل-ميثا اكريليت فهي مجدية في هكذا عمليات من خلال سهولة العملية وقلة الدم المفقود خلالها, وكذلك من حيث التقليل من وقت اجراء العملية اضف الى ذلك ان الالتهابات الخمجية المصاحبة لمثل هذه العمليات هي اقل مما هو عليه في استخدام مادة العظم ذاتي الطعم.


Article
Design a Classification System for Brain Magnetic Resonance Image

Authors: Hussein Attya Lafta --- Esraa Abdullah Hussein
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2013 Volume: 21 Issue: 8 Pages: 2682-2689
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Automated and accurate classification of brain MRI is such important that leads us to present a new robust classification technique for analyzing magnetic resonance images[Chris 2003]. In this work , the proposed method consist of three stages collection of images, feature extraction , and classification . We are used gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is used to extract features from brain MRI . These features are given as input to k-nearest neighbor( K-NN) classifier to classify images as normal or abnormal brain MRI .

التصنيف الدقيق لصور رنين الدماغ مهم مما يعطينا دافع لتقديم طريقه تصنيف قويه ودقيقه لتحليل صور رنين المغناطيسي .في هذا البحث , الطريقة المقترحة تتكون من ثلاث مراحل تجميع الصور , استخلاص المميزات و التصنيف . استخدمنا طريقه gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM)لاستخلاص المميزات من صور رنين الدماغ . هذه المميزات تعطى كـ إدخال إلى طريقه التصنيف K-NN لتصنيف الصور إلى صور دماغ طبيعي أو غير شاذ أو صور دماغ شاذ أو غير طبيعي.


Article
The role of diffusion–weighted MRI in the evaluation of non-palpable undescended testis

Author: Raad H. Abed Al-Kayat
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-6
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Background: Cryptorchidism is the absence of one or both testes in the scrotum and is generally synonymous with undescended testis, in 20% of these cases undescended testis is clinically nonpalpable, we employed diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), as well as conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to increase sensitivity of diagnosis of the non-palpable testis. Objective: To evaluate role of diffusion weighted MRI in the detection of non-palpable undescended testes. Patients and Methods: twenty boys with unilateral undescended testis underwent preoperative abdominal and pelvic MRI to identify the location of the testis. MRI included free-breathing Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with b values of 300 and 600 s/mm2, T1 and T2-weighted sequence, and T2-weighted fat-suppressed sequence, after surgical operation, two observer groups reviewed the preoperative images, starting with DW images alone, then the conventional MR images alone and after that the conventional-MR and the DW images together. Sensitivity, in the identification of nonpalpable undescended testis was calculated for DWI, conventional MRI, and the combination of DWI and conventional MRI. Results: The combination of DWI and conventional MRI was the most sensitive for detection of non-palpable undescended testis. The two observers detected 12 testes with this technique. Sensitivity 92.3 % for two observers, and. With DWI alone, observer 1 located 11 testes, and observer 2, located 12 testes (sensitivity 84.6% and 92.3%) respectively, by using conventional MRI alone, both observers located 10 testes (sensitivity, 76.9%). The sensitivity for locating testis was superior with the combination of DWI and conventional MRI for both observers. Conclusion: Use of DWI with a high b value gives information that complements conventional MRI findings, improving identification and location of non-palpable undescended testes. We recommend the use of DWI in addition to conventional MRI to increase the preoperative sensitivity of identifying and locating non-palpable testes.


Article
Correlation between magnetic resonance imaging and intra-operative findings in disc herniation at lumbo-sacral region

Author: Correlation between magnetic resonance imaging and intra-operative findings in disc herniation at lumbo-sacral region
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2015 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 25-27
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Prolapsed intervertebral disc is an important and common cause of low backache. MRI has now become universally accepted investigation for prolapsed intervertebral disc. We, however, regularly come across situations, when MRI shows diffuse disc bulges, even at multiple levels, which cannot be correlated clinically and when such cases are operated, no significant disc prolapse is found resulting in negative exploration.Objective: To evaluate the role of M.R.I. finding not only for diagnosis of disc herniation at lumbar region but also for localization the level of herniationMethods: A prospective study on seventy five symptomatic low backache and MRI confirmed prolapsed intervertebral disc patients at lumbo-sacral region were operated on, all of the cases required excision of disc through posterior approach in knee elbow position. The time between MRI taken and surgery was two weeks, from which the data were taken in a questioner forma which include name , age ,gender , occupation , chief complaint , duration, MRI findings and intra operative finding , from June 2011 to October 2013 at Al- Kindy teaching hospital .Results: In our study 75 patients were diagnosed by clinical examination and MRI finding to have disc herniation at lumbar region . The female more than male( 36 females , 12 males) and the ratio was 5-1, the accuracy of MRI against intra operative finding in deciding the provisional diagnosis as disc herniation was 68% .The commonest site was L4-5 disc herniation 43 patients (57.3 % ) , and L5-S1 prolapse is the next common disc herniation level 27 patient (36 % ) , L3-L4 disc herniation was two cases (2.7 %) and L4-L5 ,L5-S1 disc herniation was 3 cases (4% ).Conclusion: The most common level was L4-5 followed by L5S1.The MRI is more accurate in diagnosis of the lumbo-sacral disc herniation and its level in single one is more than multiple levels.Keywords: Disc herniation, MRI, Surgery, posterior approachAl


Article
Disorders of the Cerebellum In Children , MRI – Clinical Correlation

Authors: Ahlam Mohamad Abdulabbas --- Muna Abdul Ghani Zghair --- Raad Hifdhi Al-Khayat
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 13-18
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:The recognition of cerebellar anomalies, with the advent of neuro-imaging, has greatly improved, it present a wide variety of clinical and radiological Imaging findings.OBJECTIVE: 1.To describe the spectrum of cerebellar anomalies by MRI .2. To correlate with clinical presentation.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Sixty six patients(22Females, 44 Males) with the diagnosis of some form of cerebellar malformations, were included in this study, in the Central Teaching Hospital of Pediatrics in Baghdad over 18 months from July 2103 through December 2104. They were arranged for complete clinical and neuro-radiological evaluation. Age ranging from over 1month --- 15 years.RESULTS:Twenty nine patients ( 43.9 % ) had vermian hypoplasia, ranging from mild to moderate , cerebellar hypoplasia( 19) patients ( 28.7 % ) ,combined anomalies in 16 patients (24.4%)and 2 patients (3 %) with cystic dilatation of the posterior fossa.The bulk of cases fall in the category of 1-- 5 years age group, with the major clinical presentation being motor and speech deficits, 28 ( 80 % ) and 27 (77.1 % ) patients respectively.CONCLUSION:Magnetic resonance imaging is the basic modality of choice, in the setting of cerebellar malformation, especially in the association of extreme variability of clinical presentation, and lack of easy availability of the required cytogenetic analysis

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